icSEP 2017

The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences EpSBS

Volume XXIV, Pages 1- 91 (12 June 2017)

e-ISSN: 2357-1330

Edited by: Elena Lupu, Georgeta Niculescu & Elena Sabău
Articles: 1-11
Conference: icSEP 2017 International Conference on Sport, Education & Psychology
Dates: 09 - 11 May 2017
Location: Spiru Haret University - Universitatea Spiru Haret, Bucharest, Romania
Conference Chair(s): Georgeta Niculescu  Ph.D. Professor, Dean - Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Spiru Haret University, Elena Lupu Ph.D., Petroleum-Gas University
Cover Page here 

Title: Contents

Open Access


No: 1
Title:  Adolescents’ Psychological Functioning And Unintentional Injuries: Motor Vehicles And Sports Accidents
Pages 1-12
Author(s): Michela Erriu*,Giulia Ballarotto, Eleonora Marzilli, Luca Cerniglia, Silvia Cimino
Open Access

Full Text 1
Adolescence represents a crucial period for psychological development. Adolescents have been shown more prone to injuries than adults have and they are frequently involved in motor vehicle and sports accident. Although adolescents’ injuries have been widely investigated in international literature, victims’ psychological profiles associated with different types of accidents have been scarcely addressed. The present study aimed to identify adolescents’ psychological functioning associated with different types of injuries among a population of Italian adolescents who visited an emergency department. Moreover, the present paper intended to compare psychological profiles of adolescents who have had road and sports accidents. The sample was composed by N= 60 adolescents who attended an emergency department in central Italy. Subjects completed self-report measures assessing emotional and behavioural functioning and the use of defence mechanisms. Both road and sport accidents were associated with adolescents’ maladaptive psychological functioning. Adolescents involved in motor vehicle accidents showed a problematic emotional and behavioural functioning in general and a massive use of defense strategies; their peers who had sport accidents also show various difficulties in internalizing and externalizing functioning. Several adolescents’ emotional-behavioural variables are associated with injuries rates. Risk taking behaviours and other victims’ psychological profiles should be considered to have an exhaustive picture of individual factors that can impair a healthy development.

No: 2
Title:  Analysis Of Attention, Eye-Hand Coordination And Reaction Time Of Young Soccer Players
Pages 13-19
Author(s): Abdurrahman Aktop*, Orhan Kuzu, Emel Çetin
Open Access

Full Text 2
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the skills that will positively influence child development, such as attention, eye-hand coordination and reaction time, among young competitors and non-competitor soccer players. A total of twenty six soccer players (Non-competitor soccer group: 13 players who practice two days a week at Lara Soccer School; Competitor soccer group: 13 players playing in Lara Soccer Club) aged between 10-12 years took part in present study. Cognitrone Test (Vienna Test System), Lafayette Two-Arm Coordination Test and Reaction Time Test were administered to the participants. According to the results of Cognitrone test, there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of the mean time of correct rejections and the total working time. It can be said that decision time in the attention test of competitor soccer players is better than that of non-competitor. In reaction time test, there was no significant difference between competitor and non-competitor soccer player in recessive hand reaction time, dominant and recessive hand percentage of success. However, competitor soccer players had significantly better dominant hand reaction time than the non-competitor soccer players. Results of two arm coordination test revealed that, there were no significant differences between competitors and non-competitor soccer players in two arm coordination time and accuracy. According to the results of the present study it can be said that being a competitor in soccer young league has a positive effect on percentage of success in the reaction time and decision time in eye-hand coordination test.

No: 3 
Title:  Coordination Motor Abilities Of Sport Management Students
Pages 20-26
Author(s): Dagmar Hrusova*, Petr Hrusa, Blahoslav Komestik 
Open Access

Full Text 3
Coordination abilities can be seen as a prerequisite for individual performance. Sport management studies demand particular performance limits in sport practice and the students should be able to fulfil them. The research study concerns about the level of coordination abilities of sport management students. The question is if the level of coordination abilities of the sample differs from population performance. The purpose of the study is to describe coordination abilities in the given period of 5 years (2010 – 2014). The research study analysed data of 154 SM students.  The evaluated indicators were: 1-leg standing stork test, balancing with a plate, Iowa-Brace, and 10 flexibility exercises. An absolute frequency of occurrence of individual scores was evaluated and compared to population performance. Significance of difference (p < 0,05) was tested by one-sample Wilcoxon signed rank test (two-sided). Results suggest that the level of balance abilities was better in the participating SM students, compared to population performance. Concerning flexibility and general coordination, the men performance was better, compared to population, but there was not a significant difference in women. Therefore the findings cannot be generalized. The study is considered to be pilot for further analysis of motor abilities in SM students, enlarged in number of indicators and time span.

No: 4
Title:  Effect Of Level Of Coordination Abilities On Motor Learning Progress In Slacklining
Pages 27-35
Author(s): Pavlína Chaloupská*, Dagmar Hrušová
Open Access

Full Text 4
Slacklining (walking on slackline) as a sport activity is a specialized motor skill with great demands on variability, anticipation and responding to external conditions. The research study works on an assumption that motor learning progress in slacklining is influenced by the level of coordination skills. The purpose of the study was to investigate how the level of coordination abilities affects progress in slacklining. The research question relates to coordination abilities being a performance precondition for motor tasks with similar coordination demands. 40 university students (19-24) participated in the study. Indicators of the level of coordination abilities were standardised 1-leg standing balance test and Iowa-Brace battery.  The participants trained slacklining within 8 sessions (10 attempts once a week). Motor learning progress was recorded. Statistical significance of difference across the sample was evaluated by Mann-Whitney test (p < 0.05). The progress in acquiring slacklining was recorded in terms of the best performance and the total number of attempts on slackline. A significant difference (p < 0.05) was found out across the sample in both selected indicators of coordination abilities, which suggests that the progress in slacklining of the participants with higher level of coordination abilities was faster. In conclusion, the level of coordination abilities, especially balance, can help the progress of motor learning in slacklining. However, slacklining is a complex and concentration-demanding skill and the progress can also be influenced by other factors, such as external conditions, personality and motivation.

No: 5
Title:  Effect Of Fitness Sport Activities On Subjective Experiencing And Psychological States
Pages 36-42
Author(s): Dagmar Hrusova*, Petr Hrusa, Pavlina Chaloupska, David Chaloupsky
Open Access

Full Text 5
Psychological state is a dynamic feature, which can be characterised by a variability of psychological activation and emotional frame of mind (experiencing). The research study works on an assumption that leisure time fitness sport activities can influence subjective experiencing and psychological states. Fitness sport activities integrate both physical and psychological factors. Purpose of the study was to determine the effect of fitness activities on subjective psychological experiences and states. The selected fitness activities include aerobic group exercise, body and mind group exercise, and individual gym training. 101 university students (age 19-23) participated in the research. The method for evaluation of structure and dynamics of subjective experiences and psychological states was a standardized questionnaire (SUPSO). The change was indicated by proportional representation of positive and negative components. Statistical significance of difference between pretest and posttest was evaluated by Wilcoxon pair test (p < 0.05). Structure and dynamics of subjective experiences and psychological states was changed significantly (p < 0.05) between pretest and posttest, in the evaluated fitness activities (aerobic group exercise, body and mind group exercise, individual gym training). The change was represented by proportional representation of positive and negative components (psychological wellbeing, activeness, impulsiveness, discomfort and restlessness, anxious expectations, and sadness). Effect of fitness sport activities can merge into a positive well-being, due to a full concentration on the activity itself, and harmony of body and mind. Fitness activities significantly influenced subjective psychological experiences and states, in terms of increasing positive and decreasing negative components. It is recommended to verify the effect in a wider variety of fitness sport activities.

No: 6
Title:  Analysis Of The Competitive Anxiety Level In Basketball And Aerobic Gymnastics
Pages 43-50
Author(s): Petreanu Manuela*, Petreanu Adrian Ghe, Buţu Ioana Maria, Mezei Mariana
Open Access

Full Text 6
This paper analyzes and compares the level of competition anxiety at athletes among aerobic gymnastics and basketball as anxiety has an important role in decisions of the coaches in sport training. If we know the competitive anxiety level before competitions can we thenlead the training of athletes?How does anxiety influence the psychological part of the training sessions? This study aimed to identify the level of anxiety of athletes in aerobic gymnastics and men's basketball, athletes in different training periods, to  establish the role of anxiety in psychological training depending on the sport’s specificity leading to the possibilities for optimizingsporting performances. The study was carried out by applying the test method -Sport Competition Anxiety Test. This test was performed on two groups of athletes aged between 15 and 21; one consisting of basketball players and the other of gymnasts. In this study it was observed that boys had a lower level of competitive anxiety than girls. While comparing the two sports involved in the test, it was found that athletes in men's basketball are less anxious than those of aerobic gymnastics, as shown by calculated averages. The analysis of competitive anxiety at the level of performance has provided differentiated information in relation to the specific and characteristics of the sports involved in testing (team sports, individual sports, the number and the manner of the competition) which would be useful for coaches interested in organizing sports training, using competitive anxiety management to obtain better results.

No: 7
Title:  "Differences On The Upper Quarter Y Balance Test Among Young People"
Pages 51-60
Author(s): Elena Sabau*, Georgeta Niculescu, Elena Lupu, Cecilia Gevat
Open Access

Full Text 7
Upper Quarter Y-Balance Test is a closed kinetic chain assessment of upper quarter mobility and stability using a functional testing device. We started with the question: Are there significant differences in the bilateral upper limbs UQYBT results, recorded by the subjects engaged and not engaged in recreational physical activities? The study identifies bilateral movement limitations and asymmetries in active and not-active young people on shoulder stability and mobility as a closed kinetic chain upper extremity. The subjects are 93 young students (45 females and 48 males), 22.19 average age. They are organised in four groups: not-active and active (females and males). UQYBT is applied on all four groups of subjects. Mathematics methods as One Way ANOVA for Dependent samples and Post ANOVA Tukey HSD Test were used to identify the significant statistic differences between groups. The comparative analysis between active versus not-active groups suggests not significant statistic differences for males. For the female groups, there are not statistically significantly differences, with a few exceptions. There were statistically significantly differences, to benefit the active group, for the right upper limb (SL direction) and for the left upper limb (IL direction). The main conclusion is that UQYBT may be useful in assessing functional deficit in upper extremity stability.  

No: 8
Title:  Somatoscopy – An Easy Way To Identify School Aged Subjects At High Risk To Develop Scoliosis
Pages 61-66
Author(s): Elena Buhociu*
Open Access

Full Text 8
In Romania, scoliosis is a formidable health issue among children and youth, its current incidence being at 2-3%. We consider that this condition is but underdiagnosed, many scoliotic postures remaining unnoticed in early stages, when, using only conservative methods, such as kinesiology supported by orthotics (i.e. wearing a corset adapted to the respective spine deviation), its evolution can be stopped or even reversed – the deviation angle displaying a considerable, in some instances, decrease. Through this paper we aim to point out the importance of regular screenings in school aged children (both in primary and secondary school) in order to identify cases displaying scoliotic deficiencies with a potential for aggravation. The experiment – conducted in May 2012 – consisted in the somatoscopic evaluation of 105 subjects aged 9-11, studying in the IVth grade in a primary school in Bucharest. The sample consisted of the IVth grade students that were present at school during the day – the subjects were screened at location by the author following faculty and parental approval in order to identify scoliotic tendencies and the types thereof. Following collection and data analysis, we identified a total of 67 students with scoliotic postures, of which 32 with double curvature. Gender-wise, we observed a higher incidence of scoliosis in female subjects, although the differences were not very large. Instead, a significantly higher number of dual curve scoliotic deviations in females was noted.

No: 9
Title:  "Physical Activity In The Elderly: Importance In Balance And Risk Of Falls"
Pages 67-73
Author(s): Rosa Martins*  Ana Andrade, Conceição Martins, Sofia campos
Open Access

Full Text 9
Maintaining physical exercise in the elderly is fundamental, as it strengthens physical fitness, increases autonomy, reduces imbalance and reduces risk of falls. Thus, it is important to identify the risk of falls in the elderly and to determine correlations between this risk, sedentarism/ physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI). This is a cross-sectional, descriptive-correlational and quantitative study involving a non-probabilistic sample comprising 124 elderly individuals, 68 females and 56 males, aged 65-88 years (M = 71.9; Dp = 5.05). The data collection instrument included questions of sociodemographic characterization, health profile and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). The results show that only 12.9% of the elderly present levels of recommended physical activity. The risk of falls is high to 13.8%, of the elderly, medium to 55.6% and low risk to 30.6%. The risk of falls is higher in older people (p = 0.000), those with higher BMI (p = 0.023), and less physical activity (p = 0.000). There were no statistically significant differences between men and women (p = 0.668). Evidence shows that an increase in PA and maintenance of BMI within normal values translates into lower levels of imbalance and risk of falling in the elderly. Thus raising the awareness of the elderly and caregivers about these factors should be a strategy to develop, in order to provide an active and healthy aging.

No: 10
Title:  Comparison Of Some Kinematic Parameters In The 100 M Free Style Swimming Performances Of Different Age Groups
Pages 74-78
Author(s): Emel Cetin*, Eren Akdag, Abdurrahman Aktop
Open Access

Full Text 10
The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of stroke length and stroke frequency on 100-m freestyle swimming performance.  Participants comprised a total of twenty-four swimmers from Antalya Kulac Swimming Club. These swimmers were allocated to two groups. Group 1 consisted of twelve swimmers with a training duration of seven years and Group 2 consisted of twelve swimmers with a training duration of three years. The athletes' 100m freestyle swimming performance (as 4x25m) were recorded with two digital (50 Hz) cameras and the kinematic parameters stroke frequency, stroke length and speed  were analyzed at each 25 m. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the second 25-m and fourth 25 m stroke length values of 100-m freestyle swimming performance(p <.05). The stroke length values of swimmers in Group 2 followed an irregular form for every 25 m while Group 1 swimmers increase their 100-m freestyle swimming performance by using SL without losing the stroke frequency value at all. In order to increase the swimming speed, swimmers in Group 2 have compensated for the decrease in stroke length by increasing the stroke frequency.  

No: 11
Title:  Reiki Complementary Therapy In Nursing Pratice
Pages 79-91
Author(s): Rosa Martins*, Cristina Cunha, Ana Andrade, Carlos Albuquerque, Madalena Cunha
Open Access

Full Text 11
Reiki is a therapy performed by placing hands on specific points in the body and using energy transfer to provide a natural well-being. Nursing also presents within its specific interventions, an essential part based on the touch to the person to whom it cares, being therefore important to have correct knowledge on these techniques. Thus the study intends to evaluate the knowledge that the nurses have about Reiki and to identify determining factors in this knowledge. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive and correlational study, carried out with a non-probabilistic sample by convenience, consisting of 49 nurses with a mean age of 38.96 years, working in health institutions in the central region of Portugal on whom a questionnaire was applied to evaluate knowledge about Reiki. The questionnaire was developed for this purpose by the researchers. We found that 59.1% of nurses had reasonable knowledge, 38.6% had high knowledge and only 2.3% had low knowledge. Knowledge was higher in nurses who had already received Reiki treatment (p = 0.032) who had differentiated care (p = 0.019) who were holders of a master degree (0.040) and had a higher professional category (p = 0.016). We conclude that the knowledge of nurses about Reiki is moderately positive and this is clearly superior in the group that performs functions in differentiated care when compared to those of primary care. On the other hand we found several factors that correlate with this knowledge and on which it is important to intervene in order to improve knowledge.