icCSBs 2016

Volume VIII, Pages 1- 252 (May 2016)
The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences EpSBS
e-ISSN: 2357-1330
©2016 Published by the Future Academy
Edited by: Zafer Bekirogullari, Melis Y. Minas & Roslind X. Thambusamy
Articles: 1-25
Conference: icCSBs May 2016 The Annual International Conference on Cognitive - Social, and Behavioural Sciences
Dates: 07 - 10 May 2016
Location: Kyrenia - Cyprus
Conference Chair(s): Prof. Dr. W.C.M. (Willibrord) Weijmar Schultz, Head of section Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecologie / Sexology UMCG, University Medical Center Groningen & 
Dr. Hugh Glenn, Prof. Emeritus, Deputy President Future Academy, 
Dr. Monika Ulrichová, Department of Cultural and Religious Studies, Faculty of Education, Univerzity of Hradec Králové, Rokitanského 62, 50003, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
Cover Page here

Title: Contents
Open Access


No: 1
Title: Self- regulation of motivation: Contributing to students’ learning in middle school
Pages 1-6
Author(s): Paula Paulino*, Isabel Sá, & Adelina Lopes da Silva
Open Access

Full Text 1
The self-regulation of motivation (SRM) implies that students can regulate their motivation to learn, a process that has a positive impact on academic achievement. SRM regulates students’ behavior through strategies that are influenced by motivational beliefs (e.g., expectations, goals, and values). The self-regulation of motivation allows students to motivate themselves and guides their behavior, and thus, becomes part of the self-regulatory process. In this paper our goal was to identify beliefs regarding motivation to learn, more specifically those that promote students´ use of self-regulation of motivation strategies. The Self-Regulation of Motivation for Learning Scales (SRMLS) is an inventory developed to assess the SRM process in two major dimensions: motivational beliefs and SRM strategies. In order to achieve our goals 550 students from 7th to 9th grades responded to SRMLS. Self-efficacy expectations, task value and achievement goals are good predictors of self-regulation of motivation strategies. Results suggest that self-efficacy expectations, task value and achievement goals may be important in promoting student´s regulation of motivation for learning. Future implications for research and education are discussed. 

No: 2
Title:  Developing of the Measurement Model of Self-Directed Learning Characteristics
Pages 7-17
Author(s): Chaiwichit Chianchana
Open Access

Full Text 2
Problem statement: Self-directed learning is a factor essential for learners.  But, factors both differ and overlap. The structures of various factors are not consistent. Research Questions: The model of self-directed learning characteristics of technical college students was developed valid or not? Purpose of the Study: This research aims to develop a model of self-directed learning characteristics of technical college students by factor analysis and multidimensional item response analysis, and to validate the self-directed learning model. Research Methods: Samples were two groups. The first sample was used to analysis the model factors (230 students) and the second sample, used to validate the model (1,563 students).  The instruments were 44 items (four choices).  Data were analyzed through the methods of means, standard deviation, confirmatory factor analysis, and multidimensional item response analysis. Findings: First, results of analyzing item of the model are as follows. Factor analysis: items were suitable for the self-directed learning model (93.18%). Multidimensional item response analysis: all questions were suitable for the model (100.00%). The selected model had eight factors (32 items). Second, the model had validity. Conclusions: The model developed from the Guglielmino’s theory and the self-directed learning model was consistent with empirical data. The standard of the self-directed learning model was interpreted on four levels: awareness, interest, attempts at learning, and actual practice. 

No: 3
Title: Life effectiveness and Attitude towards the Psy4life Program
Pages 18-28
Author(s): Getrude Cosmas*,Chua Bee Seok, Shazia Iqbal Hashmi
Open Access

Full Text 3
This study examines differences across gender in eight components of life effectiveness in pre- and post-studies. This study also measures differences in rural youths’ attitudes toward positive youth development (Psy4life) programme across three demographic factors (gender, educational level, and past involvement in youth programmes). We predicted that there would be differences between male and female in life effectiveness and its components and that there would be differences in youths’ attitudes toward Psy4life programme according to the three demographic factors. Twenty rural youths participated in Psy4Life programme (9 male, 45%; 11 female, 55%; mean age: 15.3, SD=1.81). In the post-study, Mann-Whitney U Test results showed significant differences between males and females in life effectiveness and three of its components (achievement motivation, intellectual flexibility, and leadership). In the pre-study, only intellectual flexibility was associated with significant gender differences. There were no significant differences in attitudes toward Psy4life programme across gender, education level, and past involvement in youth programmes. We assumed that female participants might be more motivated, open to new ideas, and capable of leading a group than male youth. Attitudes towards youth programmes might differ based on other factors, such as extrinsic and intrinsic motives, which need to be examined in the future.

No: 4
Title: Stress-related diseases: significant influence on the quality of life at workplaces
Pages 29-38
Author(s): Tiziana Ramaci*, Monica Pellerone, Calogero Iacolino
Open Access

Full Text 4
The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work considers stress and quality of life as emerging. One of the first issues they prioritize mainly as a psychosocial risk is the changing world of work. We went to investigate if  ‟job contract” (traditional/atypical) increases levels of stress. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible relationships between individual and organizational aspects of work (self-efficay, engagement, autonomy and satisfaction) and levels of stress in two categories of individuals, traditional and atypical workers, in order to emphasize probable differences, and to increase the efficacy at work aims to re-balance, when necessary, a condition of psycho- physical well-being. The results showsignificant differences. In fact, our findings obtained show different values: self-efficacy relates negatively to stress, which in turn relates negativly to engagement. The study must be considered as a preliminary assessment for a study of broader intervention to increase quality of life. 

No: 5
Title: Family functioning and disability: a study on Italian parents with disabled children
Pages 39-52
Author(s): Calogero Iacolinoa, Monica Pellerone*, Ugo Pacea, Tiziana Ramacia &
Vittorio Castorina
Open Access

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The family of disabled persons often goes through periods of instability and mismatch; the birth of disabled children may affect communication, problem solving, satisfaction and general family functioning.
The present study aims to explore the perception that both parents of disabled children have of their family functioning, measuring: the dynamics of the familiar functioning; the perception that the parental couple has about parenting and family functioning; the similarities between fathers and mothers in the perception of these dimensions.
The research involved 50 parent couples (age: M=50.84; S.D=7.23), who have 100 disabled children. They completed: Family Assessment Device (Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop, 1983) to assess specific aspects of family functioning, such as  problem solving, communication, roles, affective response and involvement, behavioral control and general functioning; Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (Olson, 2011), to measure family adaptability and cohesion.
The parents of disabled daughters showed significantly higher on following scales: cohesion, communication and satisfaction. In contrast, the parents who have male sons showed high scores in the scale of flexibility. Parents of children with autism reported higher scores than the parents of children with pervasive developmental disorders in the following scales: cohesion, communication and satisfaction.
The results suggest that family functioning when there is a disabled child might be affected by child’s gender and disability. Among the research limits there are the lack of a representative sample and the absence of a longitudinal study. In future studies, it is expected an evaluation of triadic family functioning to examine intergenerational differences in perception of family dynamics. 

No: 6
Title: Cognitive Dimension Of Abstraction In Basic Design Education: Architectural Context Of Antalya
Pages 53-58
Author(s): Kemal Reha Kavas, & Hacer Mutlu Danaci*
Open Access

Full Text 6
Although abstraction is important for interpreting architectural design problems, it is difficult to acquaint the student with this process. Then, can this problem be solved by adapting cognitive methods during the 1st year course of basic design? The purpose of this study is to propose a cognitive method during the basic design course in order to acquaint the students with the process of abstraction. In this way the students learn to express the underlying formal features of a context through platonic forms. This research is undertaken through empiric research method. Firstly a local context for implementing an abstraction process is assigned. Then the performance of the students and the assignment is interpreted for proposing a cognitive educational method. In this framework the students are expected to abstract a view of the city of Antalya by expressing it in platonic forms. Before experiencing the process the students should acquire theoretical knowledge. During the initial experience the students should realize their problems in realizing abstraction. The instructors should guide the student by giving critiques based on application. It is helpful to assign a tangible object or situation whose visual features can be abstracted. When an architectural context in which the students live is chosen as a design issue, it is easier for the students to understand and apply their theoretical knowledge concerning abstraction. Since abstraction is vital for basic design and since basic design is the first and the most important stage of architectural education, this cognitive method can be successful. 

No: 7
Title: Synesthesia in the minds of bilingual
Pages 59-65
Author(s): Zhannat Yermekova*, Maral Nurtazina
Open Access

Full Text 7
The article deals with one of the varieties of metaphor – synaesthesia which is used by the Kazakhstani Russian-speaking bilingual writer in creating literary images. The most frequent types of synaesthesia combinations are singled out here. On the basis of the analysis of images of language consciousness of A.Zhaksylykov attempt to define is made, whether the law of a generality of the big paradigms and identity of small paradigms of art-poetic images operates in various cultures. The images created by synthetic means are the result of cognitive processing of socially significant information and the author's intention, as well as the phenomenon, fixing the dynamics of change and consciousness of society imposes special imprint on the linguistic picture of the world of the people in accordance with the changing features of his world view and outlook. Synesthesia of Kazakh bilingual - artistic means to create a holistic psychological portrait of the hero, for an understanding of the depth of the content of the novel. 

No: 8
Title: Influential Translation of Advertisements from English to Arabic for Arab Women Consumers
Pages 66-75
Author(s): Randa Saliba Chidiac*, & Marie-Therese Saliba
Open Access

Full Text 8
Advertising is a fundamental communication tool for the consumers. It tells them the types and diversity of products available for their use in the market. Advertising isn’t restricted to any age or gender. The ultimate aim is to sell the consumer new items that have been made available. It’s important to use glitzy and striking ads to attract consumers into buying. The Arab world is still importing most of its ideas when it comes to ads. A problem is encountered when translating ads in the Arab world. This is not due to lack of trying as many individuals, organizations and government policies are striving but failing to reach satisfactory results. Digital technology has also added to the issues already confounding the Arab translation crisis. Books and newspapers have been discarded in favor of online and television media outlets. With globalization comes the importance of preserving content of the original ad in terms of meaning and slogan. The translation can be done by taking the slogan and molding it into the new ads. It can also be literate which can be problematic because the original slogan was intended for a different audience belonging to a different culture and tradition. Our focus will be on the possible hurdles facing translation of US advertising into Arabic for the Arab women consumers. The two regions have different strategies and languages. Often in literate translation, the original slogan becomes lost in translation. One example is the Swarovski Online Magazine. 

No: 9
Title: Study of Civil Dispute Resolutions by Social Mediation Services in Civil Law
Pages 76-89
Author(s): Katarina Vankova*
Open Access

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The paper draws attention to alternative resolutions of civil disputes by social mediation in civil law. The main objective of the study was to map incidence of the most frequently resolved civil disputes, and their categorization in mediation conferences from the perspective of mediators who are registered under a personal evidence number by the Ministry of Justice of the Slovak Republic. The sample included 104 (n=104) purposefully selected mediators. Statistical analyses showed interesting facts such as advantages of mediation conferences versus court hearings, advantages of the process in the mediation conferences related to the client, positive outcomes of mediation services related to time of conferences, agreements, and communication with reflexion on the case, the importance and need of social mediation services in civil law in our society. 

No: 10
Title: How teachers'perceptions affect the academic and language assessment of immigrant children
Pages 90-108
Author(s): Sandra Figueiredo*, Margarida Alves Martinsb, Carlos Silvac, Cristina Simões
Open Access

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Recent research evidences inconsistencies in teachers' practice regarding  skills assessment of L2 students. Scientific evidence supports that less experienced teachers have lower orientation toward multiple task-tests for non-native students. Research questions: Whether school teachers as having different teaching training and unequal teaching experience with non-native students perceive differently a four-skills scale. Purpose of the study: This study intends to analyse the importance degree between the four skills/tasks: reading, writing, speaking and listening, in the perspective of school teachers. Method: 77 teachers, aged 32-62, with (and without) experience in teaching and adapting materials for immigrant students, divided into six groups according to their scientific domain. Assessment tools included a scale for judgement of four academic tasks adapted from the original “Inventory of Undergraduate and Graduate Level: Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening Tasks (Rosenfeld, Leung & Ottman, 2001). Main Findings: 1) different degrees of importance attributed by teachers on tasks that should be included in academic and language test for immigrant students; 2) perceptions of teachers are determined by predictors in this order: scientific domain, experience with multicultural classes and lower prediction from teaching service and age; 3) different results between american and portuguese samples answering the same questionnaire. 

No: 11
Title: The Big Four Skills: Teachers’ Assumptions on Measurement of Non-Native Students Cognition
Pages 109-124
Author(s): Sandra Figueiredo*, Margarida Alves Martins, Carlos Silva, O. Nunes
Open Access

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The four-skills on tests for young native speakers commonly do not generate correlation incongruency concerning the cognitive strategies frequently reported. Considering the non-native speakers there are parse evidence to determine which tasks are important to assess properly the cognitive and academic language proficiency (Cummins, 1980; 2012). Research questions: It is of high probability that young students with origin in immigration significantly differ on their communication strategies and skills in a second language processing context (1); attached to this first assumption, it is supposed that teachers significantly differ depending on their scientific area and previous training (2). Purpose: This study intends to examine whether school teachers (K-12) as having different origin in scientific domain of teaching and training perceive differently an adapted four-skills scale, in European Portuguese. Research methods: 77 teachers of five areas scientific areas, mean of teaching year service = 32 (SD= 2,7), 57 males and 46 females (from basic and high school levels). Main findings: ANOVA (Effect size and Post-hoc Tukey tests) and linear regression analysis (stepwise method) revealed statistically significant differences among teachers of different areas, mainly between language teachers and science teachers. Language teachers perceive more accurately tasks in a multiple manner to the broad skills that require to be measured in non-native students. Conclusion: If teachers perceive differently the importance of the big-four tasks, there would be incongruence on skills measurement that teachers select for immigrant puppils. Non-balanced tasks and the teachers’ perceptions on evaluation and toward competence of students would likely determine limitations for academic and cognitive development of non-native students. Furthermore, results showed sufficient evidence to conclude that tasks are perceived differently by teachers toward importance of specific skills subareas. Reading skills are best considered compared to oral comphreension skills in non-native students.  

No: 12
Title: Is resilience related to depression, anxiety and energy? European Social Survey results
Pages 125-130
Author(s): Andrius Smitas*, & Loreta Gustainienė
Open Access

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Resilience is understood as capability to recover from adverse events. However, it is not clear how resilience relates with anxiety, depression and energy in socially diverse European countries. Research question. How resilience relates with anxiety, depression, energy levels in European citizens?  The purpose of study is to assess links between psychological resilience and anxiety, depression and energy in Western Europe, Scandinavia and Baltic States. Research methods. Experts-generated single-item questions from European Social Survey round 6 were used to assess psychological resilience, anxiety, depression, and energy levels. Countries were grouped according to the United Nations classification. Linear regression analysis was used to assess relationship between the psychological constructs. Findings. In Western Europe and Scandinavia higher levels of psychological resilience are predicted by lower levels of depression and anxiety, higher levels of energy, as well as male gender and younger age (in Western Europe) (all p<.042). In Baltic States higher levels of psychological resilience are predicted by lower levels of depression and higher levels of energy (all p<.023). Conclusions. Psychological resilience in most European countries is predicted by lower levels of depression and anxiety and higher levels of energy. More detailed research is needed to discover country differences in psychological resilience and its correlates. 

No: 13
Title: The Universal equality in a multi-ethnic society of Kazakhstan
Pages 131-134
Author(s): Assel Issakhanova*
Open Access

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Concentrating on spiritual - moral sphere of culture, which is the pinnacle of the human experience, moral values are converted to a specific moral regulator of human activity. However, despite the fact that the basic postulates of differentcultural –moral knowledge systems are similarto each other, their treatmentandthe appropriate specific ethno-culturalunderstanding of the situation may be different. All those create certain prerequisites for the formation and development of ethnic prejudices the moral inconsistency of cultural values of the peoples of the world. In a multi-ethnic society where ethnic groups work closely together, the interests of ethnic groups often clashes with different understanding of moral values. One of the value orientations of Kazakh society is equality of the multinational people of the republic. However, during the study of the moral value of equality, which has studied 100 Kazakh and Russian representatives of ethnic groups, has found out that they have different attitude to the universal equality of citizens. 

No: 14
Title: Is resilience related to depression, anxiety and energy? European Social Survey results
Pages 135-142
Author(s): Natalia Moskvicheva*, Svetlana Kostromina
Open Access

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The contribution of students' cognitive features and motivation to ensuring their research achievements is sufficiently defined but the role of their subjective representations and personality characteristics is not studied enough. The study posed the questions: are there distinctions in students' attitudes toward   different stages of a research work; what personality traits and values lead to preferences or underestimation of certain stages of a research? Questionnaire for students with seven 10-point scales for the assessment of different stages of research, The Big Five Personality Test (5PFQ), Rokeach Value Survey (RVS), mathematical methods (descriptive analysis, Kendall correlation coefficient, and Mann–Whitney U test) were applied to evaluate the study objectives. The sample consisted of 75 4th year students of St. Petersburg State University (mean age 22.9±1.3). The study revealed the ambivalent attitude of students to the stages of scientific work involves planning of tasks,   problem statement and selection of methods and techniques, and also influence of students’ personality features on preference for certain types of scientific activity. There were found multiple correlations between students’ personality traits (persistence, curiosity, emotional stability, and sensitivity), students’ values (knowledge, creativity, tolerance, productivity) and their attitudes toward research activity. 

No: 15
Title: Creativity Particularities of Students Specializing in Humanities, Science, Technics in Kazakhstani Universities
Pages 143-153
Author(s): Aigerim Mynbayeva*, Anastassiya Vishnevskaya, Bakhytkul Akshalova
Open Access

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Future specialist’s creativity  development is an important professional education task.  On the  one hand, a new generation of specialists will be capable of creating new technologies, products.  On the other hand, creativity is  an opportunity for a person self-expression. Are there any differences in the levels of  students’ creativity specializing in science and humanities? Purpose of the Study: diagnostics of  students’ creativity specializing in humanities and natural  sciences, their comparison to develop further innovative techniques for enhancing creativity components of a person. Creation of maps as trajectories of  students’ creativity diagnostics by  step-by-step application  tests.  Research Methods: Synthesizing of diagnostic techniques into maps of trajectory of student creativity diagnostics using Tunnik’s test of student creativity levels, Mayers and Briggs test (MBTI). 60 students specializing in humanities and science took part in the research. The method of creating maps is offered as trajectories of diagnostic techniques for creativity assessment. According to Tunnik’s test high creativity level is diagnosed in 42,8% of  students specializing in humanities and in 13% of respondents specializing in science and technology; average creativity level in 46,4% and 74% of respondents and low one in 11% and 13% of respondents respectively. The study has shown that according to MBTI test, psychological types characterized by organizational skills, communication skills, enthusiasm, inspiration, creative activities are widespread among representatives of humanities field. Psychological types characterized  by administrative activity, logic, inspiration and delivery of information by means of language and examples are widespread among representatives of  science and technology sphere.

No: 16
Title: Education and Spirituality in Kazakhstan: "Self-cognition" Metadiscipline Features and Methods of Teaching
Pages 154-161
Author(s): Aigerim Mynbayeva*, Nazgul Anarbek, Mensulu Yesseyeva
Open Access

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In the 21st century, harmonious combination of intellectual and moral development of an individual is important. How this can be integrated into the educational process? A new subject of Self-Cognition has been introduced into Kazakhstani secondary schools. Purpose of the Study: Generalization of teaching experience in the new school subject of Self-Cognition and establishing didactic bases for Self-Cognition teaching strategies being the realization of the new century pedagogics.
Research Methods: Observation and generalization of innovative teachers’ experience in Self-Cognition, comparison of combined lesson structures with the lesson of Self-Cognition, systematization and analysis of new learning strategies, student interviews to conclude whether they have developed an understanding of the new bases of pedagogical science, structure of Self-Cognition subject planning, differences when compared to other school disciplines. The content of the subject is based on the Program of spiritual and moral education of Self-Cognition, focusing on holistic approach to the perception of a human and identification of universal values within him/her – Truth, Love, Righteous Conduct, Inner Peace and Non-violence. The main principles of secular teachings on spirituality - Self-Cognition, are humanistic orientation, human values, social interaction, national heritage, and nature-conformity. Significant differences in the strategies of teaching "Self-knowledge" and other school lessons are revealed. The strategies of value-based education, the personal-sense development, storytelling, etc are emphasized. The methodical recommendations for the improvement of education on the subject "Self-knowledge" are suggested that include the active use of cognitive approach and social constructivism, and the extension of art technologies usage. 

No: 17
Title: Broadening teacher training: playful learning in non-formal contexts for science and mathematics education
Pages 162-171
Author(s): Alicia Fernández-Oliveras*, & María Luisa Oliveras
Open Access

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Currently, new ways of learning to develop skills such as creativity and scientific and mathematical thinking are needed. Teachers need to be prepared to face this challenge by engaging with education in any context, including non-formal ones. Moreover, in such a changing world, non-formal education could be a rich source of jobs. Work opportunities may arise if teachers in training begin to see themselves as entrepreneurial professionals. We might ask: Are future teachers prepared to educate future generations in today’s world? In this shifting scenario, would an approach for teacher training concerning non-formal contexts, based on playful learning and specially focused on science and mathematics education, be worthwhile? As part of the higher education of pre-service kindergarten teachers, we undertook such an approach with the aim of broadening their training at the university. We sought the perceptions of the teachers in training, after the development of our approach, regarding its usefulness for their future professional development, giving them the opportunity to express their own reflections in writing. We studied the participants’ reflections following the qualitative-interpretive technique of content analysis of the speech. The results of the qualitative analysis provided the emergence of 19 units of meaning (subcategories). The study of the interrelationships among these units revealed the existence of 3 interrelated joined cores (categories). Those cores are: science and mathematics education, playful learning, and non-formal education, and around them the discourse of the educators in training was articulated. 

No: 18
Title: Consensus and tendencies in learning approach management
Pages 172-177
Author(s): Valeria Pestean
Open Access

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Foreshadowing and handling the teacher - trainees interaction are challenging problems, seeking their response at the end of each learning situation in the teaching approach proposed for the student. The aim of the research is to identify the elements that are understood as common procedures in management of the learning act performed by students at school. The survey questionnaire is the fundamental method used in the research. The meaning teachers assign to the concept of “student’s safety” is varied and predetermines multiple ways to take action. We ascertain that, in order to ensure emotional, social and existential comfort for students they work with, teachers are conditioned to engage diverse sources which, to a great extent, they do not directly coordinate or are not in their power. There is a tension that can be easily identified in school environment, between pupil’s autonomy that teachers allow in the learning act and managing a learning program that allows pupil self-management exclusively within predetermined frames. Satisfying the students’ need to succeed is combined in an interesting manner with procedures applied by teachers to allow their students to be active.

No: 19
Title: Play in Scientific and Mathematical Non-Formal Education. Bagh Chal, a Tigers-and-Goats Game
Pages 178-191
Author(s): Carlos Sergio Gutiérrez-Perera*, Alicia Fernández-Oliveras, María Luisa Oliveras
Open Access

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This work introduces the Playful Projects-based methodology, created with the aim of contributing to scientific and mathematic literacy from the STEM education perspective by means of work plans designed around traditional world board games. This methodology adapts that of Ethnomathematical Projects to non-formal educational contexts, building upon games as sociocultural objects of interest and play as a learning facilitator. Here, a summary of the first Playful Project designed around the Nepali board game bagh chal is presented. This is a bipersonal, zero-sum, complete and perfect information game. This Playful Project will be implemented in two middle schools in Granada, Spain. Students will learn the game and acquire certain knowledge about it by formulating hypotheses, validating or refuting them, making deductions, and drawing conclusions. In addition to the development of the characteristic skills of STEM disciplines, our proposal is meant to foster interculturality, inclusion, and playful as well as dialogic learning.

No: 20
Title: Ten Item Personality Inventory: A Validation Study on a Croatian Adult Sample
Pages 192-202
Author(s): Sanja Tatalović Vorkapić*
Open Access

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Considering the fact that the use of short measurement instruments is much more practical and cheaper, it is of utmost importance to create and validate them. Besides, within the limited time, researchers may need to apply a very brief measure. One of them is the very brief measure of the Big-Five personality dimensions, called Ten Item Personality Inventory. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the construct validity and reliability of the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) applied on a Croatian adult sample. After the translation of the original TIPI, it was applied on a sample of 432 adults who voluntarily participated in the research. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with Principal Axis Factoring and Oblimin rotation were run with the reliability level analysis. The exploratory FA demonstrated the four-factor solution, which has explained 66.54% of the total variance. The confirmatory FA showed that the five-factor-solution explained 74.38% of the total variance. However, the determined factor structure was not clear and the proposed theoretical model of the Big Five was only partially confirmed. Cronbach alpha coefficient was a=.66. Since the major loadings in the first factor were mainly situated on positively oriented items, this research confirmed prior findings about negatively oriented items as strong obstacles in the analysed factor structures. Therefore, the main conclusion of this research is to adapt TIPI in the way to create all ten items as positively oriented. 

No: 21
Title: Validation of the Assessment of Performance Competency
Pages 203-212
Author(s): Chaiwichit Chianchana*, & Sageemas Na Wichian
Open Access

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Competency, which has complexity, means that competency assessment has to be done elaborately and in-depth. The importance of assessment is that it has to show the evidence of validity.  Is assessment of performance competency by the methods of rash analysis, inter-subtest correlation analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis valid or not.  The purpose of research is to examine the validity of assessment of performance competency by the methods of rash analysis, inter-subtest correlation analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis.  The sample group consisted of directors and employees. The instruments included three volumes - assessment by director (volume I), self-assessment (volume II), and supervisor assessment (volume III). The data were analyzed by the rash analysis, inter-subtest correlation analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis.  Results revealed that the examination by the rash analysis volume I fit almost all of the items, whereas volume II and volume III had all values in the range of statistical acceptance, the inter-subtest correlation analysis in all volumes had a high level of relationship, and the confirmatory factor analysis for all volumes was concordant with the empirical data.  The evidence of examination on three methods based on the measurement standard for item response theory and classical test theory can indicate the quality of assessment of performance competence very well. 

No: 22
Title: A Study on the Sociology Official Exams for the Lebanese Secondary Certificate from 2001 to 2014
Pages 213-225
Author(s): Laurice El Rahia*, Marie-Thérèse Saliba
Open Access

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The purpose of public examinations, in most countries, is to assess and evaluate the teacher, learner, and educational material, as well as to receive “certification” through the intervention of the state for the objective of providing an official certificate. This research addresses the following problem: What are the weaknesses in the questions of the Sociology Official Exams for the Lebanese Secondary Certificate? We found that the malfunction lies in the absence of training and supervising coaches and bodies, so they grew imbalance years after another, and did not result in the accumulation of expertise in the literal sense, especially with the existence of several official devices related to the topic. This research presents different suggestions over the short, medium and long run. Not to mention that this research has shown that the official exam, measured in its entirety, applies the lowest cognitive levels (memorizing and understanding), and did not reach the highest levels in the application, analysis and conclusion up until the time of to the evaluation. 

No: 23
Title: The Impact of Mental Thinking Systems on Idea Generation: The Athens Olympic Ceremony
Pages 226-235
Author(s): Wichian Lattipongpun*
Open Access

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International organizations are facing social, political, economic, and environmental challenges that are factors to allow or limit themselves to break out from or maintain their usual management routine. The host of the Olympic Games every four years is no exception. This study therefore shows that unconventional thinking could affect the Olympic ceremony creativity and development. An in-depth interview was conducted with Dimitris Papaioannue, the ceremony director of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games. As a result of the examination, the advantages of his visionary idea can be understood through the model of idea prediction through different mental thinking systems from invention to innovation. This model would generally allow policy-makers and practitioners to see which of mental thinking systems is best used for their organizations and society as a whole. 

No: 24
Title: Analysis of Technology Education Development at Schools in Slovakia
Pages 236-245
Author(s): Alena Hašková*, & Silvia Dvorjaková
Open Access

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Between 2008 and 2013 Slovakia went through a curricular reform. The impact of the reform on technology education at lower level of secondary education was evaluated from 2013 to 2015. The need to reinforce some qualitative aspects of this analysis led in 2015 to a decision to carry out an additional research based on a personal inquiry, particularly on focus group interviews. The aim of the additional research was to find out how the teachers teaching the subject Technology (which before the curricular reform was known as Technical education), either as qualified or unqualified to teach it, evaluate impact of the curricular reform on teaching Technology as well as on technology education in general. The main intention of the research was to find out both positive and negative facts caused by the curricular reform in teaching Technology at the lower level of secondary schools and to evaluate whether the introduced changes supported quality assurance of technology education. The paper describes research methodology of the carried out focus groups interviews and the main results of the research. 

No: 25
Title: Defining the Regulations of War in the Hague Convention of 1907
Pages 246-252
Author(s): Erazak Tileubergenov, Dana Baisymakova*, Dinara Belkhozhayeva, Zhanar Moldakhmetova
Open Access

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International humanitarian law provided many institutional mechanisms aimed at preventing armed conflicts. However, the world is still subject to military action, even the most peace-loving nation is not completely immune to aggressive actions. Therefore, international legal regulation of war rules is constantly improved and developed in order to weaken the horrific consequences of the fighting as much as possible. The international regulations of war were established by multilateral treaties between states. The article investigates the history of the formation of the Hague system of international legal regulation of war rules. The Hague conventions defined the main rules of warfare and the legal status of their participants. These provisions are binding in armed conflicts in the countries-participants of conventions, and for states that did not signed them, the norms of international law will be applied.