icPSIRS 2017

The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences EpSBS
Volume XXI, Pages 1- 173 (28 February 2017)

e-ISSN: 2357-1330
©2017 Published by the Future Academy
Edited by: Zafer Bekirogullari, Melis Y. Minas & Roslind X. Thambusamy
Articles: 1- 14
Conference: 4th icPSIRS International Conference on Political Science, International Relations and Sociology
Dates: 07 - 09 February 2017
Location: Palacký University, Olomouc, Czech Republic
Conference Chair(s): Assoc Prof. Dr. Vojtech Regec, Ph.D., Chair, Vice-Dean, Palacký University Olomouc, Czech Republic
Cover Page here

Title: Contents

Open Access


No: 1
Title:  The Incidence Of Machiavellianism In Early And Middle Adolescent Physically Active Girls
Pages 1-9
Author(s): Kristína Tománková*
Open Access

Full Text 1

This paper aims to find out if regular and intensive physical activity in the life of adolescent girls may affect their moral principles in behaviour towards other people, especially a personal tendency to be unemotional, detached from conventional morality and manipulative. The aim of the study is to demonstrate unequivocal effect (direct or mediate) of physical activity on the occurrence of Machiavellian personal features in behaviour and thinking among early and middle adolescent girls. This study compared the control group (non-physically active) and experimental group (physically active) of Slovak girls aged 11 to 15 years old. A modified version of Christie and Geis’s 1970 questionnaire was used. Basic somatic parameters were obtained and related to Machiavellian personality traits. Machiavellianism was found to correlate with age (r=0.19; p<0.05). The direct impact of sport is significantly evident among 13-year-old physically active girls (p=0.06), only, as they showed higher scores of Machiavellianism than non-physically active 13-year-old girls. The mediate impact of Machiavellianism (through body habitus) was significant. Correlations with body height of (r=0.108; p<0.049) were found. Machiavellianism showed a significant impact among 13-year-old girls. The mediate impact of sport was significantly proved in physically active girls at the age of 12 (body height, r=0.348; p=0.05; body weight, r=0.332; p=0.063), and in non-physically active girls at the age of 15 (BMI, r=0.298; p=0.073; WHR, r=0.479; p=0.003). Physical activity has a direct impact on the formation of the psyche among sport-oriented young girls. Sport supports and also accelerates Machiavellianism already evident at an early age.

No: 2
Title:  A Qualitative Analysis Of The Attitudes To The Migration Crisis
Pages 10-22
Author(s): Irena Plevová, Lucie Křeménková*
Open Access

Full Text 2
The current migration crisis is a significant Europe-wide issue. The analysis of the attitudes towards this issue is a new relevant research topic in the Czech Republic. The aim of this study is to analyse the attitudes of Czech citizens towards the current migration crisis. We are interested in what attitudes are dominant because the attitudes have substantial explanatory strength in explaining the causes of behaviour of individuals and entire social groups. The data are obtained by means of a questionnaire. Within data processing both qualitative and quantitative methodologies are used, where qualitative data analysis is perceived as dominant and quantitative analysis has a rather supplementary function. The primary method is qualitative analysis of open statements which is based on the procedures analogical to open axial coding in grounded theory. The analysis of open statements of 169 respondents points out the following categories: expression of concerns; statement on accepting / non-accepting migrants; statement on current political situation; subjective experience with contact with migrants; unclassified. Most of the statements through all categories are filled with future concerns. Only 9 respondents (5%) do not express any concerns. Although it is a well-known fact that the immigration can have apositive impact on various areas in accepting countries, it is the negative aspects that mostly surface. Likewise within our research sample, where the negative attitudes prevail.

No: 3 
Title:  The European Parliament: Status Quo Vs. Degressive Proportionality
Pages 23-33
Author(s): Janusz Łyko*, Radosław Rudek, Krzysztof Horubski
Open Access

Full Text 3
The principle of degressively proportional representation in the European Parliament recorded in the Treaty of Lisbon has not been respected so far. According to the current proposals, neither it is applied in the 2014-2019 term of office. A political compromise has led to the dominance of another principle, that is “nobody gains and nobody loses more than one”, which again by its assumption cannot be degressively proportional. This paper shows some examples of the allocations of seats according to this rule, which emphasize the need for the further discussion on the precise rules for the composition of the European Parliament in the future.

No: 4
Title:  Impact Of Ideological Disagreements On International Relations: A Study On Islam And The West
Pages 34-54
Author(s): Bashir AbulQaraya* 
Open Access

Full Text 4
In order to analyse the impact of these ideological disagreements between Islam and the West on international political behaviour and international relations, this paper highlights the different visions of Western societies’ understanding of the meaning of divinity and prophecy compared with that of Muslim societies. Accordingly, the paper focuses on exploring multiple opinions of Western intellectual elites in regards to this issue in addition to the approach by the media and common traditions in the West. However, the paper assumes that, despite the existence of a misconception in Western societies toward the meaning of prophecy, there are positive aspects in that some intellectual elites have dealt with prophecy respectfully, particularly in terms of the Prophet Muhammad, PBUH. Therefore, the paper wishes to illustrate some of these elites, especially the poets and novelists, scientists and philosophers. Other elites, however, in addition to the popular and traditional dominant perception, dealt with prophecy with a kind of disdain, contempt and ridicule. The paper uses comparison methodology to discuss this issue in our contemporary reality, particularly between Islam and the West; Muslim societies and Western societies. In this paper I seek to examine the possibility of finding a means of communication between both sides through addressing the West equitably and rationally to relieve and deal with the anger in the Muslim world and to deepen the mutual understanding and dialogue between the two cultures and civilisations. Unquestionably, this will have a positive impact on the relationship between Muslim and Western societies and on international relations.

No: 5
Title:  The Issue Of Mobbing In The Workplace
Pages 55-65
Author(s): Michaela Pugnerová*
Open Access

Full Text 5
According to current research studies, the incidence of mobbing in the workplace has increased. This paper demonstrates the mechanism and strategy of mobbing through the case study of a victim of mobbing. The aim of this paper is to present the issue of mobbing as a social pathology phenomenon occurring in the workplaces of different types and among employees of different levels of education. The important contribution of this paper is a case study (and its analysis) of a person who became a victim of mobbing in the workplace. The case study and its analysis show that the individual has certain possibilities of defence against mobbing in the workplace, but there are some significant limitations. Therefore it is very important to think about questions such as what a person can do to contribute to the reduction of the phenomenon of social pathology. Employees (and future employees) should have a broader awareness of mobbing and how to solve it. The incidence of mobbing in the workplace is a topic that requires foreknowledge and further research. Its mediator is an aggression which is a natural part of human nature. It always depends on whether the aggression is regulated in an appropriate way. It is often perceived negatively when it is used to control, abuse and harm people or to the self-destruction. If it begins to occur in the workplace, then it makes employees and the whole workplace inefficient.

No: 6
Title:  Ethnic Tolerance In Multiethnic Society: The Case Of Pulau Pinang
Pages 66-74
Author(s): Mohd Azmir Mohd Nizah*, Hishomudin Ahmad, Jayum Jawan, Ku Hasnita Ku Samsu, Sarjit Singh Gill
Open Access

Full Text 6
This article discusses the level of ethnic tolerance in the multiethnic society of Malaysia, with specific reference to the parliamentary seat of Bukit Bendera, Pulau Pinang. It also aims at identifying factors that influence ethnic tolerance in the area involved. In a survey of ethnic and political tolerance of 174 respondents, this study raises the question of majority-minority tolerance in a multiethnic society. This study is crucial due to the demographic uniqueness of the particularly mentioned area in terms of the majority-minority composition of its ethnicity. The findings reveal that the people of Bukit Bendera can be categorised as medium-good practitioners of ethnic tolerance, as attitude and perceptions are more important to them than the issue of political parties and ethnicity. It is significant where moderation has progressively become Malaysia’s national plan in managing a plural society. The article ends with relevant discussions and suggestions.

No: 7
Title:  Czech Autonomism: Shared Experiences
Pages 75-88
Author(s): Giuseppe Maiello*, Martina Cichá
Open Access

Full Text 7
Autonomous Marxism is not very well known in the Czech Republic. The Czech autonomists have no web pages, have a certain inclination towards secrecy, and on the rare occasion when they have participated in street riots, were labelled as “anarchists” by the mass media. None of the Czech autonomists know the Italian language, but they are well read in the classical texts of autonomous Marxism through the translations of Toni Negri’s and Mario Tronti’s books and articles. In some cases Czech autonomists also published Czech translations of selected works directly linked to autonomous Marxism.  Our paper will present a short history of Czech autonomism, mainly through the narration of the actors, using the emic approach.

No: 8
Title:  An Analysis On The Sultan Muhammad Al-Fateh’s Military Leadership Based On The Traditional Theory Of Just War
Pages 89-100
Author(s): Wan Mohamad Izrin Wan Rashid, Wan Norhasniah Wan Husin*, Wan Hashim Wan Teh
Open Access

Full Text 8
The objective of the study is to analyse the military leadership skills of Sultan Muhammad al-Fateh (al-Fateh) based on the Traditional Theory of Just War.This theory debates on the ethics and approaches that need to be cognized by a nation before declaring war on other states.  It focuses on two major phases, which are, the pre-war phase that discuss the Jus ad Bellum principle, and second, the at-war phase that elaborates on the Jus in Bello principle. To fulfil the objectives of the study, textual analysis method and historical accounts were used to analyse the military leadership skill of al-Fateh. Findings from the research show that the declaration of war on Constantinople by al-Fateh commensurate with the principles and policies as spelt out in this theory.

No: 9
Title:  Problems Of Legislation Improvements In The Field Of The Customs And Customs Logistics Infrastructure In The Eurasian Economic Union
Pages 101-109
Author(s): Kulyash Aidarkhanova*, Daulet Baideldinov, Aizhan Zhatkanbayeva, Nazgul Tuyakbayeva
Open Access

Full Text 9
The relations between the former Soviet Union countries at political and economic level are becoming more stable and longstanding. One example of such economic integration was the establishment of the Customs Union. The purpose of the union was not only to maintain and strengthen the economic space between countries and to ensure the free movement of goods, but also to enable members to carry out coordinated trade policy with other counties and to protect a domestic market through unification of the customs legislations and procedures. The creation of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) on January 1, 2015 was the next stage of deeper economic integration between the countries. In the operations of the Customs Union, the functionality of the logistics is directly related to the states’ regulations on foreign trade activities, the structure of systems for transporting goods and vehicles across the customs, and the creation of cost-effective transit ways. In the context of increasing trade flow between the member countries of the union and the third-party counties, it is necessary to develop a system of logistics in the management of foreign trade flow processes.  

No: 10
Title:  Financial Literacy In Primary Schools From The Perspective Of Teaching Methods
Pages 110-121
Author(s): Alena Opletalova*
Open Access

Full Text 10
Financial literacy and financial education appear to be an effective tool for the prevention of over-indebtedness and preventing individuals and households from making poor financial decisions. This article presents up-to-date information on the education system in the Czech Republic and the methods by which children are introduced to financial education. Nowadays, financial education is a compulsory component of basic school education (ISCED 1, 2). Moreover, the article defines the teaching method framework for teachers of financial literacy. This article also introduces the design and results of qualitative research focused on the identification of the teaching methods that are used in financial literacy education, and it evaluates the effectivity of these methods in the educational process. The findings and the conclusions of the article are drawn from two research methods. The first part includes a semi-structured interview with teachers who teach financial literacy in the chosen primary school. In the second part, the experiment – which was teaching the chosen financial education topic – is used as a research tool. The results of the research will identify the teaching methods used in the process of financial education in primary schools.  This study evaluates the efficiency of the particular teaching methods based on the experiment which was conducted and the interviews. The conclusions of this research should contribute to support the premise that appropriately chosen teaching methods of financial education in primary schools can contribute to the proper financial behaviour of individuals in society.

No: 11
Title:  Inter-Ethnic Tolerance And Communalism In Pre-Independence Malaysia
Pages 122-132
Author(s): Wan Norhasniah Wan Husin*
Open Access

Full Text 11
The main objective of the study is to analyze the influence of the spirit of tolerance in dealing with Malaysia’s racial issues. Studies show that it is of utmost importance for this pluralistic society to practice tolerance in order to foster unity and understanding among the different races living in Malaysia. This is supported by the government’s role in eliminating racial segregation,respecting religious rights, and allowing each ethnic group to retain their cultural identity. As a result, racial tension between ethnic groups has dissipated, and through the introduction of the New Economic Policy (NEP), the economic gap between ethnic groups has also decreased. This study focused on the period during the eve of independence, since it is considered the most critical period in the nation’s history. The findings reveal that the spirit of tolerance played a significant role in the process of securing independence for the Federation of Malaya as evidenced by the formation of the ALLIANCE, a collaboration among the three major ethnic groups in Malaya – the Malays, Chinese and Indians – through the formation of the United Malays National Organization (UMNO), the Malayan Chinese Association (MCA) and the Malayan Indian Congress (MIC).

No: 12
Title:  Labour Relations Trends In Employee Evaluations: Country To Country Comparison
Pages 133-144
Author(s): Alena Fedorova*, Zuzana Dvorakova, Ilze Kacane, Himatullah Khan, Maria Menshikova, Celina Solek-Borowska
Open Access

Full Text 12
The turbulence of the modern economic environment has a destructive impact on the well-being of employees.Companies are increasingly using toxic personnel/HR management practices which poison the organization’s environment thus creating unfavourable working conditions for the employees.The aim of this research is to monitor and analyse the changes in labour relations and working conditions in the private sector in five countries. It also identifies those features in labour relations, which we consider to be phenomena resulting from social pollution. The research uses the questionnaire survey method, which contains closed-ended questions as well as some questions with some open-ended questions. We noted and evaluated the changes taking place in labour relations in the Czech Republic, Italy, Latvia, Pakistan, and Russia during the period 2015–2016. Based on the survey results, we argue that the factors of social pollution are indeed having a destructive impact on employees’ well-being. These findings cover different categories of employees working under different socio-economic conditions. We have also identified the social pollution factors which influence the formation and spread of the precariat [i.e., proletariat under conditions of precarious working conditions] as a new social class.Monitoring, and in-depth studies carried out on these factors will enable the development of new concepts in, and techniques of, welfare management of human resources in companies and countries.

No: 13
Title:  Adolescents’ Resilience and Academic Achievement in Professional Schools and Parental Attitudes
Pages 145-160
Author(s): Maria da Luz Vale-Dias*, Ana Maia
Open Access

Full Text 13
Parental attitudes represent a relevant research theme concerning the parent-children relationship with impact on individual development, as seen from multiple, recent research on children’s personal skills development and success. The present study focused on analysis of the relationships between parental attitudes, resilience and academic achievement of adolescents in professional or vocational schools. Quality of parenthood was addressed considering adolescents’ perceptions of parents’ affection and child-rearing practices. Several resilience resources and socio-demographic variables were analyzed. Participants included around three hundred Portuguese and African adolescents, between 14-23 years old (M= 17.84; SD=2.02), from professionalor vocational schools (7th-12th grades) in the center of Portugal. The majority were males (61.70%), from low socio-economic classes. For assessment, we used the Youth Perception Inventory-YPI (Streit, 1978; Portuguese version: Fleming, 1997), the Healthy Kids Resilience Assessment Module-HKRA (Constantine & Benard, 2001; Portuguese version: Martins, 2005, Palma, 2010), school results (2011/2012) and a socio-demographic questionnaire. The data make interesting contributions regarding the impact of demographic aspects on the variables studied, showing differences resulting from nationality, gender, type of family and the father’s qualifications. Although no significant associations have been found between school results and parental attitudes or resilience, the data show some relationships between parental attitudes and resilience. The results suggest that, in general terms, the perception adolescents have of their parents’ affection (love/hostility) is related to their resilience resources, namely external resources and involvement at home and in the community, and can have a positive and adaptive influence on adolescents’ development in several fields, such as the social, academic and health dimensions.

No: 14
Title:  The Politico-Psychological Factors Of The Cyprus Conflict
Pages 161-173
Author(s): Bülent Evre*
Open Access

Full Text 14
Although considerable research has been devoted to different aspects of the Cyprus conflict, rather less attention has been paid to politico-psychological factors associated with the internal dynamics of the conflict. This paper aims to understand and interpret the politico-psychological factors underlying the Cyprus conflict from the social identity approach. Firstly, this approach my help us understand and analyse the socio-psychological factors underlying the conflict. Secondly, the social identity approach may contribute to narrow the gap in the literature on the psychological factors involved in the Cyprus conflict. The concept of social identity where members of a community are expected to think and behave in certain ways has a critical role in some intergroup conflicts. Within this framework, the paper attempts to illustrate how the social identities have been constructed, and categorised as ingroups and outgroups throughout the history, and to explain under which circumstances different social groupings lead to intergroup conflict. Accordingly, throughout the history different social identities have been constructed in Cyprus.  It seems that during the Ottoman period since there was no political competition between the social groups, no political conflict arose. However, when two distinct nationalism florished under the British rule, the Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots embraced conflicting national aspirations. In Cyprus, two social groups’ strong attachment to their ethnic/national identities could not have lead them to cooperation, but competition and rather conflict.