icCSBs 2017

The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences EpSBS
Volume XX, Pages 1- 283 (27 January 2017)

e-ISSN: 2357-1330
©2017 Published by the Future Academy
Edited by: Zafer Bekirogullari, Melis Y. Minas & Roslind X. Thambusamy
Articles: 1- 29
Conference: 5th icCSBs January 2017 The Annual International Conference on Cognitive - Social, and Behavioural Sciences
Dates: 09 - 11 January 2017
Location: Lidická 81, budova META, Brno, Czech Republic
Conference Chair(s): Prof. Dr. W.C.M. (Willibrord) Weijmar Schultz, Head of section Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecologie / Sexology UMCG, University Medical Center Groningen, Dr. Hugh Glenn, Co-Chair, Prof. Emeritus, Deputy President, Future Academy®, RNDr. Ing. Lenka Cimbálníková, Ph.D., MBAVice-Chancellor, BIBS - College; BIBS & Ing. Josef Polák, Ph.D., BIBS - College; BIBS
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Title: Contents

Open Access


No: 1
Title:  How Do Children Label The World With Words?
Pages 1-8
Author(s): Svetlana Osokina*
Open Access

Full Text 1
The way young children label the world with words may be different from the way adults use words to segment the world into objects. How does the language children learn in infancy influence the way they see the world; what is the difference in labeling the world by children and adults? We are to bring evidence of special usage of the language children hear in everyday communication to express the way they perceive the world. Surrounding language thesaurus is crucial in segmenting speech into recognizable units and in using these units to label the world. The main method of research is a case study which includes general linguistic analysis of a child’s utterances, speech situation analysis, cognitive methods, and thesaurus analysis. We found out that children may recognize separate words in adults’ speech and connect them with proper items of the world; children may recognize words or word combinations and use them in speech without having knowledge about the proper item of the world; using recognizable speech fragments children may compose their own labels and specify world items unknown to adults. The way children label the world depends on their language experience and active thesaurus. Adults’ language experience is formed by everyday practice of stereotype expressions which segment the world into stereotype units. Children are not used to stereotypes because of lack of experience. This makes possible for children to use fragments of speech to identify world items unnoticeable by adults.

No: 2
Title:  Effects Of Explicit Knowledge And Metacognitive Thoughts On Iowa Gambling Task Performance
Pages 9-16
Author(s): Serra Icellioglu*, Ece Naz Ermiş
Open Access

Full Text 2
Decision-making is an essential cognitive function in everyday life. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is a popular neuropsychological task that assesses decision-making through reward and punishment in the context of learning from past experiences. Differences in decision-making performances of healthy participants predicted by metacognition levels and having explicit knowledge during IGT were examined. 76 female and 12 male students at İstanbul Kultur University completed the IGT and Metacognition Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30). After completing task implementations, each participant was asked a list of questions relating to their strategy on IGT and categorized into two groups depending on their level of explicit knowledge. As in conventional analysis of IGT, each block's net score was calculated. Results indicated that group with knowledge had significantly higher net scores and consistently improved their performances across 5 blocks of IGT than group with no explicit knowledge. Study showed there is a difference between healthy controls' learning strategies and this difference reflected to their decision-making performances. In risky blocks of IGT as the task progresses, negative beliefs about uncontrollability and danger subscale scores of metacognition has a negative effect on advantageous decision making, whilst a higher score on cognitive confidence subscale predicts disadvantageous decision making. Results and suggestions for future studies were discussed in light of previous work.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.01. 02.2 

No: 3 
Title:  Empirical study on parental eating disorders and child development
Pages 17-25
Author(s): Michela Erriu*, Luca Cerniglia, Silvia Cimino
Open Access

Full Text 3
International literature has studied the role of parental eating disorder (ED) on children development, highlighting that it constitutes a relevant risk factor for the onset of offspring’s emotional-behavioural problems. Limited attention has been given to parental Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and its impact on offspring’s psychopathology. Thus, further investigations of this clinical manifestation as possible predictor of offspring’s psychopathology are needed. The present study aimed to assess the maladaptive outcomes in children of parents with psychopathological risk and psychiatric diagnoses. Specifically, we intended to verify whether offspring of parents who were both diagnosed with BED showed higher affective and behavioural problems, compared with their peers with only one parent diagnosed with BED. We conducted a longitudinal study (T1 18 months old children; T2 36 months old children) on a sample of 100 Italian couple of parents and children (Ntotal = 300), divided into three groups based on the presence of BED diagnosis. Group A, diagnosis in both parents; Group B, diagnosis only in the mothers; Group C, diagnosis only in the fathers. The presence of BED in one or both parents was associated with the emotional and behavioural development in offspring. Particularly, the diagnosis of BED in both parents had a direct effect on infants’ affective problems. The offspring of parents diagnosed with BED were more likely to manifest emotional and behavioural difficulties and psychiatric symptoms within the first three years of life.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.01. 02.3  

No: 4
Title:  Female University Students’ Views On Family And Parenthood: Cross-Country Analysis
Pages 26-35
Author(s): Anna Bagirova*, Oksana Shubat, Saule Abdygapparova, Angelika Karaeva
Open Access

Full Text 4
Perceptions of family and parenthood can be seen as a determinant of fertility and a society’s socio-cultural state. Studying these across different countries is particularly topical amid growing migration. The paper presents the results of an international research project in which we studied ideas about family and parenthood of female university students from Russia, Austria and Kazakhstan. Datawascollectedin 2015. The results of our research showed that young women from different countries had similar views about the purpose of family in contemporary society. At the same time they had different assessments of the significance of family for the fulfilment of some functions. We obtained the image of a happy family in the students’ minds. We found out that there were certain differences in the students’ ideas about a happy family. We obtained the image of parenthood and identified its main aspects. We also saw differences in the female students’ ideas about parenting. Differences in perceptions of family and parenthood are likely linked to differences in the types of parenting culture and the substance of future parental labour. Researching students' ideas about family and parenting enables assessing a country’s demographic prospects. The implementation of education focused on reproductive intentions and behaviours could be an effective way to improve the demographic situation.

No: 5
Title:  Social-Therapeutic Technologies In Professional Work Of Social Pedagogues
Pages 36-44
Author(s): Aigerim Mynbayeva*, Makpal Seilkhanova, Bakhytkul Akshalova
Open Access

Full Text 5
The expansion of the social work field in Kazakhstan led to the emergence of the social pedagogues profession. New technologies have become social-therapeutic technologies and social activities. Purpose of the Study:is to develop design principles of social and therapeutic technologies and teaching methods, the comparison of the use of technology and social-therapeutic work of social workers and university teachers. Research Methods: is a survey of practicing social pedagogues, as well as university teachers who teach the future social pedagogues. Analysis, generalization of approaches to social therapy, simulation technologies, comparison and search work. Findings: According to the results of questionnaires and self-evaluation of teachers, 30% of social pedagogues and 70% of university teachers, training future social workers use social and therapeutic work technology. Teachers often use art-therapy techniques (75% of teachers and 80% of social pedagogues).  40% of social pedagogues use art therapy mainly for stress relief in children, 23% for the aggression removal. Conclusions: A theoretical model of the technology design of social-therapeutic activity of the social pedagogues has been elaborated. The research work on the study of the social experience of practicing teachers has been carried out. The method of learning social-therapeutic technologies which was tested in the educational process of the university has been worked out.

No: 6
Title:  Creating Teaching Materials For International Students
Pages 45-53
Author(s): Natalia Batseva, Natalia Fix*, Stanislav Kolesnikov, Ludmila Sivitskaya, Albina Shaidullina
Open Access

Full Text 6
The problem of teaching an engineering discipline to non-native speakers is challenging and it requires the combination of active teaching methods. The authors determine the course content based on state-of-the-art reference sources and developments of the Electrical Engineering Department for students trained as part of academic exchange. The paper deals with creating teaching materials of a technical discipline for international students as illustrated by the Dispatching Control of Electrical Power Systems course. The paper describes methods and forms of training process, including active ones. We made an attempt to summarize the world experience of using active teaching methods to create the methodological materials for a new course to be delivered to international students. When creating a new course, we used our own experience of delivering a similar course supported in Moodle. Activity-targeted technologies can be an effective way for students to solve practical tasks of operational management in the electric power industry. Learner-centered technologies improve students' abilities to handle stress and assume responsibility in professional choice situations. The experience of creating the teaching materials for the course Dispatching Control of Electrical Power Systems for international students shows that active methods of teaching professional engineering disciplines are indispensable for successful professional training and overcoming the language barrier. Students can apply the knowledge and skills acquired not only in business games but also in their professional activities.

No: 7
Title:  Gender Differences  In Teachers' Pedagogical Communication Styles 
Pages 54-63
Author(s): Gulnas Akhmetova, Dilyara Seitova, Aigerim Mynbayeva*
Open Access

Full Text 7
Gender-communicative competence is a vital aspect of effective pedagogy. Promoting gender-communicative competence requires understanding pedagogical differences related to teacher gender and their impacts on students. To develop bases for the improvement of teachers' pedagogical dialogue styles that actively consider the impact of teacher gender and to outline an effective approach to improve teachers' gender-communicative competence. This study systematically compared domestic and foreign research on gender differences in communication styles. A questionnaire was used to identify differences in perception and approach among male and female teachers. 45 participants were re-surveyed after taking part in a pilot gender-communicative competence workshop. 80 Almaty students were also surveyed on their relationships with male and female teachers. While international research points to gender having a significant impact on pedagogical style and effectiveness, teachers of both genders trained in gender-sensitive communication can be effective and inspiring teachers for students of both genders. Survey results showed that Kazakhstani teachers responded well to training in gender-communicative competence. This study systematically conceptualized gender differences in communication styles to make a model of gender-communicative competence that included axiological, cognitive and technological components. A 10-hour program was developed to improve the style of teachers' pedagogical dialogue through the formation of gender-communicative competence. The program was tested with compulsory schoolteachers working in Almaty. Forty-five teachers attended the experimental session.

No: 8
Title:  Impact Of Language Of Instruction On Progress In Kazakhstan
Pages 64-72
Author(s): Khalida Nurseitova*, Assel Kaliyeva, Edyta Denst-Garcia, Raissa Kussainova
Open Access

Full Text 8
This paper presents an analysis of the impact of Language of Instruction on student progress in Kazakhstan. The hypothesis of this article is that the choice of Language of Instruction and Success of  students has a strong correlation to higher education in the context of present day Language Policy in Kazakhstan. The purpose of this study is to identify the choice of instructional language made in order to pass the UNT (Unified national Testing). In this article, we conduct the quantitative and qualitative analysis of statistics of Kazakhstani UNT (Unified national Testing) results for 2013-2016 years. Students with mother tongue language of Instruction - Kazakh show better results in comparison with Russian language of instruction. Moreover, Kazakh-medium students leaving schools have a high percentage of scholarships to be promoted in Kazakhstani professional spheres.  Our analysis showed which language of instruction was more effective for passing the UNT in order to get a scholarship to enter a university.

No: 9
Title:  Using Mixed Methods Research To Study Reproductive Behaviour
Pages 73-83
Author(s): Anna Bagirova*, Oksana Shubat
Open Access

Full Text 9
Recent political and economic problems in Russia have sadly pushed pertinent demographic challenges into the background. Yet according to demographic forecasts, population growth in the next 3-5 years will give way to population decline, which will only increase with every year. Thus the study of the reproductive plans and intentions of young people in Russia is highly topical today. The paper presents the results of quantitative (a survey) and qualitative (essay about future family) research among female students. We analysed the young women’s perceptions about family composition, the number of children they assumed they would have and the time they expected to devote to parental commitments. Our study was created using convergent design, one of the basic types of mixed methods designs. The results of our research showed that young women have strong, persisting views on the family size and structure, and the number of children they intended to have. The qualitative and quantitative data showed a modal tendency towards two children. Yet as far as substantive ideas about parenting, the students hold quite contradictory, non-specific and superficial views. We believe that the use of mixed methods to study young women’s views on family and parenting enabled us to obtain well-rounded and relevant results. The use of mixed methods to study young people enables researchers to obtain a deeper understanding of demographic prospects.

No: 10
Title:  Is the Evaluation of Children’s Temperament Independent from Pre-school Teachers’ Personality?
Pages 84-96
Author(s): Sanja Tatalović Vorkapić*, Josipa Žagar
Open Access

Full Text 10
Considering the fact that pre-school teachers often evaluate children’s characteristics as a part of their work, it is interesting to investigate the relationship between their own personalities and children’s’ temperament. Therefore, the main purpose of this research is related to the following question: ‘’Are pre-school teachers’ evaluations of children’s temperament independent from their personality traits?’’. Moreover, what will also be analyzed is the relationship between the preschool teachers’ personality and the children’s temperament, the level of work demands and how much the children like their pre-school teachers. Correlational research design included the application of two personality measures: the Ten Item Personality Inventory for preschool teachers’ self-estimation of personality traits and the EAS questionnaire for the estimation of children’s temperament. 10 pre-school teachers assessed their own temperament and the temperament of 128 children. The collected data were analyzed by using the descriptive and correlational statistical procedures. The descriptive statistics demonstrated the expected levels of pre-school teachers’ personality traits and children’s temperament, while the correlational analysis revealed a significant correlation between the pre-school teachers’ extraversion, neuroticism and openness to experience and all children’s temperament dimensions. The level of work demands was lower in children with low emotionality and activity levels and high sociability levels. Children liked those preschool teachers with higher conscientiousness and agreeableness levels more. This study clearly demonstrated that evaluation of children’s temperament is not independent from preschool teachers’ personality traits. The level of working demands assessed by pre-school teachers depends on children’s temperament, just as the question of how much the children like their pre-school teachers depends on the preschool teachers’ personality traits. The findings are discussed within the frame of the quality process of early and pre-school education.

No: 11
Title:  The importance of motivation in the care for patients after HIP
Pages 97-102
Author(s): Petr Snopek*
Open Access

Full Text 11
Fear of complications, from the future, and many other concerns are normal by patients before and after a surgery. Support of the motivation can significantly streamline the nursing care. Research Questions: What are the specific concerns and fears of patients before the HIP, how do nurses use their skills in this area? Purpose of the Study: The aim of the survey is to identify as precisely as possible the concerns and fears of patients before and after the HIP. Furthermore, to determine how nurses use their skills in the context of the motivation of these patients.

No: 12
Title:  Mother- and father-infant feeding interactions in families with parents with BED 
Pages 103-111
Author(s): Michela Erriu*
Open Access

Full Text 12
Several studies demonstrated that the quality of dyadic interactions during feeding has an impact on offspring’s psychopathological problems in families where parents have a psychiatric diagnosis. Although literature addressed the trans-generational transmission of psychopathology from parents with eating disorders to their offspring, the specific quality of parent-infant interactions during feeding has not been assessed. The purpose of the study was to assess possible differences in the quality of mothers-children and fathers-children feeding interactions at 36 months of age of the child in families with parents diagnosed with binge eating disorders (BED). The sample was composed by 30 Italian couples of parents and children (Ntot =90), divided into three groups based on the presence of BED diagnosis. Group A: diagnosis in both parents; Group B: diagnosis only in the mothers; Group C: diagnosis only in the fathers. For the evaluation of feeding dyadic exchanges SVIA Italian adaptation of the Feeding Scale was applied. Parent-infant interactions in families with parents diagnosed with BED show maladaptive features. Mothers and fathers relate to children in a not overlapping fashion, with mothers showing various maladaptive symptoms and fathers showing severe conflicts with the children during the meal. Primarily reducing parental symptoms is relevant in term of mental health prevention programs.

No: 13
Title:  Comparative Study Of Cultural Dimensions In One Country
Pages 112-118
Author(s): Valentina Lukina, Aida Egorova, Tuyaara Sidorova*
Open Access

Full Text 13
This article presents the comparative analysis of research studies of the cultural dimensions within one country using Geert Hofstede’s methodology. The regional differences identified between the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) and the overall performance of the Russian Federation, are related to the historical aspects and ethno-cultural characteristics of the peoples living in the Sakha Republic. According to the results of the study, the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) is closer to Kazakhstan and is further away from the overall performances of Russia. The Yakuts (Sakha) are Turkic people, the ethno genesis of whom began in the era of early nomads in Central Asia and Southern Siberia. Perhaps the common historical roots, herding type of farming (breeding cattle) bring them closer to the culture of Kazakhstan. Thus, the findings support the idea that when finding cultural dimensions in a multinational country the ethno cultural affiliation plays an important role.

No: 14
Title:  Buddhist Non-Attachment Philosophy And Psychological Well-Being In Vietnamese Buddhists
Pages 119-134
Author(s): Nguyen Thi Minh Hang, Dang Hoang Ngan*
Open Access

Full Text 14
Non-attachment in Buddhism has been conceptually proposed to have an impact on personal well-being. Nevertheless, there has been limited empirical studies investigating how non-attachment influences health, and in particular, its effect on eudaimonic well-being. Our key research questions were: Do demographics influence non-attachment and psychological well-being? And, to what extent can non-attachment and demographics affect psychological well-being? To investigate these, developed the following aims: (1) to compare non-attachment and psychological well-being in people with different Buddhist status and types of practice (indicated by the types of groups they practiced with, the extent to which they took refuge in The Three Jewels, and the frequency with which they practiced the Dharma); (2) to examine the relationship between non-attachment in Buddhism and psychological well-being, including the related components of psychological well-being. Participants were 472 Buddhists from five sanghas in Vietnam. Data was collected from January to April, 2016. Each participant was given a battery of measures comprised of: The Non-Attachment Scale (Sahdra, Shaver, & Brown, 2010), The Ryff Psychological Well-being scale (Ryff, 1989), and a demographic questionnaire. Results revealed a significant positive correlation between non-attachment and psychological well-being (r = .60). Those who practiced with a Sangha, took refuge in the Three Jewels, and practiced Dharma daily, had higher non-attachment than those who did not. Non-attachment contributed 35.8% to psychological well-being. In particular, participants with greater religious commitment, mindfulness, and meditation practice, found it easier to be detached from the outer world, to find happiness, and perceived greater psychological well-being.

No: 15
Title:  Impact Of Appearance Type On Attitudes Towards Ethnic Lookism
Pages 135-143
Author(s): Vera Labunskaya*
Open Access

Full Text 15
This study focuses the attitudes towards lookism defined as discrimination of ethnic groups based on everyday description of their appearance such as “Slavic, North Caucasus or Asian type of appearance”. It is hypothesized that the interplay of appearance type and gender influences the level of lookism acceptance. The study is aimed 1) to identify different levels of lookism acceptance in relation to type of interaction situation, type of target’s (discriminated person) appearance and gender as well as 2) to analyze gender differences in acceptance of discriminating behavior. The inventory “Assessment of Acceptance of Discriminating Behavior towards Ethnic Groups” was administered. The inventory includes 15 interaction situations such as “living together” or “go for a walk” that vary in target’s appearance type and gender. The results show that level of lookism acceptance depends on appearance type and gender of discriminated person and on the type of interaction situation. There no significant differences in the level of lookism acceptance in relation to participants gender.  However males tend to have higher level of lookism acceptance in comparison to females. It could be also concluded that the level of lookism acceptance is significantly different when a male target with North Caucasus appearance is discriminated in studied situations.

No: 16
Title:  Digital Prosumption. The Android Case
Pages 144-161
Author(s): Șerban A. Zodian*
Open Access

Full Text 16
We are investigating Toffler’s & Ritzer’s “prosumption” phenomenon in a sociological, economical, psychological and cultural approach. Our scientific initiative is dedicated to the manifestation of prosumption in cyberspace, limited to the virtual Android community gathered at the “Xda-developers.com” (XDA). The main objective of this research is to establish the Android prosumer profile. The main research questions are: What does prosumption mean? What are the characteristics of digital prosumption? Who are the digital prosumers? What is the Android prosumer profile? How are they organized? What forces affect prosumption in the Android socio-economic environment? Data collection tools were used, such as the non-participative observation method, in the quantitative version to identify phenomena that occurred in the XDA Android community; we designed and applied a questionnaire in the community; we used the random sampling method to establish the sample; statistical observation was used, based on findings of the questionnaire; content analysis was used to describe and quantify the community production; documentary research was used to define the main concepts. Our findings show that the Android prosumers fit into the concepts of consumer and producer. The Android prosumers are organized in open-source virtual communities, where some function as both consumers and producers. Handset manufacturers, service providers or even Google should increase their involvement in these communities to benefit from prosumers’ capacity to innovate, rather than to settle for their ability to fix or adapt to devices shortcomings, but without disrupting the economic, technical or social evolution of the Android platform.

No: 17
Title:  Influence of Residents’ Place Relationship on Perceived Impact of Community-based Tourism
Pages 162-171
Author(s): Ju-Huei Chang, Heng Zhang*
Open Access

Full Text 17
Community-based tourism may contribute to the sustainable development of a community but may also have negative impact. The relationships residents have with their own communities affect their perceived impact from tourism and, in turn, their participation and support. This study examines the correlation between residents' place relationship and perceived tourismimpact in order to inform the development of community tourism. The study was conducted in Greater Tainan, Taiwan. Atotal of 393 valid questionnaires were collected. Through factor analysis, factors for place relationship and perceived tourism impact were extracted. Regression analysis was then applied to understand the influence of these factors. Analysis reveals significant correlation between place relationship and perceived tourism impact. Two factors were extracted for place relationship: "community participation" and "place attachment". Three factors were extracted for perceived tourism impact: "economic impact", "environmental impact" and "socio-cultural impact". The relationship between the factors is as follows: "community participation" significantly affects "economic impact" and "socio-cultural impact"; "place attachment" significantly affects "environmental impact" and "socio-cultural impact". Evidently, the different place relationships residents have with their communities also affect their perception differently. Both types of residents are concerned with the socio-cultural impact. However, residents active in community participation are more sensitive to the economic impact, while those with strong place attachment demonstrate stronger feelings about environmental change. Residents may be assigned to deal with different types of tourism impact-related problems according to their types of place relationship for optimal effectiveness.

No: 18
Title:  Impact Of A Sportive Past On Well-Being, Resilience And Success In Current Professionals – The Review
Pages 172-184
Author(s): Tânia Mira*, Pedro G. Carvalho, Ludovina Ramos
Open Access

Full Text 18
It has been proved that sport and physical activity have great potential to enhance the quality of life, improving resilience abilities and promoting success. However, the relationship of sport with well-being, resilience and success, using an integrative perspective of those three concepts, has yet to be studied. The development of this research starts from the generalized intuition that sports practice has significant benefits: promoting health, preventing injuries and contributing to an increase of well-being. In this article, we discuss the impact of sport and physical activity on well-being, resilience and success, via a review of the studies in the three separate areas and a synthesis of what is known in these different areas regarding the sporting context. The literature provides consistent support for a positive relationship between sport and well-being, sport and resilience and sport and success. We found articles with these assumptions; however, we did not find any literature or empirical study with an integrative perspective. Most of the studies have examined athletes or physical activity participants. This does not offer any evidence as regard the relationship between sports practice or physical activity in an individual’s past and the effects of participation in sport competition or physical activity, and the combined evidence of individuals’ higher well-being, higher resilience and higher success in their present life. Finally, we developed a model and designed empirical methods to achieve that goal.

No: 19
Title:  Intervention And Sports For Adolescent Girls From Complete Families With Social Risk
Pages 185-196
Author(s): Svetlana Guseva, Valerijs Dombrovskis*, Sergejs Capulis
Open Access

Full Text 19
Due to the lack of assurance of adolescents from complete families with social risk of their parents' love for them, there is a discord of family relationships. Specially organized sports activity and measures of intervention for complete families with social risk promote mutual understanding and the improvement of relationships between adolescents and parents. We studied the views of adolescents from complete families with social risk on the relationships with the father and mother. A specially tailored intervention program promotes the improvement of the relationships between the adolescents and their parents. A version of the inventory “Children’s Report of Parental Behavior Inventory” by Wasserman, Gorkovaya and Romitsyna (2004), as well as a specially designed intervention program for improving the relationships between adolescents and their parents was applied. The voluntary participation of adolescents from complete families with social risk and their parents in the intervention program combined with sports activity improves family relationships in a relatively short time: 44% of the adolescents showed improvement of their perception of the mother’s attitude to them; 20% of the respondents believe that the hostile attitude of the mother to them has changed to positive; 28% of the adolescents believe that their father’s relationship to them has become more positive than inconsistent.

No: 20
Title:  Evaluaton  Of Content About Human Sexuality And Procreation Of School Textbooks In Lithuania
Pages 197-205
Author(s): Birutė Obelenienė*, Andrius Narbekovas
Open Access

Full Text 20
Sexual education plays an essential role in teaching youth healthy lifestyles and creating mature relationships. The schools textbooks are the most common educational resource and their content is of utmost importance. Correct information can create preconditions for the empowerment of adolescents in making healthy decisions and avoiding risky sexual behaviour. Purpose of the Study: the evaluation of the content of textbooks in the areas of human sexuality and procreation in order to find out to what extent these textbooks promote healthy lifestyles, positive attitude toward fertility function as well as avoidance of risky sexual behaviour among adolescent students. Research Methods: The study sample consisted of 9 textbooks of biology subject for 12– 17 year old students of Lithuania. Content analysis evaluated the extent to which these books demonstrated reliable scientific information and comply with the principle norms, moral values and goals of “The General Programme of Health and sexuality education and preparation for family life” of Lithuania.Findings: All textbooks presented inaccurate information in the areas studied. There is no correct information about human fertility system and fertility awareness, about mechanism of action of hormonal contraception, sexuality is presented mostly as a biological function. The evaluation of textbooks allows stating that the content of evaluated biology textbooks does not comply with the provisions and norms of the “General Programme of Health and sexuality education and preparation for family life” and may be unsuitable for healthy lifestyle education.

No: 21
Title:  Required And Acquired Level Of Graduates’ Skills In Hospitality Management
Pages 206-216
Author(s): António Melo*, Manuela Gonçalves
Open Access

Full Text 21
The concept of competencies have been widely documented, however little research has been done about required and acquired level of competencies in hospitality management. In this study, the competencies that are required of a hotel manager have been combined and grouped into several dimensions, we consider nine main competencies: teamwork, effective communication, enthusiasm, strategic thinking, problem solving, customer service focus, leading for results, planning and organizing and financial awareness. This paper has two major purposes: 1) to identify the level of self-confidence of the graduates about the competencies required by the labour-market at the end of their higher education studies and at the present moment; 2) to identify differences in graduates’ perceptions, in these two moments, about their competencies and skills. This study was based on a quantitative methodology. The study relied on an on-line survey research, applied to hospitality management graduates from six Portuguese Higher Education Institution. The data were analysed regarding their level of self- confidence in several competencies. We concluded that all competencies considered and required by the labour market have been considered relevant by graduates although at some of them with lower self-confidence than others. The soft competencies are those with higher level of self-confidence and the diverse contexts of learning seem to promote a level of greater confidence on the graduates.

No: 22
Title:  Repatriation Of Russian Prisoners Of War In The World War I
Pages 217-225
Author(s): Gulzhaukhar Kokebayeva*, Aigul Smanova
Open Access

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The article is devoted to the review of the problem of repatriation of Russian prisoners of war in the conditions of rough political events in the first post war years. We tried to give a global vision of the research problem based on the theories of civilization relating to linear interpretation of social development of history. The World War I is considered as result of crisis of an industrial civilization here. On March 3, 1918 in Brest-Litovsk the separate peace between the Soviet Russia and the Central powers was signed, the 8th article of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk provided the return of prisoners of war from both sides home. However the Conditions of the Brest-Litovsk treaty on exchange of prisoners of war weren’t realized. In November, 1918 diplomatic relations between Germany and RSFSR were broken off, and the problem of return of prisoners of war home remained unresolved. The Russian prisoners’ of war way home was long because of a civil war, red and white terror and emigration, secession of Ukraine, Belarus, Transcaucasia and their accession to Russia as the new federal Soviet republics. Due to all these circumstances it is impossible to determine how many prisoners of war of World War I returned home, went to other countries or remained in Germany. Some Russian prisoners of war in Germany remained even in 1926.

No: 23
Title: Associations Of Positive Personality Characteristics With Psychophysiological Response To Stressors: Literature Review
Pages 226-231
Author(s): Andrius Šmitas*
Open Access

Full Text 23
Positive personality characteristics (e.g. hardiness) are important predictors of lower stress. However, it is not clear how positive personality characteristics affect physiological response to stressors. The purpose of this study is to review the existing evidence about how different positive personality characteristics, such as optimism, affect physiological response to psychosocial and physiological stressors in humans. Systemic analysis of empirical articles published1996-2016 in PubMed, Sciencedirect, Medline, Health sources databases was performed. A search was conducted in abstracts of articles by keywords: stressor* AND physiolog* AND respon* AND trait*. Results revealed that positive personal characteristics, such as hardiness, self-esteem, social affiliation, ego resiliency, altruism, straightforwardness, optimism and spirituality predicted better response to psychosocial stressors. Altruism and straightforwardness predicted better response to physiological stressors. Optimism, psychological, emotional and social well-being does not predict better response to physiological stressors whereashardiness, self-esteem, social affiliation, ego resiliency, altruism, straightforwardness, optimism and spirituality predict better response to psychosocial stressors. Altruism andstraightforwardness predict a better response to physiological stressors unlike social, emotional, psychological well-being and optimism.Further research is needed to confirm importance of the specified positive personal characteristics for physiological and psychological response to different types of stressors.

No: 24
Title:  The Behavior of Customers Regarding E-banking and Its Impact on Banking Sector
Pages 232-239
Author(s): Simona Rus, Marian Mocan, Larisa Ivascu*, Nicoleta Trandafir
Open Access

Full Text 24
Thanks to technological advances and customer desires, the banking sector has developed a number of effective tools to satisfy the customer. In this respect, this refers to the customers’ use of quick service and especially the online ones. Online services help customers perform a variety of banking transactions using the Internet while being remote. However, a number of customers have reservations when using these services. They are not willing to use the Internet to access and perform a number of banking transactions. They prefer to use standard banking services, not involving Internet use and exposure to a number of risks in this respect. So the goal of this research is to identify and examine the factors that influence customer satisfaction to Internet banking using market research through investigation. Among the most important factors influencing satisfaction with Internet banking are security, speed, quality of service and privacy.

No: 25
Title:  Personality facets as predictor of employees’ efficiency in workplace.
Pages 240-249
Author(s): Kamila Ludwikowska*
Open Access

Full Text 25
One of the professions that requires certain predispositions and personality facets is that of a social worker. Based on personality facets, the article considers the possibility of predicting the level of efficiency and outcomes achieved in the workplace. The focus of the study was to research, which personality traits correlate positively with employees’ efficiency. In this research, a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was applied: a questionnaire to examine the level of employees’ efficiency, psychological tests (“NEO-FFI. Personality inventory”, “KNS. Hope for success questionnaire”) as well as observation of the participants. One of the essential dimensions of influence on employees’ efficiency is personality. Analyses revealed that personality facets, which specifically correlate positively with efficiency, are conscientiousness and belief in having a strong will. This indicates, that workers who are well organised, persistent and goal-oriented achieve higher efficiency in the workplace. The emphasis is also placed on creating favourable job conditions that enable the application and embedding personality traits which correlate positively with efficiency. Using personality questionnaires could, therefore, be a valuable predictor of employees’ efficiency in the workplace.

No: 26
Title:  Adaptation Of The Ibqr Vsf Questionnaire To The Czech Environment
Pages 250-258
Author(s): Milon Potmesil*, Petra Potmesilova
Open Access

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The aim of this paper is to develop a functioning Czech language-based IBQR VSF as a tool to describe the child’s temperament at the of age 3-12 months. The child’s temperament is considered as a relevant personal variable in child developmental pathways. The purpose of the adaptation process was to modify and translate the IBQR VSF temperament assessment instrument into the Czech based on Rothbart’s theoretical approach. The original translation was modified on the basis of feedback by professional translators, three bilingual psychologists, and a sample of 15 Czech mothers. A back-translation by a professional translator was then assessed by the authors of the original (English-language) instruments. For the final version of the measure, the authors of the original instrument judged that all of the items were consistent with the original items, and a second sample of 15 collaborating mothers identified no problems with the Czech items. The reliability of the adapted questionnaire was verified by calculation of the Cronbach's alpha, first calculated separately for the whole set of boys and girls and then individually for all the age and gender subgroups. The results obtained, as the functional tool IBQR-VSF, will be offered to psychologists specializing in diagnosing children in early age groups. We also expect interest on the part of specialists working with the parents of prematurely born or handicapped children.

No: 27
Title:  Education for Sustainability: Current Status, Prospects, and Directions
Pages 259-267
Author(s): Larisa Ivascu*, Matei Tămășilă, Ilie Tăucean, Lucian-Ionel Cioca, Monica Izvercian
Open Access

Full Text 27
Sustainability is a complex concept that is addressed by most companies, and is the direction of their development. Culture and education for sustainable development must start from higher education. At the level of higher education, the presence of sustainability subjects was mainly assessed in the curricula of study and also the understanding of the concept among students. In Romania these studies are not defined in depth. Also a comparative analysis of students' knowledge and understanding of the concept in business (after graduating higher education) has yet to be made.The purpose of this paper is to highlight the current level of education for students and the business environment basedon the sustainability principles. The first objective of this paper was to review and present the previous research on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The second objective was to identify and assess the current level of ESD in Romania.

No: 28
Title:  Study Of Language Competence In Pupils In First Year Of School Attendance With Accent On Mother Tongue
Pages 268-275
Author(s): Katarina Vankova*, Rastislav Rosinsky, Miroslava Ceresnikova
Open Access

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Communication is an inevitable element in social interaction between people. The developed mother tongue is an advantage of a child when starting school. The mother tongue is the language a child learns as the first one in the process of socialization (Lemhöfer, Schriefers, & Hanique, 2010), the language a child has learnt in his/her life, and which influences a child’s future. Basil Bernstein (1971) considers a language the main means of person’s socialization, and emphasizes a direct relationship between a social group and a language. In our paper, we discuss language competence in pupils in the first year of school attendance. The paper objective is to bring findings about language maturity in pupils whose mother tongue is Romani in comparison with pupils whose mother tongue is Slovak. The sample included pupils with the Romani mother tongue (n1=69) and pupils with the Slovak mother tongue (n2=76) in the first year of primary schools. The field diagnosis had two phases: the initial phase – at the beginning of a school year, and the final phase – at the end of the school year. In our study, we used the Heidelberg Speech Development Test (H-S-E-T) (Grimmová, Schöller, Mikulajová, 1997), where the authors differentiate between language competence, language performance, and language levels. The test provides a rather complex picture about an achieved level of language development in children. Our testing within the Heidelberg test focused on Sentence building (SB). The findings that we state are interesting also in the moment where the diagnosed children whose mother tongue is Romani had significantly lower scores than the children whose mother tongue is Slovak. We associate this status with the possibility that children whose mother tongue is Romani come from socially disadvantaged environment that is accompanied by poverty and social exclusion. The environment children grow up in significantly influences their communication abilities. To some extent, our findings correspond with Pierre Bourdieu (1990) who, based on his theory, states that children from socially more stimulating environment – families gain better habitus and cultural capital as they are more prepared for school, are more linguistically capable, and understand the notions significantly better, and vice versa. We draw attention to the fact that children from Roma families with the Romani mother tongue have average performance, and we evaluate the differences in the scores as statistically significant.

No: 29
Title:  Happy Child In A Secure Environment: Psychologically Pedagogical View
Pages 276-283
Author(s): Irena Kokina, Elga Drelinga, Sandra Zarina, Dzintra Iliško*
Open Access

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Researchers haveextensively explored the conditions determining happiness and thequality of life of children in the educational setting since the educational system does not meet the needs of a contemporary child. The purpose of this study is to reflect on the view of happiness of a child by various stakeholders. This qualitative study explores the following indicators of happiness: Belonging, Aspiration, Safety, Identity, Success. The current research comprises 167 teachers (n=167), 296 parents (n=296) who took part in this research and the understanding of happiness as evaluated by pupils themselves. The main research question asked if children feel happy in their educational setting. The majority of parents concluded that the basics of happiness is security and achievements, followed by the sense of belonging. Pupils pointed to belonging as a bases of happiness andself-esteem. They commented that achievements aremeaningful only when parents and teachers are satisfied with their achievement. Pupils admitted that bases of their happiness is belonging to a group. It was concluded that teachers believe that the essential condition for happiness is achievement gained at work, followed by such aspects as belonging, safety, and ability to evaluate oneself. Different groups of respondents have different notions about happiness. Parents and teachers create an environment where children compete, gain success and pretend to be happy.