icCSBs 2014

Volume I, Pages 1- 236 (14 May 2014)
The European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences 
©2014 Published by the Future Academy
Edited by: Zafer Bekirogullari and Melis Yagmur Minas
Articles: 1-24
Conference: icCSBs 2014 The Annual International Conference on Cognitive - Social, and Behavioural Sciences
Dates: 14-17 May 2014
Location: Mersin - Turkey
Conference Chair(s): Prof. Dr. W.C.M. (Willibrord) Weijmar Schultz, Head of section Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecologie / Sexology UMCG, University Medical Center Groningen

Title: Guest Editors' Message 
Pages: 1

Open Access


No: 1

Title: Contents

Pages: 2-5
Open Access

Contents 1 

No: 2
Title: Emotional Affinity Towards Cell Phones among University Students in UAE
Author(s): Radhika Taroor, Mehzabin Ahmed, Liju Susan Mathew, Jayadevan Sreedharan
Open Access

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Problem Statement: Factors influencing Emotional affinity and behavior of students in cell phone usage and determine the attitude, etiquette followed using cell phones among entry level students in Gulf Medical University.

Research Questions: Cell phone attachment, etiquette for cell phone usage among students?

Purpose of the Study: An essential tool for communication. The cell phones help: to connect with our friends access information from anywhere be productive and efficient to capture memories be entertained Helps to be more independent by increasing our mobility and freedom Students are one of the most active cell phone users.

Research Methods: It is a cross sectional survey conducted for a year at Gulf Medical University, Ajman , UAE. The sample size is 139 entry year health science students.The instrument for data collection is self administered questionnaire which was pilot tested.The data collected was analyzed using SPSS 20th version employing descriptive statistics and chi-square test for association.

Findings: Females carry cell phones for safety reasons and emergencies Students indicated possessiveness and emotional attachment to the device   Most students carried their cell phone everyday: reflects their dependency Frequent cause for fights: lengthy conversations, high phone bills

Classroom settings: Usually in ‘silent ’ mode Intimate conversations in public places was more frequent among participants 18 years of age.

Conclusions: Use cell phone for social identity, self esteem, security and connectivity with friends and family. Emotional attachment to device and the information stored leads to a convinced level of anxiety and reassurance in events of loss or emergencies In attitude it indicated their possessiveness and dependence on the device Difference in etiquette and usage of device in various situations.

Key Words: Cell phones, Emotional affinity, Etiquettes

No: 3  
Title: Voices of Personal Strengths and Recovery: A Qualitative Study on People with Serious Mental Illnesses
Author(s): Huiting Xie
Open Access

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Problem Statement: People with mental illnesses may use personal strengths for the recovery of their mental health. However, this often goes uncharted, as the focus has been on psycho-pathophysiology.

Research Questions: What were the types of personal strengths possessed by people with serious mental illnesses and how did participants use their personal strengths pertaining to their mental health?

Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this study was to examine the personal strengths utilized by how community dwelling adults and their experience of using personal strengths pertaining to their mental health.

Research Methods: A cross-sectional, prospective study was conducted on a convenience sample of 102 community-dwelling adults with serious mental illnesses aged between 18 to 65 years old. Qualitative data was obtained from participants who completed structured interviews. Their verbatim was transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. With these self-reported data and conduct of member checking, validity of the study was enhanced.

Findings: Participants possessed personal strengths such as creativity, resourcefulness and compassion towards others. They utilized their personal strengths to help them in their relationships with other people, with themselves and in the work they do. These personal strengths helped them to recover from mental illnesses as they were able to love and accept others and themselves while overcoming their illnesses.

Conclusions: People have an abundance of personal strengths that could help them survive under difficult conditions that are similar to mental illnesses. Personal strengths like compassion and resourcefulness may be utilized by people with mental illnesses to propel them towards recovery.

Key Words: Personal strengths, assets, mental illnesses, recovery

No: 4          

Title: Group Counseling Interventions for Premenstrual Syndrome
Author(s): Sarah Gharacheh, Zahra Zeinodini, Behnaz Zaker, Narges Hossein Nazari
Open Access

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Problem Statement: Women suffering from Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) tend to have negative attitudes towards their own psychological changes. Negative attitudes and inappropriate adaptive reactions may bring about physiological consequences.

Research Questions: Has Cognitive-behavioral therapy an impact on reducing symptoms of premenstrual syndrome?

Purpose of the Study: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of counseling with cognitive – behavioural approach on reducing PMS depression and psychological-physiological symptoms.

Research Methods: The research method was quasi experimental with pre test-post test design and control group. A sample of 34 women was selected by available sampling method as the statistical sample and was randomly assigned into two groups named control and intervention. Hypothesises were tested by co-variance analysis.

Findings: Results indicated that the post-test values have been affected by the independent variable (F=113.24, P0.05).

Conclusions: The results of study showed that cognitive-behavioural therapy had positive effects on PMS depression and psychological-physiological symptoms of female staff of Science and Industry University reducing their complications.

Key Words: premenstrual syndrome, group counseling, cognitive-behavioural approach

No: 5            

Title: Comparison of Emotional Adjustment between Ordinary People and Patients with Gastrointestinal Cancer
 Sarah Gharacheh
Open Access

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Problem Statement: Cancer not only causes some challenging problems in human life but it also deteriorates socioeconomic factors, the diagnosis of which would considerably improve life condition of patients with cancer.

Research Questions: Is there any significant difference between emotional adjustment in ordinary people and those with cancer?

Purpose of the Study: The present research is aimed at comparing the emotional adjustment between ordinary people and patients with cancer

Research Methods: Population included all patients who suffered gastrointestinal cancer in Masoud Clinic in Tehran, from which a sample of 50 ordinary people and 50 patients with gastrointestinal cancer were selected through convenience sampling. The applicants filled in the Bell Adjustment Inventory.

Findings: Findings of Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) showed that the mean and standard deviation of scores in patients with cancer were higher than those of ordinary people but there was no significant difference between them (P0.05).

Conclusions: It would be concluded that there existed no difference in emotional adjustment between two groups.

Key Words: emotional adjustment, gastrointestinal cancer, patients

No: 6            
Title: The Street-Based Sex Workers’ Contribution for a Socio-Educational Model of Intervention
Author(s): Marta Graca, Manuela Goncalves
Open Access

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Problem Statement: Sex workers are rarely involved in designing, implementing and evaluating projects that concern them. Usually, services are provided by NGOs and focus mainly on harm reduction and HIV prevention

Research Questions: What is the prostitutes' opinion about the traditional epidemiological services provided by outreach teams?

Purpose of the Study: Our purpose is to understand the needs of a group of street-based female prostitutes, in terms of the mechanisms of social exclusion, prejudice and stigma that can lead to discrimination and therefore compromise their fundamental human rights. Our goal is to promote participation, empowerment and co-researchers.

Research Methods: As the first, planning, step of an action research project, this study has adopted a descriptive and analytic qualitative methodology. Data were collected from September 2012 to September 2013, through participant observation, informal interview (field notes), and 12 semi-structured interviews to street-based female sex workers. We used content analysis to analyze the data and WebQDA software

Findings: Respondents consider outreach important, because staff members provide condoms and emotional support. They report a positive affective and educational relationship with them. They suggest more intervention with drug addicts coordination between teams to avoid overlap more health and citizenship initiatives combating pimping and violence against prostitutes. They agreed to participate because they believe their contribution could make a difference

Conclusions: Outreach is described in a simplistic way (condom distribution) however essential for the respondents, who emphasize the need to control STI. We questioned whether this position reflects the enacted stigma, reproduces the hygienist and moralistic discourse or is a simply health concern. The intervention suggestions made by the respondents reveal the empowering effect of including them in socio-educational projects

Key Words: Prostitution, outreach, non-formal education, empowerment, stigma 

No: 7  
Title: Predictor Effect of Parental Authority on the Children’s Self-Care Skills
Author(s): Muge Yurtsever Kilicgun, Ayse Kilickaya
Open Access

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Problem Statement: Is there a predictor effect of mothers with authorities to the levels of their support on their children’s self-care skills?

Research Questions: Are there predictor effects of mothers with permissive, authoritarian and authoritative authorities to the levels of their support on their children’s self-care skills?

Purpose of the Study: The basic purpose of this study was to examine whether there was a predictor effect of the types of authority in the relationship between mothers and their children on the levels of parental support their children’s self-care skills or not.

Research Methods: Data were obtained via "Family Information Questionnaire", “Parental Authority Questionnaire” and “Parental Support Inventory for Self-Care Skills”. Before the collection of data, mothers had been informed about the purpose of this study and the instrument of surveys. Surveys were filled individually by mothers.

Findings: There was a negative reasonable relationship between “permissive” and “authoritative” authority of mothers and the levels of their’s support on their clihdren’s self-care skills. But, this effect was positive in “authoritarian” mothers. There was a predictor effect of points of authority mother’s who have 6 years old children to points support on their children’s self-care skills.

Conclusions: In conclusion, the finding of this study shows that it is thought children growing up in family environments who have permissive and authoritative authoritarian authority are more perfect on self-care skills than children who have authoritarian authority parents. Moreover, these findings will make a huge contribution to variables, which affect children’s self-care development.

Key Words: parental authority, self-care skills 

No: 8            
Title: Homework Assignment: the Instructions Use in Psychological Treatments and the Therapeutic Compliance
Author(s): Carlos Marchenez Giraldez, Ana Calero Elvira, Elena Ruiz Sancho, Alejandra Alvarez Iglesias
Open Access

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Problem Statement: Psychologists frequently use homework assignment to complement in-session work. However, there is a gap in research that shows the effect of homework assignment in therapeutic compliance.

Research Questions: The therapeutic interaction when client is instructed is one of the factors frequently related with compliance, but is there any study that demonstrates how this interaction influences the compliance?

Purpose of the Study: The aim of the study is to conduct a literature search about the study of the instructions in psychological treatments as a way of assigning homework and their relationship with the therapeutic compliance.

Research Methods: We used PsycInfo database to search the literature in the field. Then, the answers to our questions will help us to establish a starting point to study this issue. In the long term, we pretend to study empirically how the therapeutic interaction in assigning homework influences the therapeutic compliance.

Findings: The majority of the publications about therapeutic compliance and therapeutic interaction in homework assignment suggest that there is a relationship between them, but there few studies that show specifically how it is.

Conclusions: It is necessary to study systematically the role of the therapeutic interaction when therapist assigns homework. Observational studies showing ‘moment by moment’ how this interaction is related with the compliance of assigned tasks will be useful.

Key Words: Instructions, homework assignment, common factors, compliance 

No: 9  
Title: Motivational Utterances in Behavior Therapy: How Do We Motivate Our Clients?
Author(s): Mr Ricardo De Pascual Verdu, Maria Xesus Frojan Parga, Dario Moreno, Ivette Vargas de la Cruz
Open Access

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Problem Statement: Motivation in therapy has received considerable attention little of this attention has yielded relevant information like how should therapists motivate their clients for helping them to achieve their goals.

Research Questions: How does the therapist, through his verbal behavior, try to improve the odds of the client’s doing their appointed tasks or homework?

Purpose of the Study: As part of an ongoing research program in verbal interaction in therapy, our aim is to adequately describe, in technical and operating terms, what is the therapist really doing when he/she intends to motivate the client for a given course of action.

Research Methods: Using the SISC-INTER-CVT in-session verbal behavior coding system, 88 sessions were studied and their motivational utterances classified according to their structure and their inferred function as elements in a behavior sequence. As a result of this process, a motivational utterances coding system (SISC-MOT) was developed, and all frequencies and proportions of the different types of motivational utterances were analyzed.

Findings: The therapist does not issue motivational utterances in a random fashion rather; he/she adapts their form and function to the clinically relevant activities that predominate in a given session.

Conclusions: Motivational utterances as defined in this study can be a powerful resource in the clinician’s endeavor to help the client achieve his/her goals if used properly. Helping the client anticipate the positive consequences of changing his/her behavior is of paramount importance, but doing it in the right moment and form is what really makes a difference.

Key Words: Process research, therapy, motivation, verbal behavior 

No: 10   
Title: Verbal Punishment in Behavioural Therapy. What does the Therapist Punish?
Author(s): Ms Nerea Galvan Dominguez, Ms Giulia Beggio, Ms Rebeca Pardo Cebrian, Ms Aitana Segovia Arroyo, Maria Xesus Frojan Parga
Open Access

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Problem Statement: Punitive verbalizations are a resource habitually used by the therapist to model the client’s behaviour. However, nowadays the research about the use of verbal punishment is limited and inconsistent.

Research Questions: The fact is that the therapist emits punitive verbalizations during the therapy, so the first question is: which client’s behaviours does the therapist punish?

Purpose of the Study: Given the lack of studies about the use of verbal punishment in therapy, the main purpose of this study is to study in depth the punishment process. Specifically, we aim to determinate what types of client’s behaviours are verbally punished by the therapist in the context of behavioural therapy.

Research Methods: Two psychologists observed 21 recorded clinical sessions directed by 4 therapists during the development of 9 clinical cases. We used an observational tool, SISC-INTER-CVT, to code the therapists’ verbal behavior. We selected 51 verbalizations categorized as high and medium punishment. We then observed the clients’ verbal behavior that preceded punishment and developed an observational system to code it.

Findings: The observations show that the therapist punishes those client’s behaviours, verbal and nonverbal, that impede to achieve the therapeutic goals or interfere with the good development of the therapy. Such clients’ behaviors can be classified with our coding system with a good reliability.

Conclusions: The punishment verbalizations are a resource used by the therapist to model the client’s behaviour and achieve the therapeutic goals. For this reason and to optimize the use of verbal punishment, more rigorous research about the verbal punishment in therapy is necessary. This study is a first step to achieve this goal.

Key Words: Punishment, verbal behaviour, therapy, therapeutic interaction 

No: 11
Title: Psychological Health Indicators of Future Psychologists with Different Levels of Anxiety
Author(s): Nurgul KorgadzhanovnaToхanbaeva, Hapiza TanirbergenovaNaubaeva, Nazirash SuleymenovnaZhubanazarova, AlmagulMandykayeva, ZhanatBekova
Open Access

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Problem Statement: Personal qualities of students-psychologists have a very important role in the development of them as professionals engaged in socially useful activities in society.

Research Questions: It is increasing of disturbing students with different anxiety, uncertainty, emotional instability.

Purpose of the Study: An investigation work was conducted aimed at identifying the characteristics of anxiety in adolescents with different levels of achievement motivation.

Research Methods: Level of personal and situational anxiety of Y. Khanin and Spielberg, the motivation to achieve and avoid failures of A.A. Rean

Findings: The group 1,a positive relationship between motivation and situational (r = 0,480 p 0,01) personal anxiety (r = 0,678 p 0,01). The group 2, average level of personal and situational anxiety the group 3, the observed negative correlation between the level of motivation and personal anxiety (r = -0,977 p 0,01) trait anxiety is reduced.

Conclusions: Investigation of future psychologists with varying levels of personal anxiety as personality dispositions are closely related. The predominance of one or another motivational tendency is always accompanied by differences in degree of difficulty of selecting targets and the level of both, situational and personal anxiety. The increase of anxiety in adolescence, as stressful, can lead to emotional stress.

Key Words: Students, psychologists, anxiety, stress, adaptation 

No: 12 
Title: An Evaluation of Loneliness
Author(s): Deniz Cosan
Open Access

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Problem Statement: This evaluation aims to show the complexity of loneliness mood, indicate its layers and investigate loneliness researches.

Research Questions: What are the types, possible reasons and possible outcomes of the loneliness the ways of coping with loneliness and if there is any mental illness linked with loneliness?

Purpose of the Study: It aims to review literature in order to understand and evaluate of different layers of loneliness such as types, reasons, outcomes, perception of different groups of people, and coping mechanisms.

Research Methods: Research method of this study is review and evaluate different approaches, authors and studies in the literature.

Findings: There are two types of loneliness, emotional and social, two possible reasons of loneliness, temporary (bereavement, immigration etc.) and permanent (disabilities, illnesses etc.), several results of loneliness -negative feelings, negative perception of inner and outside world, negative behaviors-, several ways of coping with it -individual approaches, social and therapeutic help. Loneliness may be linked to psychological disorders.

Conclusions: Loneliness is not a simple mood; it is complicated and has different layers. In order to understand it and help one's to cope with it, it is necessary to understand its possible types, reasons and outcomes. Additionally, it is significant to effectively cope with it as it decreases the satisfaction of life and increases the risky behavior.

Key Words: Loneliness, evaluation, depression, mood, disorder, unhappiness 

No: 13
Title: Threatening Impairment: Assessing the Effects of Diagnosis Threat on Concussion Screening Tests
Author(s): Matthew Hagler, Karen Yu
Open Access

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Problem Statement: Subjective expectation has been found to be a major etiological factor in the symptoms of Postconcussion Syndrome, but research has mostly relied on participants’ self-report of symptoms.

Research Questions: Can athletes' negative expectations of performance, termed diagnosis threat, affect their actual performance on concussion screening tests?

Purpose of the Study: The present study examined the role of diagnosis threat on athletes’ actual cognitive performance on computerized concussion screening tests. These types of tests are widely used as tools for concussion diagnosis and management, and they should be evaluated in the context of diagnosis threat.

Research Methods: NCAA Division III soccer and field hockey players were semi-randomly assigned to experimental conditions. Participants in the “negative expectation” condition read actual research findings showing cognitive impairment in collegiate contact sport athletes. Those in the “neutral expectation” condition read research findings showing no cognitive impairment in athletes. Subsequently, all participants completed a computerized concussion-screening test and a posttest questionnaire.

Findings: There were four separate tasks on the cognitive test battery. Athletes in the “negative expectation” condition performed slower but more accurately on all tasks compared to those in the “neutral expectation” condition. The speed difference was statistically significant for two of the tasks. The accuracy difference was significant for three of the tasks.

Conclusions: Negative expectations may have caused participants to second-guess themselves and hesitate before responding. This hesitancy could not only lead to longer response times but also cause participants to “double-check” their answers, resulting in better accuracy. This research has important clinical implications by showing that expectation alone can affect cognitive performance, and that speed and accuracy can be differentially affected.

Key Words: Concussions, diagnosis threat, assessment, screening, cognitive 

No: 14         
Title: Intervention To Increase Participation in Physical Activity For Adults
Author(s): Mazlina Mahmood, Denise Choon Lian Koh, Norlena Salamuddin
Open Access

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Problem Statement: Previous studies to increase physical activity demonstrated effectiveness. Intervention emphasize individual learning elements are still lacking. Need information links psychosocial factors between self-efficacy, social support and behavior change

Research Questions: Is there increased participation in physical activity is there psychosocial factors (self efficacy and social support) are link in physical activity

Purpose of the Study: Aimed to increase the level of inactive and sedentary adults in involvement in physical activity. To see whether self-efficacy and social support increasing adults in physical activity. Emphasize individual learning elements to stick in moderate physical activity at their own level of fitness

Research Methods: Using quasi-experimental time series design baseline and post test with single subjects as a control group 12 weeks intervention participant randomized with eligible inclusion criteria sedentary behavior inactive age 20 to 60 and full time workers Intervention consisted personal exercise plan handbook, face to face, counselling session and telephone calls

Findings: 22 participants (men =5, women = 17) age mean (SD) = 44.73(8.51) Repeated measure showed that accelerometer and IPAQ significantly increased their PA over the baseline Multiple regression showed that significant relationship self efficacy and social support for PA

Conclusions: Intervention design to increased participation in adult a modestly effective. Intervention should emphasize tailored individual behavioral strategies our results suggest that learning element should be implement to the inactive and sedentary adults So they can plan their activities in changing their physical activity patterns This recommendation prompts as a strategy to promote PA of the many recommended

Key Words: Sedentary self-learning element efficacy adult 

No: 15            
Title: Inventory of Barriers to Personal Creativity: A Validation Study Involving University Students
Author(s): Maria de Fátima Morais, Leandro de Almeida, Ivete Azevedo, Eunice Alencar, Denise Fleith
Open Access

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Problem Statement: University is a crucial context to prepare creative citizens and creativity is an essential requirement of today. Identifying students personal barriers to creativity can help to this promotional challenge.

Research Questions: Analyse if the dimensionality of a brazilian inventory of barriers to creativity in university students can be generalized to the portuguese reality. To analyze reliability and validity of this instrument.

Purpose of the Study: To validate the Inventory of Barriers to Personal Creativity (Alencar, 1999) to portuguese university students.

Research Methods: Sample of 582 students from Arts and Humanities, Social Sciences, and Sciences and Technologies whose ages ranged from 18 to 59. The Inventory has 66 items organized in four dimensions and presents adequate reliability and validity results. It was applied in classroom. Students were volunteers and informed about study goals and the results privacy

Findings: An exploratory factor analysis identified the four factors included in the original questionnaire: Inhibition /Shyness, Lack of Motivation, Lack of Time and Opportunities, Social Repression.The psychometric properties of the instrument are adequate, concerning reliability and validity, for items and for dimensions. Alphas of Cronbach ranged from to .81 to.91. Total explained variance of the results was 45,6%.

Conclusions: It was validated an evaluation instrument that can be very useful in order to develop research about creativity in higher education and to plan interventions concerning pupils and teachers. In Portugal such kind of research and actions are almost inexistent. Future studies about the inventory itself are recommended to improve it even more.

Key Words: creativity Barriers University Assessment Students perceptions 

No: 16
Title: Discursive Description of Gender Linguistics
Author(s): Zeine Orazbekova, Akshay Zhalalova, Erkan Сengiz
Open Access

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Problem Statement: Study of gender peculiarities. Discursive description of gender linguistics and some aspects of nonverbal communication norms. Differences and similarities in the behavior of men and women in different countries.

Research Questions: The emotional peculiarities of genders, study and identification of emotional state according to gender linguistics by nonverbal means.

Purpose of the Study: The study of emotional state of women and men, facial expressions degree of control over the nonverbal behavior as cultural indicator. Emotional state expressed by nonverbal means contributes to disclosure of inner world, aesthetic appreciation of personality in gender linguistics. Universals are important in the inter penetration of cultures.

Research Methods: There were used discursive, comparative and descriptive analyses for classifying the features of behavioral state of men and women. Universal types of emotions, external indicators of nonverbal communication, their similarities and differences in different countries are explained. Diversity of mental states, actions, reactions to the disclosure of individual state in gender linguistics. Disclosure of an individual state in gender linguistics.

Findings: The positive achievements in cross cultural communication. Emotional state of gender, discursive description of intonation, variety of mental states and characteristics contribute to a better understanding of gender psychology in linguistics. Human ability to identify the basic emotions and nonverbal displays are universal. These data show the women have the same rights as men.

Conclusions: The study focuses on the problems of discursive description of gender linguistics, which is the new and actual theme in the philological science nowadays. The concept of gender is a scientific trend to define a social place of the women and men in a society.

Key Words: Gender linguistics feminism intonation nonverbal communication 

No: 17
Title: The Study of Passive Voice in Kazakh and Russian Languages
Author(s): Gaysha Imambayeva, Aigul Akhmetova, Yerik Akhmetov
Open Access

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Problem Statement: To make a short resume of studying the voice in the Kazakh and Russian languages.

Research Questions: Can we conclude that both the Russian and Kazakh linguistics in question category of the passive voice is complex and not fully understood

Purpose of the Study: To compare the category of passive voice in Kazakh and Russian linguistics.

Research Methods: Comparative method

Findings: A review study of history of voice formation in Kazakh and Russian languages, we can conclude that both the Russian and Kazakh linguistics in question category of the passive voice is complex and not fully understood.

Conclusions: Despite the fact that the category of the passive voice in the Kazakh and Russian languages has been and continues to be the focus of linguists, it requires further theoretical research.

Key Words: The passive voice, collateral category, historical position 

No: 18
Title: Motivating Employees Through Internal Communication Satisfaction In The Retail Sector in Pune
Author(s): Pradnya Chitrao
Open Access

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Problem Statement: Huge data makes it difficult to get relevant information to reach employees for engagement and maximum productivity

Research Questions: To analyze the internal communication strategies of Pune Retail stores in managing and motivating employees.

Purpose of the Study: Whether internal communication in retail stores motivated the employees and whether it really helped them serve customers better.

Research Methods: Personal Interviews were conducted at Pantaloons, Big Bazaar, Archies, Esprit, More, Lifestyle, Pune Secondary research regarding internal communication and retailing was conducted Research Surveys conducted by the batch of 2011-2013 in some retail stores in Pune

Findings: Internal communication plays a very important role in motivating employees to perform better and to attend to customers, which in turn increases customer footfalls. Communication has to be largely oral either face to face or telephonically for greater effectiveness while key messages can be reinforced through the written medium.

Conclusions: Interpersonal, dialogic communication remains important throughout the organization. When the vision and the employees’ role in fulfilling it is made clear to them, employees are motivated to work towards its attainment communication satisfaction has a positive correlaion with job satisfaction, organizational identification and commitment, and satisfaction with work relationships.

Key Words: employee satisfaction, motivation, performance, dialogic communication

No: 19
Title: The Effect of Academic and Language Skills Educational Program on Children’s Cognitive Abilities
Author(s): Ozgun Uyanik, Fatma Alisinanoglu
Open Access

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Problem Statement: Language and skills oriented activities are one of the important activities in the educational process and they provide the necessary foundations for the development of cognitive abilities.

Research Questions: Is there a significant difference between the pretest and corrected posttest scores of experiment and control group children on Cognitive Abilities Test Form-6 Quantitative and Verbal dimensions?

Purpose of the Study: This study aims to investigate the effect of Academic and Language Skills Educational Program on 61-66 month old Children’s Cognitive Abilities.

Research Methods: This experimental study included 61-66 month old 64 children (34 experiment, 34 control) attending to kinder gardens in Ankara – Turkey during 2012-2013 academic year. To find out children’s level of reasoning abilities, “Cognitive Abilities Test Form-6” developed by Lohman and Hagen (2000) and adapted to Turkish children by İnal (2011) was used. The data was analyzed with statistical techniques.

Findings: As a result, it was reported that there is a statistically significant effect with a large effect size between the control and experiment groups’ verbal dimension and quantitative dimension scores on the pretest and verbal dimension and quantitative dimension corrected scores on the posttest.

Conclusions: In the light of findings, “Academic and Language Skills Educational Program” can be reported as facilitating children’s cognitive skills. The findings are similar in those of Hager and Hasselhorn (1998), Ünal (2007), Welsh et al. (2010), İnal (2011) all of whom studied preschoolers’ cognitive skills development using experimental designs.

Key Words: cognitive abilities, academic- language skills 

No: 20 
Title: Assessment Effectiveness for Second Language Learners: Predictors, Reliability and Discriminant Profiles
Author(s): Sandra Figueiredo, Margarida Martins, Carlos Silva
Open Access

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Problem Statement: To assess the prevalence of second language deficits, the validity of a new test, and to determine specificities and predictors of speakers’ profiles: romance, indo-aryan, afro-asiatic, slavic, and mandarin languages.

Research Questions: Language speakers will perform differently in specific tasks - age, language, nationality, and L1 instruction would be main predictors?

Purpose of the Study: In this post-doctoral research the main goal is to assess immigrant students from several Portuguese schools to determine cognitive and linguistic profiles. Through new diagnostic test in second language area will be analysed distinct verbal behaviours and determined cut-offs. Additionally will be evaluated the difficulty and reliability of each task.

Research Methods: The instrument was developed with 15 tasks based on international assessment sources such ALBERTA, TOEFL, DELNA and WMLSR. There is no knowledge of other validated tools to test portuguese immigrant students. Approximately 110 individuals, with ages between 8 and 17 years old, were assessed and at this phase we are conducting inferential tests (SPSS) to measure profiles and reliability coefficients.

Findings: In one hand, this paper reports preliminary data gathered from a large-scale district study that is examining language proficiency and cognitive performance of immigrants in Portuguese schools. Different language speakers and nationalities groups, from basic and high school, will be analysed regarding lowest and highest performances. In other hand, the test will be discussed concerning reliability.

Conclusions: Findings will demonstrate a reliable test and different student’s profiles, being crucial over proficiency levels identification. Prior findings in this area will be expected to be confirmed such as the influence of age and mother tongue. The study will discuss the implications of results and test feasibility for educational policies and general assessment in second language field.

Key Words: Assessment, second language, immigrants, predictors, reliability 

No: 21
Title: The Effect of Temporally Spaced Responding on Preference for Stimuli
Author(s): Masashi Tsukamoto, Ken-ichiro Kohara, and Koji Takeuchi
Open Access

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Problem Statement: Humans, who use language, prefer rewards that follow “effortful” events. Recently, the same phenomenon was reported in non-human animals, and further examinations focused on this phenomenon have been conducted.

Research Questions: Although events requiring a variety of efforts, especially the number of responses, were used to produce a preference, the results were inconstant.

Purpose of the Study: We made the number of responses equal as for both high-effort and low-effort prior event, and we manipulated the inter-response time (IRT) of two responses required. By doing so, we sought to determine whether the temporally spaced responding would lead to a preference for the stimuli that follow.

Research Methods: Twelve undergraduate students were trained for two kinds of trial in training. In one kind of trial, 10-sec IRT initial-work (high-effort) was followed by a presentation of a simultaneous discrimination. In the other trial, 2-sec IRT initial-work (low-effort) was followed by a presentation of different one. In test phase, participants were required a choice between two positive stimuli (S ).

Findings: To determine whether the mean choice of high-effort S (S 10SEC) in test phase was significantly different from chance (50%), a single-sample t test was conducted. The analysis indicated that choice of S 10SEC (72.0%) was significantly different from chance [t (11) = 3.17, p .01, d = 1.35].

Conclusions: The results show that participants preferred the S that followed the 10-sec IRT to the S that followed the 2-sec IRT. The “difficulty” which the temporally spaced responding in initial-work accompanied might affect preferences. We study the difference between the case of manipulating IRT and the case of manipulating delay to reinforcement, which was discussed in previous studies.

Key Words: Effort, inter-response time, discrimination, preference, humans 

No: 22
Title: Exploring Adolescent Masculinity in an HIV Context Using Participant Autophotography
Author(s):  David Roy Blackbeard, Graham Lindegger
Open Access

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Problem Statement: Adolescent boys living with chronic medical conditions face a challenging context for the formation of a young masculine identity, conceptualised as an active positioning in relation to hegemonic masculinity.

Research Questions: The research question was to identify constructions of masculinity among adolescent boys living with HIV with attention given to how masculine identities were positioned in relation to hegemonic masculinity.

Purpose of the Study: The purpose of the study was to explore the intersection of masculine identity construction with an HIV positive identity of relevance to policy and programmes for supporting adolescent boys. Dialogical Self Theory and Connell's concept of hegemonic masculinity were used as frameworks for understanding masculine identity construction as positioning.

Research Methods: Mixed method participatory methods consisted of semi-structured interviews, focus groups, participant autophotography and biographical drawings. The purposive sample consisted of adolescent boys (N=7) who were members of an HIV clinic support group. Participants produced photographs according to the caption 'My life as a young man living in South Africa today'. These images acted as visual prompts for individual interviews.

Findings: The findings were that the boys faced various dilemmas and challenges in positioning a masculine identity against the conflicting imperatives of hegemonic masculinity and living with a chronic medical condition. At some points, the boys identified with dominant expectations or took highly independent agentive positions. Some of the boys managed non-hegemonically identified positions by reframing masculine expectations.

Conclusions: Young masculinity was viably conceptualised as an active positioning of personal and social subjectivities using Dialogical Self Theory and Connell's hegemonic masculinity. The considerable challenges of chronic illness highlighted the construction of masculine identity through identifications and alignments. The participants' narratives revealed the complexities of instantiating and sustaining a masculine identity in a context of constraint and gendered expectations.

Key Words: Auto photography, hegemonic masculinity, dialogical self-theory 

No: 23
Title: Social Anxiety among Adolescents and Its Relation to Quality of Life
Author(s): Saleh Alkhathami, Hossein Kaviani, Emma Short
Open Access

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Problem Statement: Social anxiety is a mental disorder characterised by extreme and consistent fear of meeting strange people, scrutiny in a variety of performance and/or social interaction situations

Research Questions: What is the prevalence of social anxiety among school students in Saudi Arabia?

Purpose of the Study: To investigate the level of self-reported social anxiety in a community sample of Saudi adolescents and the relationship between social anxiety quality of life, and some socio-demographic parameters.

Research Methods: This study was a school-based cross-sectional study. All scales were cross-culturally adapted by the translated and back-translated recommended method. The correlations of socio-demographic parameters with the SAS-A scores were examined. Data from a sample of 564 students were analysed.

Findings: Using cut-off score for social anxiety suggested by the literature, 12.3 % (n = 564) of the students in Dammam, Saudi Arabia are considered suffering from social anxiety. Result found that adolescents without social anxiety scored on quality of life and its sub-scales more than adolescents with social anxiety as measured by ASA-A.

Conclusions: As the impairment in the social anxiety was reported to be quite high, professionals and teachers in educational institution need to pay attention to recognise social anxiety in adolescent’s settings, so that effort can be offered to overcome the difficulties that social anxiety can cause.

Key Words: Social anxiety, adolescents, social interaction, prevalence  

No: 24
Title: Algerian University Students’ Pragmatic Failure when Speaking EFL: Teachers’ Views and Strategies
Author(s): Nadia Idri
Open Access

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Problem Statement: The present study attempts to explore the reasons behind pragmatic failure among advanced EFL learners when trying to communicate orally in their classes as perceived by their teachers.
Research Questions: Do Abderrahmane Mira University BA students suffer from Pragmatic failure and fail to communicate orally through using English items to exactly and properly convey what they tend to communicate?
Purpose of the Study: This aim is achieved through interviewing seven teachers who teach or taught third year students of English at Abderrahmane Mira University- Béjaia.
Research Methods: This makes the study qualitative in nature since it is exploratory.
Findings: Findings showed the majority of the students, according to the teachers’ experience, do commit pragmatic errors when using English to communicate. Consequently, our informants’ responses revealed a wealth of information that enabled us to determine a number of reasons behind Third Year Students’ Pragmatic Failure when they communicate orally in the classroom.
Conclusions: Moreover, to diminish this failure, our informants suggested a variety of teaching strategies that can be used in the foreign language classroom to diminish this kind of speaking deficiency at an advanced level and increase EFL learners’ mastery of the appropriateness of English language use.
Key Words: Pragmatic failure, EFL speaking-deficiency, teaching strategies