icH&Hpsy 2017

Volume XXX, Pages 1- 376 (14 September 2017)
The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences EpSBS
e-ISSN: 2357-1330
©2017 Published by the Future Academy
Edited by: Zafer Bekirogullari, Melis Y. Minas & Roslind X. Thambusamy
Articles: 1-37
Conference: 3rd icHHpsy - International Conference on Health and Health Psychology 2017
Dates: 05 - 07 July 2017
Location: Escola Superior de Enfermagem do Porto (ESEP) - Nursing School of Porto 
& Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto (FMUP) - Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto
Conference Chair(s): Assoc Prof Dr Sandra Cruz, PhD & Prof Dr Wilson Abreu, PhD
Cover Page here

Title: Contents

Open Access


No: 1
Title: Chronic Illness Stigma And Well-Being In Youth: The Mediating Role Of Support
Pages 1-11
Author(s): Finiki A. Nearchou*, Amelia Campbell, Katie Duffy, Miriam Fehily, Holly Ryan, Eilis Hennessy
Open Access

Full Text 1
A considerable amount of stigma-related health research has been conducted in school-aged and university students, yet few studies involved young people enrolled at further education colleges. The present study aims to investigate the role of social support on the consequences of stigma on general health and social functioning in students in Colleges of Further Education (CFE) living with chronic illness. Participants of this study (n = 55) were students in CFE in Ireland aged 18-25 years diagnosed with a chronic illness. Self-report measures were used to assess stigma, social support, social functioning and general health. Using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with 2000 bootstrapped samples a model was constructed and tested to answer the research questions of the study. SEM revealed a good model fit to data (χ2 = 2.12, df = 2, p = .33). Stigma negatively predicted general health and social functioning in youth living with chronic illness. The bootstrapped mediational model showed that social support from family, friends and a significant other partially mediated the influence of stigma on social functioning but not on general health. Stigma is an important element that negatively influences aspects of well-being in young adults living with chronic illnesses. Youth that perceive their environment to be more supportive tend to have less self-stigma attitudes and better functioning. Understanding how stigma operates in students in CFE can be used to design effective interventions.

No: 2
Title: Development Of A Silhouette Scale For Bariatric Surgery (Esco): Preliminary Study
Pages 12-23
Author(s): André P. Ferreira*, Anabela S. Pereira
Open Access

Full Text 2
Obesity keeps spreading, leading to physical and psychological comorbidities, namely body image dissatisfaction (BID). Its treatment is difficult, especially of severe obesity, for which bariatric surgery has become the only effective treatment. It would be important to have an instrument to assess BID of bariatric patients. The present study main goals are to describe the construction of a new instrument (Obesity Surgery Silhouettes Scale – ESCO) to assess BID of bariatric patients, as well as to present data from a pre-test. ESCO consists of 11 male and 11 female silhouettes, distributed in ascending order across Body Mass Index (BMI) categories. It was administered to a clinical sample made by 20 obese patients, candidates to bariatric surgery and a community sample constituted of 10 subjects. ESCO reveals of very fast administration, with mean answer time of 55.9 seconds (clinical sample). A higher BID is verified on the clinical sample (BID=5.2), in comparison with the community sample (BID=1.5). There is a statistically significant positive correlation between BMI and BID, suggesting that body image dissatisfaction increases with higher BMI. Preliminary results suggest ESCO is a capable instrument to assess BID of bariatric patients. Data from ESCO will be useful to design psychological counseling, specific to each patient. Besides that, it will allow the use of BID indicators as a bariatric surgery results’ measure.

No: 3
Title: Preventive Measures Of Venous Thromboembolism In The Hospitalized Patient: An Integrative Literature Review
Pages 24-34
Author(s): Carlos Albuquerque*, Carla Costa, Rosa Martins, António Madureira
Open Access

Full Text 3
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) includes two closely associated clinical conditions: deep vein thrombosis (DTV) and its main acute complication, pulmonary embolism (PE). In the hospital setting, venous thromboembolism is a concern because of its high prevalence rate. It is estimated that one in twenty inpatients is at risk of pulmonary embolism, if adequate preventive measures are not applied. These may or may not be pharmacological. In this context, the objective of this study is to identify the non-pharmacological measures recommended to prevent venous thromboembolism in inpatients. An integrative literature review was performed using the PI[C]OD method by searching the following databases: EBSCO host, PubMed, JBI, PEDro, Elsevier-ClinicalKey, Scielo and Google Academic studies published in the períod 2006-2016. From the research were included five articles that met the inclusion criteria. The results of the reviewfound thateffectivemechanical methods comprised graduated compression stockings and intermittent pneumatic compression devices while for nursing care early mobilization and ambulation were identified as preventive measures of VTE.  The studies suggest several benefits of using non-pharmacological measures to prevent venous thromboembolism. The differentiated intervention of the nurse specialist in rehabilitation integrated in the multidisciplinary team can be an added value in the adequacy of these measures.

No: 4
Title: Hypericumperforatum L. Showed Antinociceptive Effects Through Opioidergic And Serotonergic Systems
Pages 35-46
Author(s):Mojtaba Khaksarian, Ali Sonboli, Mohammad Javan, Hossein Mahmoudvand, Masomeh Nazari, Freshteh Motamedi*
Open Access

Full Text 4
There are some reports concerning the antidepressant effects of Hypericumperforatum L.(Hp), but there are few studies indicating its antinociceptive effects of Hp. For assessment of its site of antinociceptive action and related systems, Hp was filtered and administered both intrathecally (i.t.) and intracerebroventriculary(i.c.v.). For evaluation of probable role of serotonergic and opioidergic systems, Methysergide (non-selective antagonists of serotonergic systems) andnaloxone hydrochloride (antagonist of opioidergic system) were used respectively. In central administration, the Hp(1 and 2 mg/rat, i.t.) induced analgesia in the tail flick and both phase of formalin test. The i.c.v. administration of Hp (2mg/rat) produced analgesia in both phases of formalin test, while it had no effect on tail flick latency. Methysergide pretreatment inhibited antinociceptive effects of Hp in both phases of formalin and tail flick tests. Naloxone inhibited antinociceptive effects of Hp in both phase of formalin test, while it had no effect on tail flick latency. The results showed that central administration its spinal effect seems be more potent than its cerebral effect. It seems that part of antinociceptive effect of Hp it’s related to serotonergic and opioidergic systems.

No: 5
Title: Zataria Multiflora Boiss Improves Learning And Memory Impairment Induced By Toxoplasma Gondii Infection
Pages 47-57
Author(s):Hossein Mahmoudvand, Khadijeh Esmaeelpour, Naser Ziaali, Mojtaba Khaksarian, Sareh Jahanbakhsh*
Open Access

Full Text 5
Recent epidemiological and experimental studies also showed that latent toxoplasmosis can lead to a number of neurological and behavioral disorders such as learning and memory impairments. Recent studies showed that the essential oil and methanolic extract of the Zataria multiflora revealed a significant anticholinesterase activity on in vitro ().Here, we evaluated the effect of Z. multiflora essential oil to ameliorate learning and memory impairments induced by T. gondii infection in BALB/c mice. The animal model of Toxoplasma infection was established by the intraperitoneal inoculation of 20-25 tissue cysts from Tehran strain of T. gondii. Morris water maze (MWM) task was used to assay spatial learning and short term spatial memory in all groups.  The findings revealed that in this study demonstrated that latent toxoplasmosis impaired spatial leaning and short term spatial memory of the infected BALB/c mice, while ZME, due having AChE inhibitor activity, improved impairments induced by Toxoplasma infection. The obtained findings demonstrated ZME as an AChE inhibitor to improves learning and memory disorders in mice with latent toxoplasmosis probably via restoring ACh levels in brain. However, additional studies are needed to clarify these mechanisms and also other possible ones.

No: 6
Title: Dopamine Transporter And Transmission Of Psychopathological Risk. A Review Of Gene-Environment Interplay
Pages 58-68
Author(s): Eleonora Marzilli*, Giulia Ballarotto, Silvia Cimino, Luca Cerniglia, Walter Adriani, Esterina Pascale
Open Access

Full Text 6
Research underlines that intergenerational transmission of psychopathological risk results from a complex interplay of genetic and environmental risk factors which predispose child to develop emotional-behavioral problems. Mechanisms of transmission are poorly understood, but few studies have focused on the role played by dopamine transporter (DAT) gene. This review aims to examine mediating mechanism of DAT genotype-environmental interaction (GxE), DAT genotype-environmental correlation (rGE), and methylation status involved in transmission of psychopathological risk. The review of literature was made through researches in university libraries on paper material, and telematics systems research. Studies have evidenced that DAT is implicated in intergenerational transmission of psychopathological risk. Results are mixed regarding its genetic variants, but mechanisms through which this gene can affect both quality of parenting and child development are partially established. Only few studies have examined methylation mechanisms that can be implicated. Findings suggest to involve an improved focus on DAT genotypes, methylation status associated, and their relationship with environment to better understanding child’s vulnerability and resilience following exposure to contextual risk factors associated with parental psychopathological symptoms.

No: 7
Title: Phylogeny Study Of Some Vaccinal Strains Of Rabies Virus And Comparing Their Antigenic Glycoprotein Specificity With The Wild Type
Pages 69-78
Author(s):Mehdi Ajorloo, Masomeh Moradi, Bahareh Rahimian Zarif, Ashkan Alamdary, Alireza Gholami*
Open Access

Full Text 7
Rabies is a viral disease causing acute encephalitis in humans or animals. Rabies virus belongs to the genus Lyssavirus, family Rabdoviridea. The virus has a single, negative-stranded RNA genome encoding five structural proteins, including nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G) and RNA dependent RNA polymerase gene (L). All of the provinces of Iran are infected with rabies. Although there is no cure for rabies, it is totally preventable by proper vaccination. Effective vaccine can be used for pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis. Glycoprotein has a main role in pathogenicity and immunogenicity thus variation in genetic sequence of this gene leads to variation in antigenic and pathogenic properties of rabies virus. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the antigenic sites of the glycoprotein from rabies virus strains used in vaccine manufacture and compared their epitope sequences to wild type strain. We have used RT-PCR technique to determine the genetic sequence of these strains. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the wild type street virus isolate found in Iran were related to genotype 1 (classical rabies virus) and shared a high homology with the vaccine strains. Furthermore comparison of amino acid sequences of major and minor antigenic sites between the wild type and several vaccinal strains showed that the virus had a higher homology with the vaccinal strain PV that is used to manufacture vaccines in the country.

No: 8
Title: Strategies For The Prevention Of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Injuries: Systematic Review Of Literature
Pages 79-89
Author(s): Carlos Albuquerque*, Carla Santos, Rosa Martins, Madalena Cunha
Open Access

Full Text 8
The work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) affect a large number of nurses decreasing their life quality and are considered a true public health issue. In this context, the main goal of the study is to identify which are the most effective strategies to prevent the work-related musculoskeletal in nurses in a hospital context. We chose to create a secondary and retrospective study, following the methodology of a systematic review of the literature proposed by the Cochrane Handbook. The research of corpus studies was carried out in the databases of PubMed, B-On, Scielo e Medline Complete, in the period between 2005-2016. In compliance with the validation criteria, 6 primary studies were selected and analysed. The results revealed that multifactorial intervention programs, with a systemic and integrated approach to work situations, are the most beneficial, both in terms of their implementation and in terms of cost-benefits. This type of program combines ergonomic solutions with organizational policies and training sessions and specific training in order to enable nurses to provide better healthcare with less risk. However, it has been verified that this type of programs only succeeds depending on the involvement of the professionals, the managers, the adopted policy, the type of leadership and the continuous monitoring. The results obtained evidenced the need for an early implementation of this type of WMSDs prevention programs, where the intervention of the rehabilitation nurse, with the multidisciplinary teams, will certainly play a fundamental role.  

No: 9
Title: Potential Predictors Of Perceived Stress In Helping Profession
Pages 90-102
Author(s): Jana Nezkusilová*, Margita Mesárošová
Open Access

Full Text 9
The aim of this study is to explore perceived stress of an individual working in the helping profession, potential predictors and mediators of this stress. The study examines the effect of past traumatic experience, perceived mental pain, adult attachment behavior and their contribution toward present perceived stress in psychologists and social workers. A potentially preventive role of secure adult attachment and self-regulation of self-care in resulting stress perception are being explored. The methods included the use of the adult attachment behavior - Experience in Close Relationships revised ECR-R (Fraley, 2000) instrument, Global Measure of Perceived stress (Cohen, Kamarck, Mermelstein, 1983), and Self-regulation of self-care (Hricová, Lovaš, in press). Other instruments used included Mental pain – Single item measure and Past traumatic experience – Single item used to measure frequency of strong negative incidents experienced before the individual started working in the helping profession. Hypotheses were tested on psychologists and social workers (n=160) using mediation models. Results suggest that a past traumatic experience predicts current mental pain perception. Professional helpers’ anxious dimension of adult attachment style partially mediates relationship between perceived mental pain and perceived stress. Avoidance dimension of adult attachment style is related to perceived stress indirectly, through self-regulation of self-care. Results of the study suggest indirect relationship between past traumatic experience and currently perceived stress.

No: 10
Title: Health Literacy And Pregnancy Surveillance
Pages 103-110
Author(s): Manuela Ferreira*, S. Neto, O. Amaral, J. Duarte
Open Access

Full Text 10
Health literacy is a determinant of health and quality of life. During pregnancy, one can identify symptoms that may affect the evolution of the pregnancy. The objectives of the study were to determine the level of literacy in the health of pregnant women, and identify the sociodemographic, obstetric and prenatal care variables associated with the level of literacy in the health of pregnant women. The methods involved a a cross-sectional study, using a quantitative, descriptive and correlational approachwith non-probabilistic sample, intended for convenience (n = 404 pregnant women) with a mean age of 32 years. The collection of data was carried out by applying a questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic questions, obstetrical questions and the HLS-EU-EN-scale (National School of Public Health, 2014). Using the HLS-EU-EN scale, 36.9% of pregnant women presented a problematic level of health literacy. However, a sufficient level of literacy about care was shown in 40.1% of the women, about prevention of diseases in 39.9% and about health promotion in 38.4%. The health literacy during pregnancy is influenced by nationality (p = 0.048), place of residence (p = 0.000), educational level (p = 0.000), family income (p = 0.000), internet within the household (p = 0.000), planning and desire of pregnancy (p <0.05) preparation course for childbirth/parenting (p = 0.000), prenatal care (p = 0.000) and early prenatal care before 12 weeks (p = 0.000). We obtained a problematic level of Literacy in Health that was associated with several sociodemographic and obstetric variables. This improved the result in pregnancy, which is essential for healthy motherhood and includes the development of skills and knowledge so that the pregnant woman has decision-making power and autonomy to make free and informed decisions.

No: 11
Title: Level Of Overloading And Difficulties Of Informal Carers
Pages 111-122
Author(s): Carlos Albuquerque*, Catarina Almeida, Rosa Martins, Ana Andrade
Open Access

Full Text 11
With the increase of life expectancy and the development of chronic diseases, family and friends have a role of extreme importance in the extension of care services. Thus, the main objective of this study is to identify the level of exhaustion and problems that carers can experience and the variables that influence them. This study is characterized as being quantitative, descriptive-correlational, using a non-probabilistic, accidental and convenience sampling, comprising 71 informal caregivers, aged between 30 and 80 years (𝑥̅= 53,73; Dp= 12,001), mostly female (64,79%), married (83,2%), village residents (83,2%) and with an average age of 53,73 years (Dp= 12,001). The data collection instruments included the Barthel Index; Smilkstein’s Family Apgar Scale; Scale of Social Support; Questionnaire of the Evaluation on the Informal Carer’s Overburden and Evaluation Index of Carer’s Difficulties. The results displayed that sociodemographic characteristics do not influence the acuity how caregivers experience their exhaustion feelings. Regarding the “family functionality” and “social support”- informal caregivers in families with severe dysfunction and low social support, show higher rates of exhaustion. The higher difficulties were connected to the greater experience of overload by caregivers. The results revealed the existence of crucial factors related to a caregiver’s overburden.  Hence, the importance of a multidisciplinary approach based on supportive programmes cannot be underestimated - monitoring and giving personalised guidance to these caregivers - highlighting the need to increase the well-being of these people, so they can safely provide essential care to the person they are caring for, preventing at the same time physical and psychological overburden on themselves.

No: 12
Title: Psychological Aspects Of Well-Being And Socio-Demographic Values: Results From A European Social Survey
Pages 123-133
Author(s): Andrius Smitas*, Loreta Gustainiene
Open Access

Full Text 12
The aim of the study is to explore links between happiness, optimism, resilience and meaningfulness, and socio-demographic factors in 25 European countries. Research methods. Experts-generated single-item questions from European Social Survey round 6 were used to assess happiness, optimism, resilience, meaningfulness in life. Results. Greater number of years of completed education relates to higher scores of happiness, optimism, meaningfulness and resilience in most European countries. However, in Western Europe and Scandinavian countries age does not relate or positively relates with psychological aspects of well-being, however, in most Post-Soviet countries this relationship is negative. Conclusions. Happiness, optimism, meaningfulness and resilience in most European countries were related to age and years of completed education with no specific differences between regions.

No: 13
Title: Quality Of Life Of Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Pages 134-145
Author(s): Pavla Kudlová*, Zuzana Brozová
Open Access

Full Text 13
Problem statement: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by not fully reversible progressing bronchial obstruction connected to abnormal inflammatory response to adverse particles or gases. The consequences are grave. Research Questions: Is there a connection between the perception of the quality of life and COPD determinants? Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of life of patients with COPD in connection to the gravity of the disease, its length and treatment. Research methods: The data was acquired using standardized questionnaires: Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 (SF-36) to assess the quality of life, Medical Research Council (MRC) – modified dyspnoea scale and the Nottingham screening questionnaire for malnutrition risk assessment. 120 respondents partook in this research at the Clinic of Pulmonary Diseases and Tuberculosis – 61 men/59 women with COPD aged 30–92 (64 on average). Findings: The respondents' physical and mental health was assessed in 8 dimensions. Patients with the 3rd–4th stage of COPD feel significantly limited in the physical health dimension. Patients diagnosed with COPD more than 6 years ago feel less vital than patients diagnosed one year ago. Undergoing rescue treatment has an impact on social activity. Conclusion: The quality of life rapidly worsens in the 3rd and 4th stages of COPD in the physical activity dimension, general health assessment, vitality and social activity. However, the results cannot be generalized and the study is in progress.

No: 14
Title: Quality Of Life Determinants In Children And Youth: Consequences For Socio-Educational Intervention
Pages 146-156
Author(s):Rosina Fernandes, Cátia Magalhães, Francisco Mendes, Emília Martins*
Open Access

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Quality of life is a multidimensional construct. The study of its determinants in early age groups constitutes a starting point for socio-educational lines of action definition. This study aims to analyse the levels of perceived quality of life in Portuguese children and youth and to compare them according to sociodemographic, anthropometric, family and health variables, in order to understand the consequences for socio-educational practice. 354 Portuguese children and adolescents with a mean age of 12.21 ± 2.92 participated in this ex post facto study. The Portuguese version of KINDL (Ferreira, Almeida, Pisco & Cavalheiro, 2006) was used to evaluate the quality of life and a sociodemographic questionnaire to assess the other variables. The non-parametric analyses were run in SPSS-IBM24, assuming the 95% confidence level. Adequate levels of quality of life were found (92.00±12.23). Encouraging results were found (p≤.05) in the youngest, except in the family subscale; from the coastal area, in self-concept and family; and from rural areas in total. Body mass index and perceived health were, respectively, negatively and positively related (p≤.05) to physical well-being and self-concept. Father's qualifications were associated with self-concept (rho=.15, p =.011). The identification of factors with relevance in the quality of life of children and youngsters will allow the definition of socio-educational intervention guidelines adjusted to the specificities of different groups of the population.

No: 15
Title: Long-Term Effect Of Social Skills Training Program For Second Graders
Pages 157-165
Author(s):Miglė Motiejūnaitė,Kristina Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė*
Open Access

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Middle childhood is an important period for reducing social and behavioural difficulties, though existing social skills training programs in Lithuania are not effective to help solving these problems. The aim of this study was to create and evaluate the short-term and long-term effects of a social skills training program based on an integrated theoretical model for second grade schoolchildren. The purpose of the program was to teach children non-verbal language, empathy, conflict resolution, and problem-solving skills.Social skills were measured using the Primary School Social Competence Scale (Magelinskaitė, 2010) and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Gintilienė, Girdzijauskienė, Černiauskaitė, Lesinskienė, Povilaitis, 2004). The sample for this study was taken from one of the Catholic schools in Lithuania. From 42 second grade students, 24 were chosen and divided into two equal groups (experimental and control). The first screening was carried out before the social skills training, the second - one week after the training, the third - 3 months after the training. The results showed that self-control and conflict resolution skills significantly improved in the experimental group after the program, while interpersonal skills, ability to solve casual problems did notchange significantly. Also, self-control skills improved significantly in three months after social skills training than before participating. In the control group, these skills did not change significantly directly after the program and there were no differences after three months from participation. This study has shown that the social skills training program can contribute significantly to the development of the second graders' conflict resolution skills and can have long-term effect on self-regulation skills. However, future studies should evaluate the social skills training program using a larger sample size and more focused statistical tests.

No: 16
Title: The Relationship Between Social Supports And Mental States Of Individuals With Kidney Transplants
Pages 166-178
Author(s): Zeliha Yaman*, Mualla Yılmaz
Open Access

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This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the social supports and mental states of individuals with kidney transplants. All the patients in Akdeniz University Prof. Dr. Tuncer Karpuzoğlu Organ Transplant Education, Research and Application Centre polyclinic comprised the population of the research, and the patients meeting the research criteria according to simple random sample choice comprised the sample of the research. The research data was collected between 30th November 2014 and 31st July 2015. Three different forms were used as data collection tools including socio-demographic information as well as the Multi-Dimensional Perceived Social Support Scale and Short Symptom Inventory. Besides descriptive statistical methods, Kruskal-Wallis Test and Whitney-U Test were used in the comparison of qualitative data in the data evaluation. Short symptom inventory subdimension point averages were calculated as 6.81±8.29 in anxiety, 8.31±9.14 in depression and 30.80±32.25 in total. The family support point average   - the sub-dimension of Multi-Dimensional Perceived Social Support Scale - was 25.32±5.68 and the total point average was determined as 58.76±16.79. A weak relationship was found between the subdimensions of Short Symptom Inventory with the subdimensions of Multi-Dimensional Perceived Social Support Scale and the total point negatively (p<0.01). The data analysis established that as social support level of the individuals with kidney transplant perceive increases, the symptoms of anxiety, depression, negative self, somatization and hostility decreases. These findings highlight that individuals with kidney transplants have good levels of mental states, that the social support they perceive is above the average and that the individuals with transplants get the most social support from their families. These results suggest that education programs on social support need to be instituted and that similar studies need to be carried out with individuals with kidney transplants in different institutions in Turkey.  

No: 17
Title: The Relationship Between Non-Attachment And Mental Health Among Vietnamese Buddhists
Pages 179-197
Author(s): Hang N. T. Nguyen*, Ngan H. Dang, Hoang V. Nguyen
Open Access

Full Text 17
Evidence shows that those who practice Buddhism have positive mental health. Such research, however, is nearly non-existent in Vietnam, a country with a long Buddhist tradition. What is the relationshipbetween non-attachment and mental health (stress, anxiety, and depression) in Buddhists, and what is the most influential variable that affects the non-attachment and mental health of Buddhists? Thepurposes of this study are (1) to examine the relationship between non-attachment in Buddhism and several mental health components (stress, anxiety and depression), and (2) to explore, within the demographic and religious variables, the most influential variable that affects the non-attachment and mental health of Buddhists. Theparticipants were472 Buddhists (427 laypersons, 45 monks; 339 women and 130 men) from four sanghas located around Vietnam. Data were collected from January to April of 2016. Each participant underwent a battery of measures comprised of theNon-attachment Scale, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42), and a demographic questionnaire. A negative correlation was foundbetween non-attachment and negative mental health components (stress, anxiety, and depression) within the sample group. Three variables – frequency of practicingdharma, belief in dharma, and change of mind since practicing dharma – were correlated with non-attachment and mental health. Frequency of practicingdharma and change of mind since practicing dharma were the best predictors of non-attachment and positive mental health. Results showed that practicing non-attachment improvesmental health. Practicing Buddhism is strongly related to religious commitment, which helps individuals strengthen their beliefs in Buddhism and non-attachment, where they are free of external pressures and, hence, happier.

No: 18
Title: The Impact Of Cognitive Skills And Resilience In Social Education Students’ Profile
Pages 198-204
Author(s): Emília Martins*, Rosina Fernandes, Cátia Magalhães, Francisco Mendes
Open Access

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Cognition and resilience in higher education students as a research theme emerges from the necessity of developing knowledge about possible associations or links between the capacity to adapt cognitive development in a stage full of challenges such as higher education. The aim of the present study is to explore the association between resilience and cognitive development in a sample of Portuguese Social Education students in order to reflect on the impact of personal cognitive characteristics related to academic and professional adjustment. This is a quantitative ex-post-facto study, with a convenience sample of 135 students of the three years of Social Education degree (age, 23.01±7.10). The Portuguese version of Parker Cognitive Development Inventory, Resilience Scale and a social demographic questionnaire were used to collect data. We used the SPSS-24 for the non-parametric analyses with p≤.05. A moderate level of resilience (mean of 139.71±17.41) and higher levels of relativism and commitment to dualism were observed. Positive and significant Spearman correlations (.28 ≥ rho≤.40) were found between levels of relativism and commitment and in all subscales of resilience, except optimism scale (p≤001), that showed correlation (rho=.19) with dualism (p=.03). There is a dearth of literature on cognition and resilience, and much more can be learned about the role of both in higher education, leading us to these questions: Do cognitive skills promote resilience or only influence the perception of it? What’s the impact of promoting them in the skill profile of the Social Educator

No: 19
Title: Psychophysiological Peculiarities And Learning Motivation Of Students With Learning Disorders
Pages 205-216
Author(s): Juris Porozovs*, DainaVoita, Irena Trubina, Toms Voits, Alvis Valdemiers
Open Access

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Learning disorders cause different academic problems for children. The task of teachers is to help to overcome these problems. 13 – 15 years old Latvian students with diagnosed learning disorders and control group students from Jūrmala school in Latvia which practices inclusive education were tested using Vienne Test System (VTS) tests and surveyed about their learning motivation and feeling in school. The VTS Cognitron test was used for assessment attention and concentration abilities and VTS Ravens Standard progressive matrices test was used in order to evaluate non-verbal general intelligence of students. It was found that attention and concentration abilities and IQ of students with learning disorders were lower in comparison with control group students. Many students with learning disorders have a more serious attitude towards school attendance than control group students. The opinion of teachers, classmates and parents about their learning achievements are very important for students with learning disorders. The overall mood at school was similar in students with learning disorders and control group students. Effective measures of inclusion and support for children with learning disorders enables them to feel happy and content at school and increase their learning motivation.

No: 20
Title: The Benefits Of Postgraduate Therapeutic Education In Diabetology In The Czech Republic
Pages 217-227
Author(s): Pavla Kudlová*, Rudolf Chlup, Jana Zapletalová
Open Access

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Effective diabetes education is a keystone for diabetes treatment. At the University Hospital Olomouc, postgraduate courses for diabetes therapeutic educators are based on the recommendations of the Diabetes Education Study Group of the EASD. The research question for this study was “What is the efficacy of postgraduate courses over the course of five independent years 2010-2014?” The purpose of this prospective study was (1) to determine the level of the graduates’ knowledge and skills at the end of the courses, (2) to assess their retention of knowledge after 3 months and (3) to verify the reliability of the knowledge tests applied. The research method was a longitudinal study based on a pre and post-test undertaken by the study participants between 2010 and 2014. During this time, five courses were taken by 88 healthcare professionals aged 21 through 69 from different departments. Each course consisted of 80 lessons facilitated by 24 specialists, undertaken within 4 months in 8 modules which was assessed with a knowledge test and also a practical test. The knowledge test was repeated after 3 months. The participants achieved 92.5% to 98.8% of the maximum knowledge points, while attaining 95% of the required practical skills. Three months later, the post-test showed that the level of knowledge had fallen to 88.8% - 93.8% (p < .0001). The tests’ reliability (Cronbach’s Alpha) at the end of the courses was .727, while 3 months later, it increased to .999. It can be concluded that the chosen methods and forms of education (verbal, demonstrative, practical, etc.) are highly effective in terms of diabetes therapeutic educators’ training. However, after 3 months, the study showed that the level of knowledge dropped by around 5%.

No: 21
Title: Eating Behavior, Mental Health And Degree Of Physical Activity In Medical Students
Pages 228-235
Author(s):Manuela Petreanu, Alexandra Mirica*, Radu Mirica, Adrian Ghe.Petreanu
Open Access

Full Text 21
Medical students have an increased risk of developing psychological and eating disorders due to the academic stress and the degree of physical activity. The stress during the exam session affects eating attitudes, mental health and physical activity. The aim of the study was to analyse the eating behaviors, mental status and grades of physical activity before and during exam session in medical college students. We performed an analytical observational study in a population of 78 undergraduate 1st and 2nd year medical students (66 girls and 12 boys). Eating-related attitudes were studied using the EAT- 26 questionnaire. Anxiety and depression scores were evaluated with GAD7 and PHQ-9 questionnaires. Physical activity was also assessed. All of the questionnaires were given before and during the exam session. The scores of EAT 26 questionnaire reflect a normal reporting of dieting attitudes, regardless of the time of evaluation. Regarding assessment of anxiety (GAD7) and depression (PHQ-9), an increase in the number of cases of severe anxiety and depression during the exams session was shown. In addition, the physical activity index dropped significantly during the exam period. The academic and psychological stress during the exam session affected the mental status of the medical students causing an increase in the anxiety and depressions scores. Also, the physical activity diminished, emphasizing their psychological state. No significant changes in eating behavior were observed.

No: 22
Title: Prevention Of Hiv/Aids And Other Stis In Women In The Context Of Relationships
Pages 236-247
Author(s): Ana Luísa Patrão*
Open Access

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Women’s anatomy and physiology place them at a higher risk of contracting the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) compared to men. In addition, certain cultural and social issues increase women’s vulnerability to STIs. This descriptive literature review analyzed the different problems comprising relationship contexts as factors involved in the promotion of sexual health and the prevention of STIs in women. Data were obtained from classic authors who reported on how gender roles and imbalances in male-female relationships interfere with the prevention of STIs in women.  For this, a systematic search was made of databases included in the Biblioteca Científica Online (B-on).  Based on the selected articles evaluated, relationship-associated factors such as gender power imbalance, negative attitudes regarding condom use, and poverty and financial inequalities, as well as inadequate communication between partners were found to place women at risk of acquiring STIs.  Since factors within relationships may play a significant role in STI prevention in various ways, it is relevant to take relationship characteristics into consideration when designing interventions aimed at promoting sexual health and preventing HIV/AIDS and other STIs in women. STI prevention programs should target both sexes and should focus strongly on increasing women’s capacity to negotiate and communicate with their partners.  

No: 23
Title: Roles And Responsibilities Of Nurses Struggling With Substance Abusers
Pages 248-256
Author(s): H. Altundal *
Open Access

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This review aimed to highlight the problems that individuals who are addicted to substance have with social stigma.  Nursing approaches to these problems were reviewed in the light of the literature and updated information about the subject was presented. The study was conducted by reviewing the literature in Turkish and English databases and ''substance abuse, stigma, nursing, care, struggle '' key words were scanned.In general, the negative attitudes towards individuals who are addicted to substance make it difficult for them to heal and integrate into social life.  Individuals who are addicted to substances are exposed to stigma not only by society but also by health professionals. While working with patients using substances, nurses must understand discrimination, ethics, professional, legal practices and be aware of their attitudes and behaviors in order to ensure proper care for all their patients. Nurses who have an important role in the prevention of addiction and during the treatment process in the team have a core role in their qualifications and knowledge levels in providing quality, accessible and evidence-based care for substance addicted individuals.

No: 24
Title: Somatoform Symptoms In Adolescents Who Visit The Emergency Department: Alexithymia And Defensive Strategies
Pages 257-266
Author(s): Eleonora Marzilli*
Open Access

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Somatoform symptoms represent one of the main reasons of access to emergency department (ED) in adolescence. Research in this field has limitedly focused on difficulties to recognize and cope with their own emotions, considering the access rate to an ED. The present study aims to verify whether adolescents who accessed an ED for somatoform symptoms show high alexithymia traits and use specific defense strategies. Adolescents (range: 15-24 years) who visited an ED for somatoform symptoms (N=37) or who accessed to an ED for somatoform symptoms in the past (N=37) were involved in this study and completed the TAS-20 to assess alexithymia and the REM-71 to assess use of defense mechanisms. A control group of adolescents from general population were paired. Adolescents who visited an ED for somatoform symptoms shown more alexithymic traits and a higher use of maladaptive defense strategies respect to control group. Higher rates of access to ED are associated with more use of repression, but only for adolescents who accessed to an ED in the past. Finally, alexithymic characteristics are associated with use of specific defense strategies. Our findings confirm that ED is one of the most used services of young people suffering from somatoform symptoms. In this perspective, ED visits are to be considered as adolescents’ unconscious attempt to seek psychological help. These findings evidence the importance of prevention programs based on increasing of awareness and acceptance of unconscious needs and on the promoting of use of adaptive defense mechanisms.

No: 25
Title: Binge Eating Disorder In Adolescence: The Role Of Alexithymia And Impulsivity
Pages 267-276
Author(s): Giulia Ballarotto*
Open Access

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Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is a disorder, recently included in DSM-5, often present in adolescence. Several studies highlight that adolescents with BED had high levels of impulsivity and alexithymia. Even though studies have underlined the importance of these variables, no studies have investigated their role on adolescents’ emotional-behavioral functioning. This study proposes to verify if adolescents affected by BED show higher levels of alexithymia and impulsivity than adolescents without diagnosis, and what is their role on adolescents’ emotional-behavioral functioning. Thanks to the collaboration with clinical centers for eating disorders, a group composed by 60 adolescents diagnosed with BED was paired to a 60 healthy controls. Participants completed validated self-report questionnaires investigating levels of alexithymia, impulsivity and emotional-behavioral functioning. Adolescents diagnosed with BED showed higher scores on alexithymia, impulsivity and maladaptive emotional-behavioral functioning than healthy controls. Moreover, alexithymia had a mediating effect on the relationship between impulsivity and emotional-behavioral functioning. These results show that alexithymia is a key variable influencing the emotional-behavioral functioning of adolescents affected by BED. Further studies are needed to also check other variables that might lead to the onset of BED. On the other hand, our findings can help clinicians suggesting the importance of promoting prevention and treatment polices focused on alexithymia.

No: 26
Title: Family Functioning And Emotional Difficulties In Parents And Adolescents 
Pages 277-283
Author(s): Giulia Ballarotto*, Eleonora Marzilli, Michela Erriu, Luca Cerniglia, Silvia Cimino
Open Access

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Adolescence is a period of intense change, which also involves changes within the family system. However, the perception of family functioning may be different among family members. This study aims to verify whether there are differences between mothers, fathers and adolescents in the perception of family functioning. Furthermore, we wanted to verify whether parents' perception of family functioning and their psychological profiles have an effect on adolescents’ psychological profiles and their ability to identify and describe feelings. The sample comprised 220 families with adolescents, recruited through high schools in Central Italy. Self-report questionnaires, to evaluate perception of family functioning, psychological profile and difficulties in identifying and describing feelings, were administrated to adolescents, mothers and fathers. Results show that mothers percepts higher levels of communication than other family components. Analysis showed correlations on psychological profiles and difficulties between parents and adolescents. Moreover, results show that mothers and fathers’ psychological profiles influenced adolescents' psychological profiles. Finally, parents' difficulties in identifying and describing feelings and externally-oriented thinking predict adolescents' alexithymic difficulties. Our findings can help clinicians to suggest the importance of treatment focused on psychological difficulties that could change family perceptions of family functioning.  

No: 27
Title: Adolescents’ Perception Of Risky Behaviour On The Internet
Pages 284-292
Author(s):Ugnė Paluckaitė, Kristina Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė*
Open Access

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As the usage of the Internet is growing among young people, their engagement in risky behaviours online is also increasing. However, adolescents’ may not perceive these behaviours as risky. Thus, the research questions of this study are: (1) how do adolescents perceive different forms of risky behaviour on the Internet? (2) Are there any demographical differences in adolescents' perception of risky behaviour on the Internet? The purpose of this study is to find out if there are any differences in adolescents’ perception of risky behaviour on the Internet, regarding their age, gender, and engagement in online risky behaviour. Research method used was a cross-sectional survey with a questionnaire, based on a variety of the forms of risky behaviours on the Internet (e.g. sexting; sharing personal photos). Adolescents’ perceptions of risky behaviours online were measured on the scale from 1 (not risky at all) to 10 (very risky). 152 Lithuanian adolescents (63 boys and 89 girls) aged 12 to18 participated in the study.  The results showed that students perceive various forms of behaviour on the Internet as risky. Their risk perception differs according to their gender (girls perceive behaviours as riskier than boys), age (younger adolescents perceive behaviours as riskier than older ones), and engagement in risky behaviours online (those who engage less rate behaviour as riskier).  Thus, older male students and students who engage in risky behaviour online more often are less likely to recognize and perceive behaviours on the Internet as risky. More attention should be paid in educating adolescents about risky online behaviours.

No: 28
Title: Psychosocial Predictors Of Depression In Elderly Patients Of A Brazilian Health Unit
Pages 293-300
Author(s): Ana Luísa Patrão*, Vicente Paulo Alves, Tiago Sousa Neiva
Open Access

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In a community, depression can affect 30% to 45% of the elderly people. The consequences of this disease in the third age are numerous and adverse. Many researches have reported that depression is associated with a set of psychosocial factors. In this context, the perceived social support and general self-efficacy occupy an important position. Hence, the aim of this study is to confirm if the perceived social support and the general self-efficacy are predictors of depression in Brazilian senior citizen patients of a Health Basic Unit. The sample comprised144 elderly people (M age=69.3; SD=6.61) of both genders. The data were collected through a questionnaire which included socio-demographic questions and scales for the studied psychosocial dimensions. The results showed that perceived social support and self-efficacy are predictors of depression in the studied Brazilian elderly. Future interventions under the scope of mental health promotion and depression prevention in elderly people must consider these determinants as a way to increase their efficacy.

No: 29
Title: Correlation Between Physical Activity And Nutritional Status In Portuguese Non-Institutionalized Elderly People
Pages 301-309
Author(s):Francisco Mendes, Emília Martins*, Rosina Fernandes, Cátia Magalhães
Open Access

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The individual is an active agent on his/her own aging process and decisions about his/her behavioral repertoires determine the capacity for healthy aging. So, an intervention is possible to modify intentional and positively such behaviors. An active lifestyle and healthy diet are factors that contribute to longevity and quality of life of the elderly, because of their impact in active aging. This study aims to assess the impact of individual variables of the elderly in physical activity and nutritional status, and the relationship between them. The sample included 73 participants aged 73.8 ± 6.6, and 71.2% women. The instruments used were the Baecke Questionnaire Modified (QBM) and the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF). While in domestic activities the highest scores were observed in women, sports activities occurred among those not living alone. The overall score showed higher values in younger participants. The subjective health correlated positively with domestic and sports activities. Health perception and marital status were shown to be related with the nutritional status (p≤.05). Participants with normal nutritional status showed, in general, a more positive health perception. There was a positive correlation between nutritional status and household chores. We found positive effects of physical activity in this age group and recommend the need to promote interventions both in this area and in the nutritional status, particularly in certain groups of elderly people.

No: 30
Title: Emotional Skills And Promotion Of School Success: Preliminary Data Of An Intervention Programme With Parents
Pages 310-317
Author(s): Manuela Ferreira*, J. Duarte, S. Campos, C. Chaves, S. Felizardo, A.P. Cardoso
Open Access

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An intervention with the parents was carried out, which integrates a broader line of research, involving both teachers and students. This consists in the implementation of a programme of promotion of personal and parental skills, during half a year, in which a pre-test is executed followed by the implementation programme and a post-test to compare the results. The instruments used in the two moments of the research included questionnaires to obtain sociodemographic data, the PANAS Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Emotional Intelligence Scale. The preliminary action-research study involved 5 parents of pupils from two classes of a school in the centre of Portugal, who showed disruptive behaviours in the 7th year of schooling. The parents showed a very favourable perception regarding their participation in the programme, considering that it helped them perceive some behaviours and practices less adjusted to their performance, for instance at home (shouting, scolding, etc.). From the pre-test to the post-test, there were statistically significant differences in the evaluation of one's own emotions and their use, as well as evidence of an improvement in positive affects and satisfaction with life. Preliminary data on this parental empowerment programme point to the importance of raising awareness about its action, as well as the need to change traditional educational practices that contribute to the demobilization of children in the face of school tasks. The need to establish a closer and more systematic contact with teachers was also highlighted in order to meet their needs and expectations.

No: 31
Title: Predicting Future Traffic Offenders By Pre-Drivers’ Attitudes Towards Risky Driving
Pages 318-327
Author(s):Justina Slavinskienė, Kristina Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė*, Auksė Endriulaitienė, Laura Šeibokaitė, Rasa Markšaitytė
Open Access

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Worldwide statistics indicate that novice drivers are still one of the riskiest drivers’ groups as they highly contribute to road accidents and traffic rules violations. Thus, the psychological variables that allow predicting whether novice drivers will violate traffic rules are important in risky driving research. The aim of this study is to find out if pre-drivers' attitudes towards risky driving measured before obtaining driving license could predict future traffic offences during the first year of independent driving. The research method was a longitudinal study, based on self-reported web-based questionnaire and later records by police. The Scale of Risk-Taking Attitudes to Driving (Ulleberg, Rundmo, 2002) was used to measure six different attitudes towards risky driving.Demographic data and information about committed traffic rules violations during the first year of independent driving were obtained from police records. 598 pre-drivers (262 males, 336 females), averagely aged at 23.63, participated in the study. Results showed that all types of pre-drivers' attitudes towards risky driving were distributed differently, with the attitude towards showing off driving skills as the highest scores and attitudes towards drunk driving and traffic rules violations as the lowest scores. It was found that male and younger pre-drivers possess some riskier attitudes towards driving than female and older pre-drivers. None of six different attitudes towards risky driving measured before obtaining driving license were significant in predicting traffic offences during the first independent driving year.

No: 32
Title: Performance And Reliability Of Human Factor: Case Of A Plasma Welding Workplace
Pages 328-336
Author(s):Ivana Tureková, Alena Hašková*
Open Access

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Every kind of human activity is associated with a certain risk. Man is the least reliable and vulnerable part of the working system “man – machine – environment”. Human failure can cause material damage as well as loss of life. The work environment, management quality, time pressures and human indispositions can adversely affect the quality of work and the health of employees. Furthermore, they can influence decision-making; cause errors and omissions; fail or impede safety assurance; and place the whole system into a critical situation – with domino effect. In this paper, the authors discuss the assessment of the reliability of the human factor – specifically in engineering employees with a special focus on plasma cutting. To ensure reliability, the MIPS questionnaire method was used. It revealed some weaknesses in management quality and responsibilities as well as work procedures – making it suitable for certain working processes. Because of its simplicity and intuitiveness MIPS method is a suitable method also for unexperienced evaluators. Its software application facilitates calculations and generates the report of investigation automatically. The designers of the method state correctness of its results at the level of 80 – 90 %. MIPS analysis can significantly contribute to elimination of unexpected events caused by human factor error.

No: 33
Title: Effect Of Level Of Coordination Abilities On Motor Learning Progress In Slacklining 
Pages 337-345
Author(s): Pavlína Chaloupská*, Dagmar Hrušová
Open Access

Full Text 33
Slacklining (walking on slackline) as a sport activity is a specialized motor skill with great demands on variability, anticipation and responding to external conditions. The research study works on an assumption that motor learning progress in slacklining is influenced by the level of coordination skills. The purpose of the study was to investigate how the level of coordination abilities affects progress in slacklining. The research question relates to coordination abilities being a performance precondition for motor tasks with similar coordination demands. 40 university students (19-24) participated in the study. Indicators of the level of coordination abilities were standardised 1-leg standing balance test and Iowa-Brace battery.  The participants trained slacklining within 8 sessions (10 attempts once a week). Motor learning progress was recorded. Statistical significance of difference across the sample was evaluated by Mann-Whitney test (p < 0.05). The progress in acquiring slacklining was recorded in terms of the best performance and the total number of attempts on slackline. A significant difference (p < 0.05) was found out across the sample in both selected indicators of coordination abilities, which suggests that the progress in slacklining of the participants with higher level of coordination abilities was faster. In conclusion, the level of coordination abilities, especially balance, can help the progress of motor learning in slacklining. However, slacklining is a complex and concentration-demanding skill and the progress can also be influenced by other factors, such as external conditions, personality and motivation.

No: 34
Title: Playful Learning And Ict For Training Science Teachers: Coordinating A Teaching-Innovation Project
Pages 346-357
Author(s): Alicia Fernández-Oliveras *
Open Access

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The problem statement of this study is the contribution to science-teacher training based on playful learning and the use of ICT tools. The research question is: How can we best contribute to science-teacher training and foster playful-learning approaches while motivating the use of ICT tools? The aim is to stimulate teachers in training to design and conduct educational approaches based on playful learning for scientific education, promoting the use of ICT as educational tools. With this objective, a teaching-innovation project was financed and developed for the higher education of kindergarten, primary, and secondary pre-service teachers, at the University of Granada, Spain, since 2015 to 2017. For kindergarten pre-service teachers, three teaching proposals were developed, the first in a course concerning formal and non-formal contexts, the second related to their practical professional training, and the third at their end-of-degree project. The proposal for primary pre-service teachers was also related to their internship training the last semester of their degree. For secondary teachers in training, a proposal was made regarding the end-of-Master's project. By the end of the proposals, teachers in training were able to design and develop educational approaches based on playful learning for scientific literacy, together with cross-curricular skill development. They also showed an improved ability to use ICT tools as educational resources. We conclude that the teaching-innovation project presented is composed of successful proposals devoted to spreading playful learning for science education among pre-service teachers of different educational stages.

No: 35
Title: The Importance Of Motricity Development Of Schoolchildren
Pages 358-363
Author(s): Buţu Ioana Maria*, Teodorescu Simona Anemari, Cătună George Cristian
Open Access

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Motor skills are indispensable components of human physical activity, providing the possibility of specific efforts and, harnessing the functional potential of the body. Motor skills naturally develop to a certain level, depending on many factors, and are perfectible through practice. We believe that medium pupils’ motricity development is of paramount importance because it favourably influences the major functional indices and their volitional qualities. At the same time, it has an important role in proper and harmonious physical development, contributing to healthy growth. After puberty, which is characterized by significant and rapid somato-functional and psychomotor changes, there follows the stage of growth and development called the post-pubertal period, which is characterized by a slower rate of development and growth. The bone structure during this period is similar to that of the adult. Muscle mass also increases by 44.2% for girls. Body weight increases for both girls and boys. As children increase in age, they change as a result of growth and development processes which are subject to the laws of growth and the developmental stages. Growth refers to the quantitative aspect, whereas development is more qualitative. The two processes cannot be separated, because they are interconnected. Biological development consists of growth and physical maturity processes, changes of the internal biochemistry, and quantitative and qualitative alterations of the higher nervous activity.

No: 36
Title: Student Perception About The Generic Competences Of Tuning Project For Latin America
Pages 364-369
Author(s): Omar Cortés-Peña*, Marcial Conde, Osiris Frías
Open Access

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This research article aims to present the main findings from the study on the perception of college students about the formation and the development of their professional skills from the guidelines and standards, formulated for the generic competences in the Tuning Project (2011-2013).Latin America has identified the need to develop different studies to uncover know the perceptions ofcollege students, on the levels of recognition and potential impact about the generic competences of Tuning project for their professional performance. The study was developed from the empirical-analytic paradigm with a descriptive design. The sample consisted of 384 college students in the Colombian Caribbean region, with a 95% confidence level and 5% sample error. The level of reliability was estimated with the Cronbach's alpha method (α: .904), and the correlation indexes item - scale ranged from (r: .38 and r: .74). The Mean of recognition (3.83) was minor that the mean of potential impact perceived (4.34) about the generic competences. A significant correlation and directly proportional between recognition and potential impact perceived (r: .63; p < .05) was found. It is necessary to strengthen the coordination processes and curriculum management in undergraduate programs, with a view to creating greater levels of standardization and certification of the training programs in the framework of the European Higher Education.

No: 37
Title: The Efficiency Of Spiking In Volleyball According To The Body's Laterality
Pages 370-376
Author(s): Adin-Marian Cojocaru*, Marilena Cojocaru
Open Access

Full Text 37
Most volleyball players have certain hand-preference. The existence of the morpho-functional lateralization makes itself present during several stages of the game: serving, attacking, performing the fundamental posture in the court, or jumping to serve. The goal of the research is to determine the preference for areas in line II in the case of performing a spike-player, and if the performance of the spike-player depends on this. The study attempts to determine the preference for areas in the second line. Here an attack can be done in the case of performing a spike-player, according to the side from which the ball is set in order to hit it (left or right), and whether the performance of a spike-player depends on this preference. For the parameters recorded during training and games, has been calculated statistical difference. We used independent samples “t” test and Pearson correlation coefficient. Thus, among the preferences for the areas of attack on training and official games, there are a direct connection, namely these preferences evolve in the same manner. Results suggest that preferences for the area of attack in the second line, depend on the section from which the ball is set to be hit.