WLC 2016

Volume XV, Pages 1- 1115 (September 2016)
The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences EpSBS
©2016 Published by the Future Academy
Edited by:
 Antonio SANDU, Tomita CIULEI, Ana FRUNZA 
Articles: 1-137
Conference: WLC 2016 - World LUMEN Congress. Logos Universality Mentality Education Novelty 2016 | LUMEN 15th Anniversary Edition
Dates: 12-17 April 2016
Location: lasi & Suceava, Romania
Conference Chair(s): Antonio Sandu – PhD Professor – Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava (ROMANIA)
Cover Page here

Title: Contents

Open Access


No: 1
Title: Guest Editor’s Message
Pages 1-4
Author(s): Ana Frunza*
Open Access
Guest Editor's Message 

No: 2
Title: Risk Management and Ethical Issues in Social Work
Pages 5-15
Author(s): Kuralay Abisheva*, Leila Assylbekova
Open Access

Full Text 2

In a world risk society, managing risk is a daily challenge for all social workers throughout the world. Risk can change over time depending on a whole range of factors. Risk management is essentially a teleological approach to ethics and refers to efforts to protect clients (mainly persons in vulnerable and difficult life situation), practitioners, and employers. Ethical awareness is fundamental to the professional social work practice where respect for human rights and diversities, a commitment to promoting social justice, taking collective responsibility are the core of it. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the main risk management and ethical issues in contemporary social work practice. The theory and practice of risk management and ethical issues in social work are reviewed and summarized. The most common risks facing social workers are identified and the main risk management approaches are highlighted. It is found that risk management is a dynamic and evolving process and requires development and use of different skills for work with risks and ethical issues. Social workers could use a variety of methods to manage risks and ethical issues namely consulting with a supervisor, applying the Code of Ethics, using a decision-making model for critical thinking, and applying ethical theories (deontology, teleology). It is concluded that ability and commitment of social workers to act ethically is one of the essential aspects of risk management in social work. Recommendations concerning the development of the social work practice regarding the risk management and ethical issues are given..

No: 3
Title: Critique to Pro-Cyclical Admission in Maritime Higher
Pages 16-20
Author(s): Ovidiu Acomia, Nicoleta Acomib*
Open Access

Full Text 3

The paper represents a critical analysis of the options ahead of maritime universities in terms of number of students admitted, particularly in periods of industry downturns. The study refers to the global maritime industry and analyses the patterns of the industry cycle. These patterns are characterized in macroeconomic terms by peaks, troughs and secular long term trends. The current maritime industry faces chronic global trade imbalances in the context of slow global economic. The secular trend has flattened and the industry is clearly in the downturn. These patterns envisage both cyclical and structural unemployment components. This paper addresses the maritime universities’ options associated with cyclical unemployment of maritime graduates. These options include pro-cyclical, counter-cyclical or level capacity approaches in the students’ admission capacity planning, depicted byte duration of studies and the offset between admission and graduation. The analysis overlays the graduate studies and industry cycles and proposes to evaluate the different scenarios based on industry outlook and to determine the optimum admission policy solution.

No: 4
Title: Diversification of Seafarers’ Employability Paths
Pages 21-27
Author(s): Nicoleta Acomia*, Acomi Ovidiub
Open Access

Full Text 4

Romania’s admission following the extension of the EU and the globalization of the maritime industry exposed Romanian employees to the maritime labor market. This market is characterized by increased competition determined by technological advancement and the emerging new Asian maritime nations. These conditions were exacerbated by the increased wage expectations of the European maritime manpower. On the demand side, the maritime industry has historically been characterized by lack of marine officers, in particular of senior rank, but the current slow global economic recovery and the weak commodity demand tend to level the scorecard. These changes affected the marine global labor market and led to structural unemployment among Romanian seafarers. Considering the traditional purpose of marine universities – to prepare marine officers, and the labor market needs – marine officers highly qualified in specific fields, this paper aims at identifying the skills required by marine industry and analyzing the possibility to extend them to other positions/qualifications from the marine industry.

No: 5
Title: Recollecting the Past: the Testimony and its Role in the Process of Coming to Terms with the Past
Pages 28-35
Author(s): Elena Adam*
Open Access

Full Text 5

The paper is part of an extended project that focuses on the recuperative memory in post-1989 Romania, especially on the mechanism used to re-appropriate the past. This process includes not only the experiences of those who lived the hard reality of communism in Romania, and implicitly in Eastern Europe, but also those of the second or third generation. As many victims and many of those who directly experienced the communist regime never had the option of writing their memoirs, the oral history is, in this way, one of the main resources of recuperative memory. In Romania the process of coming to terms with the past was initially characterized by political reluctance, thus after the 1989 ideological and political changes the direct testimony was the most used method of presenting and exploring the past traumas. The research proposed here focuses on the role of testimony in re-appropriating the past, as we are interested in the development of oral history in Romania, especially concerning the gathering of information dealing with the recent past. Analyzing the extent of the oral history studies and the importance of oral testimonies in the Romanian society, this study underlines not only the official, governmental implication but also the collective and individual projects meant to help Romania come to terms with its communist past. An international approach regarding the process of coming to terms with the past it is also offered in the context of comprehensive knowledge of the past.

No: 6
Title: The Informal Payments and their Managerial Implications in the Medical System. An Analysis from the Perspective of the Values and of the “Gift Culture” in the Romanian People
Pages 36-55
Author(s): Daniela-Tatiana Agheorghiesei (Corodeanu)*, Vladimir Poroch
Open Access

Full Text 6

The informal payments in the Romanian medical system have generated several ethical dilemmas, as they are regarded either negatively, as an act of corruption, either positively, as gratifications or “small attentions” from the part of the patient. According to a study of 2013 of the European Commission, the percentage of the Romanian patients claiming that they offered attentions to the physicians is of 28%, whereas the European average is of 5%. Our study starts from the assumption that the practice of informal payments in the Romanian medical system is not based only on the low remuneration level, but mostly on deep “socio-cultural roots”. A first aspect approached referred to values specific to the Romanian people, based on the survey of several works and research whose results are thoroughly presented in the specialty literature, but also the analysis of statistics or debates in the media. The gift practice in Romanians is a national-cultural feature intensely debated by several authors. Our assumption is that this cultural specificity in conjunction with other factors (for instance, specific values, such as safety, sacrifice, hospitality, kindness, tolerance, but also the hierarchical submission or the importance of the group opinion, the attitude towards the risk) can be factors which explain the practice and the magnitude of the informal payments phenomenon in the autochthonous medical system. The results of our study can be useful in adopting certain substantiated political and managerial strategies and adapted to the socio-cultural context, which take into account the deep cause of the situation.

No: 7
Title: (Non)interest of Students for the Teaching Profession in the Romanian School. Perspectives of Interpretation
Pages 56-61
Author(s): Carmen Alexandrache*
Open Access

Full Text 7

This paper starts from the premise that quality of education is related to the degree of motivation of those who choose to become teachers in the Romanian school. In this way, our paper capitalize on the results of an investigation which was attended the students who chose or did not chose the psycho-pedagogical training module. The analysis of these responses revealed some observations that are important for academic environment. These observations attract the attention to issues pertaining to curriculum, to relevance and to specific training of courses and of seminars. The paper propose several particular solution by attracting students to teaching career. By means of them, we hope, the number of those who choose to practice in education field will increase, and, also that will increase the quality of their training.

No: 8
Title: Responsible Research and Innovation in the Context of Educational Partnership - A Case Study Oriented on a Training Module Related to Nanomaterials
Pages 62-68
Author(s): Gabriela Alina Anghel*, Laura Monica Gorghiu, Gabriela Măntescu
Open Access

Full Text 8
The paper illustrates the results of a research which aimed to perform a diagnosis made in the frame of the FP7project called IRRESISTIBLE, being oriented on the training module related to Nanomaterials, concerning the results recorded in specific activities carried out in educational activities organized by formal and non-formal educational partnership - university, schools, research institute, museums. In order to achieve the goal of promoting Responsible Research and Innovation in educational activities, the abovementioned project proposed a series of activities involving the participation of a large number of teachers and students. The research targeted the following specific objectives: (a) the analysis of the perception related to learning experiences, made by direct beneficiaries who acted in an active way in the educational activities (students, teachers, researchers, experts) -OS1; (b) the identification of representations expressed by the educational actors related to the impact of performed activities on their own professional development - OS2; (c) the analysis of the feedback concerning the benefits of their direct participation in the project activities - OS3; (d) the measure of the project added value based on a set of quantified indicators (baseline indicators) - OS4. The research was a mixed-type: qualitative and quantitative, and its methods and tools were based on questionnaire surveys and semi-structured interviews. The target group consisted on: students, teachers, researchers and educational experts. The quantitative research enabled the measurement of the interest level of the beneficiaries involved in the IRRESISTIBLE project, related to the dissemination of the learning results.

No: 9
Title: The New Outline of the Institution of Adoption in Romania following the Amendments of Law no. 273/2004 on the Legal Status of Adoption
Pages 69-76
Author(s): Irina Apetrei*
Open Access

Full Text 9
In Romania after 1989, the institution of adoption has suffered numerous legislative modifications. Thus, the following regulations were successively adopted: Law no. 11/1990 regarding the approval of adoption, which brought a series of corrections to the Family Code of 1954, Government Emergency Ordinance no. 25/1997regarding the legal status of adoption, which created a new and unitary framework for this institution by repealing all previous regulations, and Law no. 273/2004 regarding the legal status of adoption, which was passed in order to harmonize the Romanian legislation on adoption procedures with the international regulations and practices in the field. As far as the basic conditions of adoption, these are currently comprised in the Civil Code of 2011 (Book II:ABOUT FAMILY, TITLE III: Kinship, Chapter III: Adoption, Articles 451-482), which abrogated the Civil Code of 1864 and the Family Code. At the moment, Romania’s Parliament has adopted the Bill on amending and supplementing Law no. 273/2004 on the legal status of adoption and sent it for promulgation to the President of Romania; the law is to come into force120 days after its publication in the Official Gazette. The paper conducts an analysis of these latest legislative modifications in the field of adoption, regarding the reduction of certain terms of the applicable procedure, the speedy granting of the status of adoptable child, their vision of the procedure of matching the child with the adopter/adopting family, the increase of the validity term of the certificate of adopting family, the approval of a maximum one year leave for the parent and child to get accustomed to one another, as well as the sanctions for the parents who are indifferent to the fate of the children they have abandoned and who fail to approve their adoption.

No: 10
Title: Error Correction. Case Study: Romanian as a Foreign Language (RFL) Speaking Activities
Pages 77-85
Author(s): Antonela Arieșan*, Lavinia Vasiu
Open Access

Full Text 10
In what error correction during the speaking activities in a foreign language is concerned the opinions are divergent. While some specialists claim that the best way is to discuss them separately with the students, others argue saying that all the errors should be corrected on the spot. In this paper we will try to approach this issue by presenting the most important opinions on the matter in contrast with the actual situation – what it really happens in the classroom. After the administration of a set of questionnaires to both teachers and students of Romanian as foreign language we try to discover how errors in spoken language during the teaching and assessing activities are corrected. Finally, we will establish which are the most common, and liked methods of error correction, but also which of those are giving best results in the teaching process.

No: 11
Title: “Feminine Writing” in the Past and Present in Romania
Pages 86-94
Author(s): Mihaela Dumitru Bacali*
Open Access

Full Text 11
If we browse through the literary histories, we surprisingly notice that, at least until recent days, women writers are almost absent. What is the cause for such a phenomenon? Is there a feminine literature, or is it rather an invention of the feminists? If there is, is it a literature of the periphery? Is the alleged marginality a sociological problem or one of history of mentalities? Can we define it without making reference to the “masculine” literature? Here are some questions which prove the fact that the problem is a complex one that can hardly be put into strict conceptual frameworks. There are partisans of feminine literature, but there are also sceptics. We are going to try to define the concept reviewing different opinions that have been expressed starting with the beginning of the 20th century, when the first women writers made their presence known, until the present days, when the phenomenon of feminine literature became a very well-known one in the literary field. Abandoning the dichotomy masculine feminine or even the lack of differentiation, ideas that were manifested in the writing field too, become a symptom of modernity. Confronted with the perspective of absolute equality, but also with her desire to still be a woman, the “female writer” must face the new challenges of today’s world.

No: 12
Title: Some Aspects Concerning the Civil Action in the Criminal Proceedings
Pages 95-101
Author(s): Denisa Barbu*
Open Access

Full Text 12
A civil action is an action ancillary to criminal action, representing the middle of the procedure through which the defendant is held civil liable, the party civil responsible for or his successor in title. This tort liability is one of the persons responsible under civil law for the material and/or moral damage produced by committing the offence. The offence must be committed by the defendant with guilt, as in the case of supporting causes or lack of any fault of the defendant, both this and the party responsible cannot be civil forced to pay civil damages, although tort liability is involved for the easiest fault also. We note that it is irrelevant whether these were new evidence during the criminal trial and the prosecutor has not made sufficient efforts to learn about them or simply these did not know existed. So we know that the lack of diligence cannot be imputed to the civil party (without legal capacity or limited legal capacity) in obtaining the evidence required to establish the full damage.

No: 13
Title: The Body and the Social Construction of Reality in Erving Goffman’s Microsociology
Pages 102-108
Author(s): Raluca Bălăiță*
Open Access

Full Text 13
In this article we aim at analyzing the important role played by the body in diverse daily interactions as well as tracing the body’s status in the social reality, as these appear in E. Goffman's microsociology. The bodily compresence, the mutual perception of the bodies responding to certain constraints in certain situations integrate themselves into a system of signs and signifying symbols specific to different social and cultural codes. For Goffman the body represents the basis of communication, any information transmitted willingly or not by an individual in face-to-face interaction is embodied; at the same time the body acts as the instrument of socialization, since any individual resorts to a series of adjustments which allow him to express his own personality coherently and which grant him the social recognition. This socialization presupposes a wide range of roles, masks, simulacra/simulations which let the actor build and define his own identity in relation to other persons. The originality of Goffman’s endeavor also results from his choice of processing data, a method which he himself describes as a display of his own body and personality, thus the sociological analysis turns out to be the adjustment of one’s body to that of the others, and to the interactive situation, finally transforming itself into an actual interaction between the observer and the observed. 

No: 14
Title: Architecture Studio Teaching. Transforming Reality
Pages 109-121
Author(s): Letiția Bărbuică*
Open Access

Full Text 14
In the league of the best architectural schools in Europe, Porto ranks fourth. There are two well-known Portuguese architects, both schooled in Porto and both winners of the most prestigious Pritzker architectural prize: Alvaro Siza and Eduardo Souto de Moura.It is worth investigating their works and the way they perform architecture in order to understand the basics of teaching architecture with constant good results in the real world. In decoding their strategy one understands that “architects do not invent, they just transform reality” (Joaquim,2006).Between Siza’s need to sketch in order to understand and then transform reality and De Moura’s need for simplicity and anonymity, there is a clear commitment to create architectural expression, connecting it to past architecture, to Modernism, and to the arts. They are, somehow, reinventing the past but they stay away from the “gratuitous invention” (Frampton, 1999, 2000, p. 57) which seems to overflow the architectural world today and the studio class, as well.How can all these be achieved? The result of the study is a set of teaching points and concept strategies to be investigated in the architecture studio. The paper also presents a designed workshop ready to be implemented.

No: 15
Title: Exploring Social Network Analysis in Blended Learning Teacher Training Programs
Pages 122-127
Author(s): Mihai Bîzoi*, Ana-Maria Suduc, Gabriel Gorghiu
Open Access

Full Text 15
Learning Analytics is an educational application of web analytics and it is used to analyze the learners’ activities on educational platforms, in order to predict their behavior. Learning Analytics reflects a field at the intersection of numerous academic disciplines and is using different methods like: statistics, visualizations, data/web mining, and social network analysis. Social network analysis aim is to discover patterns in individual interactions. Network analysis is based on the intuitive notion that these patterns are important attributes of the individuals’ lives. The social network analysis can be made with different software applications and it’s very important to support networked learning. Learning Analytics tools for social network analysis are providing a framework for interpreting and developing an understanding of the observed patterns of exchanges that occur between social actors. The on-line / blended educational programs from the last decades have collected an enormous quantity of data. These data include initial evaluation information, data from the training process and results of the training program. These data can be used to validate the learning analytics theory. Since the definition and purpose of learning analytics is still disputed, comparing the predictions results obtained on the basis of initial data with the final results obtained by learners can contribute to the validation of such applications. This article present the findings and conclusions obtain after analyzing series of forum posts on the educational platforms used in teachers training programs.

No: 16
Title: Architecture Travels to Rome
Pages 128-134
Author(s): Maria Bostenaru Dan*
Open Access

Full Text 16
The first foreign academy in Rome was funded by the French in 1666 and permitted architects to come and study antique and Renaissance architecture. That time many artists and architects from other countries went independently, one of the most famous being J.W. Goethe, and at the same time architecture was represented by the German Weinbrenner. Other countries institutionalized gradually their academies, but even from Romania some architects such as Virginia Haret or Horia Maicu (Harry Goldstein) went independently to Rome. To the travels to Italy in the 20th century recently another institution dedicated to the Rome – home country exchange, theMax Planck Institute, dedicated a conference. When going back, the architects took with them influence of Italian architecture, more sensed in the 20th century when the international style was on its way. Life in the Academies is special, connected into associations, and different from some European tradition of university colleges, which exist at Italian traditional universities, and a life experience. In this contribution walk-scopes will be described starting from the well-known map of Nolli and the importance of drawing different kind of maps, such as those of image of the city or psycho-geography. Recent projects of Rome Academies fellows were dedicated to draw new kind of maps, building on tradition even from before Renaissance (Mappa mundi). Their digital transposition will be presented. For this, we adapt a concept developed to present now and then in maps, which we successfully tested for Lisbon, Bucharest and Köln.

No: 17
Title: The Influence of Motivation and Flexibility on Job Performance
Pages 135-143
Author(s): Constantin Bran*, Constantina - Ionela Udrea
Open Access

Full Text 17
In the research conducted, motivation and flexibility play a key role in getting job performance and as a result in the financial success of the organization. But how strong should be motivation and how should you use flexibility in order to get higher productivity/performance at work? In the absence of flexible working procedures, the company can reach a critical situation. Therefore, the aim of the research is to show that flexibility helps increase job performance. Moreover, flexibility can become a consistent "non-financial motivation" for the employees of an organization. Analyzing the relationship between the two concepts, motivation and flexibility, our study shows we can achieve the desired performance, according to objectives.

No: 18
Title: Perspectives on the Importance of Valorisation of Health Education Knowledge in the Student’s Everyday Life
Pages 144-150
Author(s): Claudia Lavinia Buruleanu, Gabriela Alina Anghel*, Zuhal Yılmaz Doğan
Open Access

Full Text 18
The health of each people requires, first of all, the existence of an optimum nutritional status, which result from the balance between the need and the intake in terms of energy and nutrients. This status promotes the growth and the development of the body, maintains the health, enables the progress of the daily activity and participates at the body protection against different diseases. The adolescence is one of the most challenging periods of the human development, age border when perfects the shaping of the future adult. Among the characteristics of this period can be mentioned: increasing of the need in nutrients, due to the development and the faster growth in height; changes in eating habits and lifestyle; additional needs in particular situations, such as eating disorders. Their search aims to analyze the perception of the students related to the importance of healthy eating habits in their daily life. To this end, it conducted a qualitative research during the workshops with Romanian and Turkish students organized in the frame of Edu For Health Project. The research objectives were: (a) measuring the level of students’ satisfaction related to their knowledge concerning their healthy habits - OS1; (b) measuring the levels of importance on applying their knowledge in their daily life - OS2. The research methodology was based on the questioning technique. The measurement was done using a Likert-type scale, and the reporting and interpretation of the results was made through the Nice & Gaps method.

No: 19
Title: The Development of Personality by Capitalizing Multiple Intelligences
Pages 151-156
Author(s): Viorica - Torii Caciuc*, Mariana Constantinescu
Open Access

Full Text 19
Based on pupil-centered education paradigm, this survey provides a diagnostic related to understanding the purpose of each action performed in the process of the competences training. The investigation highlights certain types of behavior that are based on motivation, more than performance. Knowing the children’s profile of intelligence allows the observation of how to develop the following eight skills: linguistical, logical - mathematical, corporal -kinesthetic, the spatial, naturalistic, intra-реrѕonal and intеr-реrѕonal (H. Gardner, 1983) offering new perspectives in the curricular development in primary and preschool learning, such as building an effective learning style. Using the interactive and the pupil-centered educational strategies in the didactic activity in primary and preschool learning offers pupils and children the possibility of developing a style of learning by using some techniques of intellectual work specific for their age level. In terms of training and personality development of pupils, the question arises to what extent the teachers manage to form in pupils all the components related to their personality, respecting the uniqueness and dominant aspects of each specific personality in training. Starting from these arguments, in the present study, we will try to analyze the way in which using some interactive and/or pupil–centered educational techniques can help to develop a learning style by means of using some techniques of mental work which are proper for the primary and preschool level in the context of knowing the children’s profile of intelligence.

No: 20
Title: The Illusion of Natural Desire: the Induced Desire
Pages 157-162
Author(s): Elisabeta Brindusa Carlan*
Open Access

Full Text 20
“Desiring machine” is an expression that reflects faithfully the human being, the contemporary society focusing on this aspect, in particular. In other words, because the desire was defined as “motor” that moves the man (the one that propels him towards the goals, ideals, respective its projects) and refers to the acquisition of favorable and avoidance of harmful, consumer society uses this advantage in its favor. Regarding the term of desire, it can be specified that it is the subject of interdisciplinary fields, being present in philosophical discourse as well as in the psychological one, the medical one, respectively the theological one. The social field can be added to those distinct perspectives, this one being of interest in the present research. It is important to make a distinction concerning the term of desire, being brought into discussion the natural desire son the one hand, and the artificial desires, the induced ones, on the other. The last ones are preferred by today’s society, numerous techniques being used for manipulation and creation of human desires. Accordingly, it is about the induced desires, those being, in essence, fake, perverted, unnatural. The desire induced by today’s social context it is carefully masked, in other words this is an illusion of a natural desire.

No: 21
Title: The Adjustment of the Teaching Process to the Educational Needs of Native Digital Students
Pages 163-167
Author(s): Horaţiu Catalano*
Open Access

Full Text 21
The native digital student is characterized by an entire set of peculiarities that require improvement and revising the architecture of the teaching process, seen as a very complex ensemble of operations and actions performed in an organized, consciously and systematic way, by teachers concerning students, in formal and non-formal situations in order to develop. Through this study, we intend to make the psycho-pedagogical profile of the native digital student and to identify proper ways for adapting the teaching process to this profile.

No: 22
Title: The Quality of Public Services - Management of Urban Markets in Romania
Pages 168-180
Author(s): Carmen Chasovschi, Angela Albu*, Carmen Nastase, Carl Mohr
Open Access

Full Text 22
The market and the way it looks now, is built on two pillars, consumers and economic agents, to which a third is joining: the public authorities. In the present study we have dealt with urban markets, regarded as trading places for a variety of products, but, at the same time, as social spaces for the community and business support-spaces for small manufacturers. The transition from agro-food markets to urban markets is a dynamic and on-going process, requiring a thorough study that would allow for responsible management, in terms of consumers and retailers as well. Current customers have changed their purchasing behavior, the assessment criteria for products and for the conditions offered in consumer outlets. It is therefore necessary for management to adapt to the dynamic changes that characterize markets, to meet customer requirements, to ensure their safety and protection in the purchasing process and increase their satisfaction. We have tried to offer an accurate and updated image on the local agri-food markets in Romania, identifying at the same time ways to optimize the existing conditions in the context of promoting sustainable development of urban markets and with the final goal of enhancing consumer protection.

No: 23
Title: Virtual Reality Hypnosis: a New Intervention Strategy in Quitting Smoking
Pages 181-186
Author(s): Ioana Monica Ciolan*
Open Access

Full Text 23
Quitting smoking is a topic that has the attention of healthcare professionals for a long time, because smoking causes a number of deaths among active and passive smokers every year. Virtual reality began to be used more and more and not only for recreation but also in research in medicine, education and psychology. Until now it has been found that can be a useful technique in the treatment of PTSD, phobias, pain management, and smoking. On the other hand, hypnosis has demonstrated over time that can be effective in different areas of intervention, including smoking cessation. This article aims to present a concept that integrates both hypnosis and virtual reality, namely Virtual Reality Hypnosis. We will present what are the areas in which it was used, what are the advantages and limitations. We will also explore the possibility of using Virtual Reality Hypnosis in an intervention program for smokers who want to quit smoking.

No: 24
Title: Student Engagement as a Multidimensional Concept
Pages 187-194
Author(s): Marina Ciric*, Dragana Jovanovic
Open Access

Full Text 24
In the contemporary conceptualizations of education, students' and teachers’ engagement is considered as an important attribute of behavior because of the connection with the quality of teaching and learning and with the development of potentials of all the previously mentioned actors. Dealing with the phenomenon of students' engagement is important and arises from its potential contribution to the quality of teaching and learning, but also the educational and developmental empowerment of children and youth. The significance of analyzing the concept is based on the existence of discrepancy between the expressed efforts of educational policy holders to affirm the idea of the importance of students' engagement in the process of teaching and learning, and theoreticians, researchers and practitioners dealing with the education and development of children and youth. The aim of this paper is, on one hand, to perceive the structural determinants and scientific status of the concept of students' engagement in the process of teaching and learning, and on the other hand to contribute to the understanding of the significance of specified behavior in practice. 

No: 25
Title: Mentality Shifts in Business English Communication
Pages 195-201
Author(s): Suzana Carmen Cismas*
Open Access

Full Text 25
The paper investigates the mentality shifts generated by the wide use of English communication in the modern global world. It is an emerging multidisciplinary topic researching the applied use of international idiom patterns in business engineering nowadays. Accelerated technological developments in society trigger inter-disciplinary interactions of separate knowledge fields thus stimulating new perspectives and cross-border disciplines. Hence we discuss about media-linguistics, legal linguistics, ethno-linguistics, and even environment linguistics, which discretely reflect regional cultural features and concerns. Meanwhile, business, an important sphere of human activity, with its sublanguages and communication strategies, will display specific properties that require close examination. Such texts, distinct as compared to others like scientific, publicist, or fictional, reflect the mentality they stem from. The business discourse reveals its own communicative, pragmatic, lexical, syntactic, textual, composite, visual-graphic, normative, genre-stylistic and cultural features, which will be out-lined and delineated in this review.

No: 26
Title: Education Catering for Professionals’ Communication Needs on the Global Labour Market
Pages 202-207
Author(s): Suzana Carmen Cismas*
Open Access

Full Text 26
This article focuses on the modalities in which education could improve the specific functioning of language in business engineering communication contexts, on the global labor market. The research investigates students’ skills and English resources used in business actions. The spectrum is wide and includes: discourse in economics; managerial communication; tech-mediated dialogues in business; professional sublanguages in advertising and marketing, public relations, sales techniques; business rhetoric (leaders’ speech, argumentative or persuasive strategies for presentations, conducting meetings and negotiations, as well as the application of idiom resources in motivating, problem-solving, brainstorming, teambuilding, staff selection and appraisal. Preparing students as future professionals for the global labor market requires building the adequate skills for coping with the challenges posed by the business speech and its delicate feedback; with drafting business correspondence and contracts; and with the strategies of exploiting the resources of the business media. Both undergraduate and graduate education will facilitate the acquisition of the academic language of business, economics and management, used in textbooks and research, lectures, case studies and training, as well as in consulting on business topics. The intercultural dialogue is encouraged, including the study of foreign languages for business purposes at the workplace in multinationals.

No: 27
Title: Novelties in Academic English Testing
Pages 208-214
Author(s): Suzana Carmen Cismas*
Open Access

Full Text 27
With growing geo-economic globalization, there is constant rise in the volume of international business contacts, and English for specific purposes, namely for business engineering, must be able to deal with these new challenges. Theories and practical methods of teaching and learning ‘foreign languages for career purposes’ have focused on business English as the lingua franca of international affairs. Business linguistics centers on idiom functioning in economy, and on the linguistic component of business communication. The methodology involves both traditional and modern teaching-testing methods for the discourse and for the emerging text, discourse analysis, conversation analysis, empirical, descriptive, comparative techniques, cognitive, pragmatic, and genre-style analyses. All types of linguistic data are used as study materials – real or experimental, authentic or simulated, as well as their combinations. The current article reviews international English idiom testing strategies and their impact upon students’ learning approaches and their subsequent proficiency levels. 

No: 28
Title: Universal Strategies in Foreign Language Communication
Pages 215-222
Author(s): Suzana Carmen Cismas*
Open Access

Full Text 28
The practical value of English used in business engineering relates to the mastery of language resources that can be achieved by professionals (and students) in business administration, management, economics, PR, advertising and marketing, since language is produced by thought and produces it, thus, creating and modifying reality. Communication strategies are universal, transferable and, sometimes, inter-changeable, therefore all participants in the global dialogue can benefit from the communication competence of specialists and entrepreneurs, consequently increasing the efficiency of exchanging business ideas. On the other hand, we all are consumers of goods and services (produced and provided by business), and many people are also either stakeholders or investors; therefore, knowing the specifics of language and communication in business will help everyone understand the deeper inner meaning implied in socio-economic, corporate and advertising discourses, so as to identify the manipulative mechanisms and techniques influencing public opinion. Argumentative and persuasive linguistic potentials create appositive corporate image and improve company and product positioning in the public consciousness, with potentially increased numbers of customers and shareholders.

No: 29
Title: A Behavioural Economics Approach to Poverty - the Case of Romania
Pages 223-230
Author(s): Silvia Cojanu*, Cristina Stroe, Eva Militaru
Open Access

Full Text 29
Over the years, important scientific and political efforts were made towards understanding poverty and finding the best approach for fighting it. Fresh and very interesting ideas are produced in the new scientific domain of Behavioural economics. Behavioural economics aims to increase the psychological realism of the economic models, integrating inputs regarding preferences, emotions, values and analyzing their influences on decision-making. There are two main approaches on poverty in the Behavioural economics literature. The first one uses rigorous scientific experiments to demonstrate that the context of scarcity creates a cognitive tax and cognitive depletion, associated with decisions and behaviors that only end up in perpetuating poverty. The second one, also supported by certain scientific studies, shows that poverty creates a type of mental framing that negatively affects the individuals` capacity to aspire. Our study builds on this idea of poverty generated mind-set and aspiration deficit. Using data offered by the World Values Survey (2012) for Romania, we analyze the differences in perceptions and values, of both the most affluent and the least affluent. The particular focus is concentrated on perceived life satisfaction, control over life course, attitude towards work, social and communitarian involvement, openness towards novelty and risk taking.

No: 30
Title: The Ethical-Religious Dynamics in the Context of Europe’s Globalization
Pages 231-238
Author(s): Ion Constantin*
Open Access

Full Text 30
The present study aims to analyze the current dynamics of the ethical and religious dimension subtended by the human being involved in the context of the socio-economic relations from this beginning of the millennium. In order to achieve this predetermined objective, we intend to use a conceptual device structured on the paradigm of the relationships between continuous and discontinuous in the evolution of the ethical-religious relations within the current European communities. At the same time, we intend to verify the hypothesis that the economic dynamics of the European Union standardizes the ethical and religious behaviors of European citizens, in the sense of internalizing the common set of values accepted by state integrated in the European Union and/or the Euro-Atlantic one. Despite the resistance generated by the ethnic and religious particularity, we believe that the economic and socio-political phenomena require a set of behaviors consistent with the current values, accepted and acceptable by the citizens of the united Europe. Preliminary observations lead to the complementary hypothesis according to which we are dealing with a complex, difficult and lengthy process, inclusively requiring partial measures and gradual implementation. Simultaneously with the deployment of our research, we constantly relate to at least one independent variable that we consider relevant to the final conclusions: the dominant economic factor, supported and stimulated by the information society, etc. It shapes up the conclusion that the progressive societies work together, but they face distortions and malfunctions, surmountable only by engaging the decision-makers, both at community and intra-community level. 

No: 31
Title: Economic and Entrepreneurial Education in Romania in the European context
Pages 239-245
Author(s): Csintalan Csaba, Alina Badulescu*, Otilia Cadar
Open Access

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Economic and entrepreneurial education in Romania represents both an absolute necessity at individual level, and an opportunity which requires to be followed in the present European context of an increasingly important role attributed to entrepreneurship. Economic education, if started at young ages, could contribute to better preparing the individual for an autonomous life, by endowing him or her with knowledge and abilities related to personal budget administration, better understanding of financial mechanisms, role and opportunity of credit and lending, efficiency of personal expenditure etc. Meanwhile, it is an opportunity in the present conditions, when a strong discussion of new curricular architecture has emerged. We strongly consider that economic and entrepreneurial education should be a mandatory study object. This opportunity is also a challenge, given the actual trend of global economic development, when the knowledge of the economic and entrepreneurial environment should become an activity of modelling individuals through different economic and entrepreneurial game scenarios, starting from the school age, as to eventually become a successful entrepreneur. We argue in this paper why Romania should benefit from this opportunity and align its curriculum to European standards and finally recognize the importance of economic education for promoting the welfare of our future society and educate individuals who are responsible for their decisions. 

No: 32
Title: Nietzsche and Dostoyevsky’s Super-Human
Pages 246-252
Author(s): Marius Cucu, Oana Elena Lenţa*
Open Access

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In the present article will be highlighted the fact that there is both a common ground which Dostoyevsky and Nietzsche stepped on, as well as a major bifurcation of this ground, with these two great visionaries being separated from a conceptual point of view and taking different contemplative paths. We will emphasize that, while Nietzsche assumes the role of a full supporter of the earthly values, of the immanent dimension, while denying the possibility of the transcendence and trying to identify the absolute only in the image of the Super-human, who is a witness of the absurd return of the same entity, Dostoyevsky goes beyond the proclamation of the empire of Man-God, since he projects his contemplative thinking towards the future of the latter, the sole authority that can give the extent of the value and positivity of such a hypostasis.

No: 33
Title: The Image of Early Christianity in the Ancient Greco-Roman World
Pages 253-261
Author(s): Marius Cucu, Oana Elena Lenţa*
Open Access

Full Text 33
The rise and triumph of Christianity in various spiritual and social environments have contributed to change significantly the perception of the human being and of his role during his terrestrial life. Despite the fact that, in the early centuries, it was approached with reluctance by Greeks and Romans in particular, by who the man was appreciated according to his power of domination over other beings and not in relation to his power to forgive and love, Christianity maintained its message constant, while enshrouding it in new forms, adapted to the permanently changing contexts. The dissolution of the ancient world is also due to the rise of Christianity, which should not be understood as an inner faith of the human soul, but as a religion that imposed itself in the public spheres of the Greco-Roman civilization. In this paper, we will highlight the fact that both the Greco-Roman spirituality and the Christianity, as well as the assimilation by Christianity of the vast cultural space built by the ancient Romans and Greeks influenced definitively the further development of the European philosophical, artistic and theological consciousness. In this way, we will illustrate the manner in which the philosophical analysis is to be found in theChristian phenomenon, as well as in the works of authors such as Soloviov, Kierkegaard, Church Fathers, Nietzsche, Pascal, Berdiaev, Bergson. 

No: 34
Title: Event Management Process within the Sports Structures
Pages 261-267
Author(s): Gheorghe Gabriel Cucui*, Ionela Alina Cucui
Open Access

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The event management in sports organizations is a matter of strict necessity and actuality due to the developmentworldwide sporting phenomenon.This research topic is of great interest to professionals and current sports structures as systems becauseorganizations must continually adapt to multiple and unpredictable influences of external or internal factors.The introduction of scientific management concepts within the sports structures in one step is relatively new andinsufficiently substantiated.Developing conceptual edge detection in the field of sports management and managerial methods and techniques isleading to performance in sports organizations.We believe that the use of scientific management level sports organizations enhances their activity, whichincreases the efficiency of organizing sport activities and boost their results.The research approach was used as research tools based on questionnaire survey.The results of scientific research can be useful for supplementing the theoretical basis in the field of sportsmanagement from the perspective of sports organizations to optimize the management process.Using questionnaire based survey we identified respondents' opinions about the management system manifested insports organizations investigated.This research can be an opportunity for those interested in exploring sports management, moreover, the onlymeans of scientific approach in the management of sports organizations.Event management scientifically sound lacking determines gaps in leadership sport structures.By the managerial intervention will optimize the work done in sports organizations to achieve the plannedobjectives.

No: 35
Title: Migration of Human Resources, Albanian Case
Pages 268-274
Author(s): Albana Demi*, Eglantina Farruku
Open Access

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This paper presents the reasons Albanian’s human resources have migrated and the consequences that this migration has brought to the Albanian people. We have also tried to give the differences between the past and the present, as well as our opinion about what we think, as a new generation, is going to happen next with the migration issue. Migration is one of the most discussed issues of the moment as we are all part of the global change, we are conscious that migration has its pros and cons. The focus of this paper is the research of migration, emigration and the impact that this migration has brought in Albania. All the dates provided in this paper make a comparison between the past and the present, we may see that the number of people in big towns has always been in grow, as a due to facilities that big towns provide, such as better education, better health care and of course, a better standard of living. In this paper there are include also the debates of intellectuals, politicians, about emigration mostly with our neighbors places, such as Italy, Greece, etc., where Albanians traveled abroad for a better life because of unemployment and poverty. As for Albania, it had an increasing number of the old and there had more women than men. Emigration, now has been considered as a “family based migration”, that means family members join the emigrants abroad after a period of time. 

No: 36
Title: Regional Integration and the Impact on Economic Growth and Development
Pages 275-286
Author(s): Costel Dima*, Mihaela Neculiţă, Daniela Ancuţa Şarpe
Open Access

Full Text 36
In the last decade, approaches related to integration areas and the effects resulting from the accession of the states to these areas have grown explosively, in both international and domestic literature. This situation occurred while increasing interdependence and economic flows between the economies of world states and of course the European economies. Efficiency and economic performance are important issues of current policies, their main objective being the stability of the target environment. In Europe, economic stability, economic growth and European integration are considered essential to adapting to current macroeconomic changes. Within this paper, based on reviewing literature on the approached subject, regional integration phenomenon is analyzed in connection to the globalization process. In this regard, regional policy strategies promoted at EU level are examined in relation to the economic dynamics of EU states, in terms of performance and standard of living. One aspect that individualizes this paper is the analysis of integration on a regional and global level based on personal research of international documents. The study is based on the data provided by European and national statistics institutions. 

No: 37
Title: Non-Verbal Teacher-Pupil Communication in the High-School Physical Education Lesson
Pages 287-294
Author(s): Tatiana Dobrescu*
Open Access

Full Text 37
Based on various sources, according to which non-verbal communication is a form of expression through body language, one can say that physical education is one of the fields in which the relevance of this type of communication is a sine qua non condition in interpersonal relationships. Non-verbal communication contributes to the promotion of an active education, based on collaboration, on stimulating the common interests and promoting interdependence, interrelations between the participants in this process. The research started from the idea that using interpersonal communication in high-school education, one could stimulate a quality instructive-educational process. Research hypothesis By knowing how to approach, during the physical education lesson, the forms and functions of non-verbal communication, one can make improving interventions, in the sense of capitalizing on them, for the benefit of the high-school instructive process. The research consisted of a sociological approach, using an organized inquiry on a target group of 50 pupils from the Mangalia Economic College, county of Constanta. As a result of this sociological intervention, it can be said that during the communication process of certain implicit contents, such as the motor content that is specific to the school instructive-educational process, the role played by non-verbal forms is very important. 

No: 38
Title: Medical Malpractice: Exonerating Cases of Medical Liability
Pages 295-304
Author(s): Mirela Carmen Dobrilă*
Open Access

Full Text 38
This article aims to present the way the legislator defines malpractice within the Law no. 95/2006, republished, with the analysis of the phrase „professional error” and the basis of the civil liability in what concerns the medical personnel (Article 653 uses the expression “error” along with concepts such as “negligence”, “recklessness” that require clarification).The exonerating cases of liability governed by the New Civil Code are analyzed and seen as circumstances excluding liability because its elements are not fulfilled, being cases in which the guilt of the debtor regarding the damage cannot be considered or there is no causal link between the act of it and the damage produced. There are analyzed the special cases provided by Law no. 95/2006, republished, where the medical liability is removed- Article 654. The medical personnel staff is not liable for damage and losses caused in the practice when they are due to working conditions, poor endowment with equipment for diagnosis and treatment of nosocomial infections, adverse effects, complications and risks generally accepted within the methods of investigation and treatment, of hidden vices of the sanitary materials, equipment and medical devices, the medical substances used. Law no. 95/2006 regulates an exoneration case regarding the liability of the medical staff when it acts in good faith, in emergency situations, according to the competence granted. The article presents an analysis of the concept of good faith in relation to the specific of the medical field as a cause that removes the guilt of the medical staff. 

No: 39
Title: The Diversity of the Visual Form
Pages 305-310
Author(s): Georgeta Merişor Dominte*
Open Access

Full Text 39
Our life is an educational continuum, Today we live at a time ruled by the visual, with images which embrace, subdue and absorb us. Visual artistic creation is correlated with the natural-geographic and biological context as well as with the historical, social, political, religious and cultural ones. This context echoes the incidence of the environment over the artist. Filtered through the artists’ own personality, the visual forms through which the artists express themselves result from this incidence; each image makes its way among a cluster of virtual possibilities. This path, of the accomplishment of the forms that define a specific style, can be found in successive, intuitive and/or deliberate explorations, in a theoretical and practical sense; alternatively, it can appear as a derivative of apre-established time-and-space-bound concept. Most of the time these two possibilities intertwine in the artist’s option, (un)conditioned by circumstances, for a canon, current, fashion or style. Therefore, artistic forms also imply a r comprehensive view, which can expand the analysis from the independent, abstract mode, of the structuring of the form itself, to the minimal interaction with other fields of human life and knowledge. The Continuum modular ensemble, including double-sided personal paintings, discloses, in a creative manner, both existing and potential aspects of the diversity of visual artistic form.

No: 40
Title: Analysing of the Learning Style of Medical Students and Physical Education Students
Pages 311-316
Author(s): Paula Drosescu, Alexandru-Rares Puni, Liliana-Elisabeta Radu*
Open Access

Full Text 40
Knowledge of learning style can enhance the ability of teachers to build on student experiences and construct new learning opportunities. It is about how a person learns than what a person learn. This study examines the learning styles preferences in medical and physical education university students and the differences in their learning according to Learning Styles Kolb Questionnaire. This questionnaire is design to find out the preferred learning style and differs from other tests of learning style and personality used in education by being based on comprehensive theory of learning and development. The group consist in 222 students. Six variables were assesses: four primary scores that measure an individual’s relative emphasis on the four learning orientations: Concrete Experience (CE), Reflective Observation (RO), Abstract Conceptualization (AC), and Active Experimentation (AE), and two combination scores that measure an individual’s preference for abstractness over concreteness (AC-CE) and action over reflection (AE-RO). According to the results of the study after applied OneWay Anova and Bonferoni with SPSS package program it was seen that are not significant differences between groups for three learning orientation. Only for Abstract Conceptualization (AC) were founded differences between groups. With the results, we bring out the inventory of students learning style and performance.

No: 41
Title: Theatrum Anatomicum and the Baroque Vision on Death
Pages 317-322
Author(s): Marius Dumitrescu*
Open Access

Full Text 41
In 17th century, death came to be contemplated in Anatomical Theatres, which housed public dissections of fresh bodies of the executed criminals. The dissection was running just like a show, with stage director, actors and audience. In addition, many rearticulated human and animals skeletons were among the participants and held banners with Latin phrases referring to the inevitable end of life, but also highlighted the universality of death and the equality of humans before it. The audience was thus informed that death is the largest democratic force of the universe, and every man must obey. The place soon became the meeting point of the great philosophers of the 17th century who captured the human nature in its decomposing, lifeless form, as an amorphous object for study. Part of them realized the idea of resentence, a corporeal nature that was quite different from the soul. In the anatomical show, the Renaissance hylozoist and pantheistic perspective had ceased to fascinate the minds of scientists and philosophers who began to be attracted by mechanical aspects of the body functioning. This new philosophy that appeared in the 17th century due to the anatomical theaters had turned death into a thing, in something tangible, and the consequence was the loss of spiritual, ritual, and even religious dimensions of the human being.

No: 42
Title: Rethinking Traditional Religion in the Postmodern Condition: There is any Axiological Validity of New Religiosity in the 21st Century?
Pages 323-329
Author(s): Ioan Dura*, Bogdan-Florin Chiriluță
Open Access

Full Text 42
Transformation is one of the current social realities. Climates and conditions change, as well as the symbolic structures that accompany them. Religion, as a segment of society and contributing significantly to its configuration, is no exception to the dynamics of change, of transformation, of progress. Indeed, the new religious expressions, embedded in the new religious phenomenon that includes the New Religious Movements and New-Paganism, appear constantly and some of them claim to be the new religion, adequate to the 21st century. Ideologically, the new religiosity aims to revisit everything that has been previously thought about man. We are interested in ascertaining whether these new forms of religiosity are able to provide any meaning to man in his religious dimension, and identifying the socio-psychological implications in the social and ethical field.

No: 43
Title: Metaphorical Perceptions of Turkish EFL Instructors in Relation to Their Students
Pages 330-337
Author(s): Gencer Elkılıç*, Nilüfer Aybirdi
Open Access

Full Text 43
Problem Statement: Despite the fact that the metaphorical perceptions of university instructors about their students are important in teacher-student interactions in the classroom environment, as they pave the way to an effective teaching-learning process, in Turkey there are a limited number of studies on them. Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this study is to determine the metaphorical perceptions of Turkish EFL Instructors in relation to their students. Method: In this study both qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques were used, by requesting 120instructors to fill in forms containing prompts such as “students are like.................., because they..........” . Findings and Results: The results of the study revealed that Turkish EFL instructors created 98 valid metaphors. The most frequently repeated metaphors were baby (f=10), soil (f=8), seed (f=7), flower (f=5), child (f=5), puppet(f=4), son/daughter (f=4), white page (f=4), empty box (f=4) and slave (f=4). In accordance with the metaphorical perceptions of the subjects, five conceptual metaphorical categories were determined: 1) Student as raw material,2) Student as significant other, 3) Student as plant, 4) Students as absolute compliant, 5) Student as animal. 

No: 44
Title: Values and Sports in Romanian Commercials
Pages 338-346
Author(s): Elena Maria Emandi*
Open Access

Full Text 44
Taking into account the inspirational connotation of the presence of sports in the content of the commercials, the present paper tries to examine the role played by the values associated to sports and the message of the commercial. The method of work consists in stylistic and semiotic analysis. By using such methods the author will emphasize the set of values chosen by the advertisers in order to convey the necessary mental atmosphere. Such an atmosphere is necessary in order to seduce the buyers. The personalities from sports and the values they are associated to are important elements highlighted by the present work. Last but not least, the element that links the message from the sport context to the value of the product is of vital importance for the future customers, irrespective of the fat that they realize it or not while watching the commercials.

No: 45
Title: The Role of the Library on the Evaluation of Scientific Information
Pages 347-354
Author(s): Agnes Terezia Erich*, Gabriel Gorghiu
Open Access

Full Text 45
Nowadays, despite the fact that more and more pupils and students have access to scientific resources through the specific channels of new information and communication technologies, there are several gaps regarding its evaluation. Taking into account this reason, a series of global organizations have joined librarians on writing about the need to improve students’ information literacy development. It is very important for an educator to be able to guide the pupils and students on how to obtain useful information in the era of knowledge explosion. Recent research illustrated that this category of information consumers had been confronted with difficulties and they needed assistance in the process of information searching. When analyzing that aspect in the Romanian educational institutions, it could be observed that many pupils and students used the public library indeed, but in many situations they do not know what information became available. More, they have difficulties on determining the information they need and its quality, being unable to compare and evaluate various alternatives for getting informed. The paper tries to offer a reason that puts the library in the role of the evaluator of the scientific information taking also into account the pupils’ feedback collected with the occasion of their participation in several workshops (non-formal activities) oriented on the theme of Meeting the Nano-World, organized in the frame of the EU FP7 project entitled: “IRRESISTIBLE - Including Responsible Research and Innovation in Cutting Edge Science and Inquiry-based Science Education to Improve Teacher's Ability of Bridging Learning Environments”. 

No: 46
Title: The Procedural Practices of Establishing the Child’s Residence in the Republic of Moldova
Pages 355-362
Author(s): Tatiana Focşa*
Open Access

Full Text 46
The children care represents a priority of each state policy. In this context, the legislation of the given field was adjusted to the requirements of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and other international treaties ratified by the Republic of Moldova. The substantive law in the procedure of identifying the child’s residence establishes the rules of evaluation of the place which will constitute the child’s residence. If parents cannot agree amiably whom the child will live, the only possibility of solving the problem is addressing the court. The procedure of establishing the child’s residence is regulated by the provisions of the Code of civil procedure. As far as in this case there is law litigation – the plaintiff interest lays in the fact that the child’s residence should be established with him/her and the defendant interest - that the plaintiff pretentions should be rejected. From the judicial practice of the Republic of Moldova regarding the establishment of child’s residence we mention that there are cases of condemning the state to ECHR. The court decided that the competent authorities should take all necessary, reasonable applicable measures for re-establishing the relation between plaintiff and her son as long as the court decides with whom of the parents the child will live. In the given research we aim to analyze the national procedural peculiarity of establishing the child’s residence as well as the concordance with the community normative provisions. 

No: 47
Title: Increasing The Employability Of Social Workers Through The Research Project
Pages 363-370
Author(s): Mihaela Gavrilă-Ardelean*
Open Access

Full Text 47
The aim of the research is to evaluate the project’s impact on the employability of social workers. The project was made to increase the population’s accessibility in the labor market at a regional level. The objective of the research is to analyze the impact of the project by forming competences to access the self-services. The methodology of research is using assessment instruments of project intervention. We developed a forming course for the students specialized in Social Work. To find the efficiency of the course program we implemented, we made a research on two samples: one of students from the third year of Social Work study program, and one of students from the second year in Master Program of Social Work. The first group was taught to use online platform for job market, according to new course created by us. The second group was deprived of this support. Both groups were comprised of 35 subjects. After the graduation we tried to see the efficiency of the course in terms of finding a job faster and more adequate. The instruments used for this purpose were: Questionnaire for identifying the training need 2015 – 2016; Focus groups and the SWOT analysis regarding the training activity at the university for students. The final result consists in the analysis of the project’s impact on the employability of social workers, by forming the competences of accessing the self-services of the research project.

No: 48
Title: Psychological Particular Aspects in the Child-Dentist Medical Relation in the Dental Treatment
Pages 371-376
Author(s): Liviu A. Gavrilă*
Open Access

Full Text 48
In this article I present a concept in dentistry which becomes one of the main branches of contemporary medicine. Attitudes toward medical treatment are influenced by a number of factors related to the child's environment, education, the medical skills and competence. To highlight the psychological factors involved in attitude towards dental treatment we used a lot of 260 children aged 6-12 years who were asked to make a drawing theme ′a child to the dentist′. Subjects were divided into three categories of patients: reluctant, docile collaborators and active collaborators. The children's drawings were interpreted in psychological terms to highlight the psychological particular aspects that arise in child-dentist relationship. Interpreting findings show that in reluctant patients, drawings are done in cool colors with changes of components in all cases. In docile collaborators patients drawings contain elements changes and use cool colors to 67.10% of cases, and active collaborators work designs are modified and used cool colors only 35.15% of cases. Following research conducted both hypotheses (H1 – I assumed that emotional states experienced by children to the dentist can be found in their designs, H2: We assumed that the different categories of reluctant patients, docile collaborators and active collaborators will present drawings different features) have been confirmed in practice. The drawing theme used before dental treatment can be an indicator of a child's emotional state and help the dentist to take a proper attitude in dealing with it.

No: 49
Title: The Persuasive Effects of the Information: Framing and Priming. Drama from the Club „Colectiv” and the Fall of Ponta Government
Pages 377-388
Author(s): Cristina Gelan*
Open Access

Full Text 49
The paper that we propose aims a constructivist analysis about persuasive effects that media can cause in the public space by interpreting and reconstructing of the social events. The analysis is based on a triangular grille, where the structural, communicational and interactional dimensions contribute to illustrate the ways in which media facilitate the formation of social representations, creating certain types of behavior and determining specific actions. Moreover, talk about a media representation of certain events that generate criteria to assess situations, determine judgments to be applied to these events and contribute to create collective action. The applied part of the paper aims to analyze the social context in which had held the fall of Ponta Government, on November4, 2015, in the context in which a few days had gone from the drama which happened in the Club “Colectiv”, on October 30, 2015. The analysis focuses on the effects of framing and those of priming on the means of mass communication have produced by the coverage of events related to this collective drama. 

No: 50
Title: Social Justice from the Perspective of the Contemporary Orthodox Christianism
Pages 389-396
Author(s): Ionut Ghibanu*
Open Access

Full Text 50
This study presents an analysis of the concept of social justice from the perspective of the Eastern Orthodox Christianism, showing the specificity of the Orthodox approach and the elements in common with the Western religious and lay perspective. Social justice is one of the concepts necessary to today’s religious and political vision, often used prudently in the East-European area, especially due to the fact that during the communist periodic was used as a current slogan, without much coverage in practice. This concept is an essential component of the prophetic message, in the Hebrew area, but also in the Evangels’ discourse. For the Christians, social justice is a community imperative, resulting from the revealed, divine message itself. The article presents the main elements of this concept, in its historical evolution, its development in the Western, Catholic area, and its comparative approach in the Orthodox area. We have analyzed the concept, both theologically, theoretically, and practically, as it can be found in the conception of the Orthodox Church and as it has been promoted by means of the social-philanthropic mission.

No: 51
Title: The Ecclesial Periodic „Revista Teologică” (1883-1887)
Pages 397-401
Author(s): Vasile-Lucian Goldan*
Open Access

Full Text 51
The Archibishop Iosif Naniescu’s personality (1875-1902) marked the cultural-missionary activity developed in Iasi at the end of the nineteenth century. So, this activity was developed and incorporated a wide area, in which the Moldavian bishop was directly involved. In this regard, it should be noted that under the guidance and expense of the bishop, in Iasi was edited, between 25 March 1883 and 18 January 1887, as an ecclesial periodic “the Theological Journal”. This typographical activity financially supported by the hierarch, was coordinated by two teachers of the Seminary "Veniamin Costache" from Iasi, Constantin Erbiceanu respectively Demetrescu Dragomir. This paper is intended to be a systematic and objective exposure of the publication "Theological Journal", of its importance and role in cultural- missionary gear of the end of XVIIIth century in the Archdiocese ofIaşi. The Archibishop Iosif gave this magazine both educational-scientific and apologetic feature. Although the activity of the bishop was criticized by various groups of agitators, some of them priests, the bishop does not use in its pages sharp assaults, but presents in detail the situation of those who have grievances, by pointing with tangible evidence that the role of these agitators was just to destabilize and divide the church. The activity of this ecclesial periodic ends along with the lack of its funding by the Archibishop Iosif Naniescu.

No: 52
Title: One Legged Transitional Unbalance Stances in Hand-Eye Coordination Test
Pages 402-409
Author(s): Leon Gomboş*, Alexandru Andrei Gherman, Adrian Pătraşcu
Open Access

Full Text 52
In the field of physical activity, a significant importance is held by hand-eye coordination, which is a major factor for improving dexterity. The improvement of dexterity is closely linked to the ability to maintain good hand-eye coordination in situations of fast transitional stances of partial unbalance. This paper implements a research protocol to identify the degree with which balance affects hand-eye coordination. In this study 185 students between 19 and 21 years old from the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport from Cluj-Napoca were used for the tests. The subjects were chosen from all of the three specializations during the handball module. The subjects were asked to take a general hand-eye coordination test that measured the number of successful mouse clicks in 30 on randomly appearing dots. The balance level was established using a force platform that recorded the changes of ground forces during a one-legged stance. The actual test to determine the influence of balance was recorded during the coordination test. The subjects were asked to perform the coordination test while trying to maintain the one-legged stance. The designed protocol ensured a satisfying visualization of the hand-eye coordination test results in the context of a smaller balance area. Furthermore, the statistical analysis of the data offered a special view of the case study with regards to the three specializations the Faculty to which the students are enrolled.

No: 53
Title: The Proprioceptive Training in the Preparation of Handball Players
Pages 410-417
Author(s): Leon Gomboş*, Liana Maria Costeliana, Ioan-Nelu Pop
Open Access

Full Text 53
With an important role in normal human performance, proprioception also has a significant impact on the performances of the sports activity. The current trend in modern handball is increasingly resorting to training methods that use proprioceptive structures in the handball players' preparation. The purpose of this study was the elaboration and experimental implementation of a training program comprising means of a proprioceptive character, oriented in order to optimize the preparation of the handball players' in view of of maximally using their performance capacity. The hypothesis of this study is that by using the means of a proprioceptive nature we can find the proprioceptive correlation between the results of tests applied and the technical parameters of the offensive game of handball in official games. Methods: The research involved a total of 20 junior II sportswomen, equally divided into two groups: the experimental group and the control group. During the experiment a training program was implemented comprising means of a proprioceptive nature and eight tests were applied. Results: Following the study conducted on the correlation between test results of control tests and parameters of the game of handball we can say that there are statistically significant correlations at a significance threshold of p <0.01, between the tests applied and certain parameters of the game, such as: Total Goals marked, goals scored from 7m,goals scored on the counter-attack, goals scored from the extreme and goals scored from 6m, which confirms the working hypothesis. 

No: 54
Title: Teachers’ Feedback Expressed in a Training Course Organized in a MOOC Environment
Pages 418-427
Author(s): Laura Monica Gorghiu*, Ana-Maria Aurelia Petrescu, Crinela Dumitrescu
Open Access

Full Text 54
The concept of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) became more and more visible in the last few years and is one of the new pillars in the European Commission policy, in particular within the European Commission’s Science in Society program, framed within the EU Horizon 2020 initiative. Taking into consideration the presence of this concept into the FP7 Program priorities, a big number of European projects have been approved and financed by EU, in order to bring closer the research and innovation results to the people. One of those projects is the FP 7 ENGAGE Project (“Equipping the Next Generation for Active Engagement in Science Equipping the Next Generation”, www.engagingscience.eu). The partnership of the project proposed to come with interesting continuous development programs for teachers, organized through face-to-face workshops or on-line courses, where different interactive-participatory teaching strategies are presented and many examples of applying these strategies are discussed. These examples start from identifying a problematic situation (dilemma) that students may face in their real life and they need to find rational solutions, by using their scientific and socio-moral knowledge. The paper presents our findings based on the analysis of the Romanian teachers’ feedback after they finished the 1st edition of the on-line course “Methods of promoting RRI dimensions in Science Education”, organized by Valahia University Targoviste in 2015. Our analysis was focused on the Science teachers’ replies to an initial and final questionnaire and to the teachers’ reflections collected during the on-line course duration. 

No: 55
Title: The Role of Journalistic Information on Shaping the Student’s Future Career
Pages 428-435
Author(s): Gabriel Gorghiu*, Cristina-Daniela Dinu, Gabriela Cătălina Cristea
Open Access

Full Text 55
Media can be a useful tool when we talk about sketching a few options on the socio-educational domain. Whether we are talking about career opportunities or some analyzes of the most popular or profitable areas where it is better to pursue your studies, media can be a student’s help for his/her orientation in the career. Along with the boom of the on-line sites, the audience target has the opportunity to be better informed than before the on-line era, due to the fact that nowadays, the press has sampled a release - which is also a good thing and a bad thing, but we will not discuss this here - and now it is easier to approach topics that are not necessarily newsworthy, like it happens in a radio news bulletin or in a newspaper. When we talk about the opportunities offered by the on-line media, we talk about a huge amount of information, but with the disadvantage of having to be sorted. This is one of the weakest points of the on-line media. This paper tries to analyze the weaknesses and the strengths of the on-line media, taking also into consideration the results of a questionnaire applied to more than one thousand students from secondary education, related to the opportunities they could see and find in the information delivered in different journalistic environments. 

No: 56
Title: Motor Coordination and Reactivity Influenced by Mental Training in Alpine Skiing
Pages 436-443
Author(s): Vlad Teodor Grosu, Emilia Florina Grosu*, Cristina Elena Moraru
Open Access

Full Text 56
Problem statement: The purpose of this research is to show that the implementation of mental training techniques improves the performance in alpine skiing. Scientific originality is determined by the adaptation and implementation of a mental training program for skiers of 12-19 years, children, small and big juniors, consisting in a complex technique and psychological preparation program, during three competition years (October 2012 -March 2015).Aim: The goal of this research is to identify certain psychological factors that will help along with the relevant physical ones in obtaining skier’s performance behavior and achieving sport performance; especially to increase in the capacity of motor coordination and reactivity response in certain alpine skiers. Practical value of the paper is characterized by the development of an experimental model that includes the way in which the structure is implemented and the development of the program’s content in ski sport training, accomplishment of all the required techniques and enhancement in the technique of mountain ski descending, in both series. Conclusions: The difference between the results is due to our intervention consisting in applying mental imagery in the most important technical elements within alpine skiing. In order to teach athletes certain skills to control their own study behavior, one needs knowledge and abilities concerning the processes and mechanisms that playa direct role in personal management.

No: 57
Title: National Case Law in Setting Bail Suspending Credit Enforcement in Disputes between Consumers and Professionals from the Perspective of Art.1 of Additional Protocol no.1 of the Convention
Pages 444-447
Author(s): Mircea Grozavu*
Open Access

Full Text 57
The enforcement of a bank loan credit presents is often imagined as a major abuse of professional’s dominant contractual position. This is why the opposition to enforcement is seen by a significant part of the civil society as judicial way that must be less restrictive for the costumer to use, especially by means of bail suppression. This state of affairs brings up the selected subject as one with a significant potential for scientific research. The present article replies with a summarized study on the main court rulings that created the existing contradiction at the Romanian and European Union level of case-law concerning the protection of the consumer’s rights. The analysis of the mentioned rulings will be realized from the standpoint of the existing normative regulations and also form the standpoints of the law and economics doctrine, with the main purpose to bring clarity in a field that is mainly speculative in the present time.

No: 58
Title: EU and US, Reaching an Agreement over TTIP?
Pages 448-455
Author(s): Ioana Gutu*
Open Access

Full Text 58
Starting with 2013, the European Union (EU) and the United States of America (USA) are negotiating over what is expected to become the largest bilateral trade and investment agreement that was ever agreed on. The process counted 13 rounds of negotiations and several groups of interest that were a part of the good course of the roundtable talks; within the EU-US Summit of 2011, a High Level Working Group on Jobs and Growth (HLWG) was created, being designed to find new ways of improving the transatlantic trade flows and ease the investment decision implementation; this group issued two years later a Report that represented the basis for the start of the negotiations over TTIP. Assuring the sides, the negotiators of the two economic powers are the European Commission (EC) on one side and the United States Trade Representative (USTR) on the other side. In June 2013the representatives of the EC and USTR initiated the first round of negotiations; these events were accompanied by civil society dialogues that took place mirroring the location on where the negotiations were held. After the first three negotiation rounds, an Advisory Group formed of experts and practitioners was instituted, designed to offer expertise for the diplomats involved in the TTIP talks. The end of this long process is expected to be met by December 2016, even though the 24 chapters are not fully negotiated and several aspects still need to be given a better understanding. 

No: 59
Title: Personalized Social Services Provided to Children Living with Disabilities: A Case Study in the North-West Region of Romania
Pages 456-463
Author(s): Maria Hanyecz-Debelka*,Ildiko Szanto
Open Access

Full Text 59
This paper is discussing the effectiveness and efficiency of current institutional settings and practices concerning the assistance of children living with disabilities in Romania, with a specific focus on North-West Region. The main aim of the paper is to investigate the potential ways for optimizing child protection services. The research is based on a case study and semi-structured interviews with specialists involved in local social services. The case study included in our work is concerning the way in which the actors of public child protection system service work in close cooperation with each other and implement together personalized intervention strategies, grounded on specific individual needs oriented combinations of legal protection, socio-medical, school orientation and special educational services. The paper concludes that in order to be successful, the public social service system should provide personalized services and propose to each child individualized paths of development, based on professional relations and partnerships between medical, social, legal protection and educational services.

No: 60
Title: Training Needs of Technology Teachers in the Context of Teacher ́s Competences Evaluation
Pages 464-473
Author(s): Alena Hašková*, Eva Malá
Open Access

Full Text 60
The authors briefly describe a national research project “Evaluation of Teacher ́s Competences”, carried out by Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Slovakia since July 2015, which aim is to identify a general set of criteria and evaluation tools applicable for valuation of the quality level of the educational activities performed by teachers. In the context of this project the authors focus on problems arising out of the changes introduced by a curricular reform in the area of technology education at lower level of secondary schools in Slovakia. They concentrate on the identification of training needs of Technology teachers and evaluation of their professional competences. The partial results of research relevant to this field of interest are described and linked with Technology teacher ́s answers from the interview survey conducted in six primary schools in the region chosen for the research. The interpretation of the gained data supported by the teacher ́s comments on the current situation in teaching the Technology subject at schools is also presented. The main emphasis is put on those factors which influence teaching the subject of Technology, such as the credit system, subsequent financial reward for teachers, material and technical equipment of school workshops, introduction of topics which would significantly contribute to the development of teacher ́s professional competences, and others. Both the advantages and disadvantages of continuing education stated by teachers, based on their own experience and opinions, are analyzed, and the ways for the improvement of this kind of teacher training are recommended in the paper. 

No: 61
Title: Travelling Women: The Reconstruction of Self and Gender Roles in The Portrait of a Lady
Pages 474-481
Author(s): Nicoleta Mariana Iftimie*
Open Access

Full Text 61
The Portrait of a Lady, the novel dealing with the passage from innocence to maturity of Isabel Archer, the American young woman dispatched to Europe by her cosmopolitan aunt, presents a good number of feminine characters that display various modes of female social existence and various degrees of adherence to the norms imposed by Victorian England. In the Victorian Age, gender roles were largely influenced by the Doctrine of the Two Spheres, according to which the public or social sphere implying work outside the house, social life, travel, power and independence belonged to the masculine gender, while women were generally restricted to the private sphere, in which they performed the roles of wives and mothers. The Portrait of a Lady displays a number of such ‘immobile’ women, limited to the confines of the narrow private/domestic sphere that assume a static role that was attributed to most middle andupper class women in Victorian society: Edith Keyes, the Misses Molyneux. The paper will focus on three female characters that accompany Isabel Archer in her travels - Henrietta Stackpole, Mrs. Touchett and Mme Merle - with a view to discuss the way in which they challenge and/or adhere to the patriarchal gender roles imposed by Victorian society in the process of being immersed into other spaces and cultures. 

No: 62
Title: The Limits of Whistle-Blower Protection and Its Legal Consequences
Pages 482-488
Author(s): Camelia Ignătescu*, Gabriel-Bogdan Chihai
Open Access

Full Text 62
The term whistle-blower was introduced in Romania in the year 2004 through law 571, but it has not yet become are search subject for legal doctrine. The Romanian Parliament intended to create of a legal framework that defines the whistle-blower, its principles, limits and the guaranteed protection against the possible retaliation that may appear in the legal employment relations. The situation may become somewhat problematic when the protection offered is excessive or when it is inadequately regulated, enabling its exploitation by a whistle-blower who stops being of good-faith, considering the fact that this attribute is maintained till proven otherwise. This article aims to follow the legal consequences caused by a lacking regulation in the field of the whistle-blowers’ activity.

No: 63
Title: Revealing the Main Determinants of Employee Job Satisfaction in Jordanian Hospitals. An Empirical Analysis based on McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale
Pages 489-495
Author(s): Marji Tania Issa Eid*
Open Access

Full Text 63
The paper aims to reveal the main determinants of job satisfaction based on McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale(MMSS) using exploratory factor analysis and for a sample of 325 employees from six hospitals at the level of the year 2015.The empirical results revealed the existence of a four factor structure, highlighting the main factors of job satisfaction from the perspective of Jordanian employees as -“satisfaction with praise/recognition”, “satisfaction with extrinsic rewards and satisfaction with the balance of family”, “satisfaction with interaction opportunities”, and “satisfaction with professional opportunities”. The findings revealed that the financial incentives are very important but also non-financial incentives are fundamental in enhancing motivation among health employees.

No: 64
Title: Benefits of Transformational Leadership in the Context of Education
Pages 496-503
Author(s): Dragana Jovanovic*, Marina Ciric
Open Access

Full Text 64
Following expansive changes in the management of schools and the methods of organizing the teaching as well as the changes in the styles of leadership as the function of management, contemporary approaches to leadership: transactional, charismatic, transformational and interactive become more often the focus of research interest. Each of these theoretical approaches has far-reaching impacts and values not only in time but also in a certain context. However, in this paper we give priority to transformational leadership taking into consideration the claim that trans formational leadership style is the most suitable for guiding the students within the school conditions. This type of claim has its stronghold in these three points: 1) the ethical dimension of transformational leadership, that is, the moral basis; 2) the validity of previous researches supported by evidence, and 3) evidences of the leaders’ practice in the field of education.

No: 65
Title: A Possible Methodology of Research in Scholar Evaluation. Evaluation Theoretical and Methodological Approaches
Pages 504-511
Author(s): Emil Lazar*
Open Access

Full Text 65
Under the interest of educational research, as Theory of Evaluation, school evaluation, stage and important process of teaching approach has benefited from "change", "transformation", "rearrangement", "transfer", so that the "sample test", evaluation, criteria, grading result became components of a process whose analysis they matter in terms of refining, straightening the educational program and student further development. Therefore, acquisitions, academic progress, social implications are values pursued by the Evaluation Theory. Not just what? and why?(content), but how? and what for? (process).Borrowing paradigm, contemporary school evaluation must take into consideration both actors of the process(evaluated and evaluator) – they speak about making co-responsible and accompanying the person who learns, but also relations between stages of pedagogical process (teaching, learning, assessment). We can talk about roles and relationships of those involved in evaluative process.

No: 66
Title: The Artists’ Posture during Restoration Work. Implications to Health and Correction through Exercise
Pages 512-520
Author(s): Ana-Cristina Leşe*, RalucaMinea
Open Access

Full Text 66
The idea for this paper came while observing the body position of the students specialized in the Restoration of mural paintings when working on a church fresco. The aim of this study is to inform and prevent the restoration artists about the column deficiencies that may occur during the work and over the functional status of the vestibular apparatus responsible for balance (when working at heights). Even more, we provide the restoration artists with exercise programs to prevent or ameliorate the detected deficiencies. Also included is a study derived from practical applications, done with the help of students specialized in the Restoration of mural paintings from the Faculty of Visual Arts and Design, from the University of Arts “GeorgeEnescu” from Iaşi. The study in the form of a workshop is comprised of the evaluation of the vertebral column by a group of MA students from the Physical Therapy department of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport at the University “Alexandru Ioan Cuza”, who compiled sets of physical exercises specifically designed to combat the conditions that were found and put them in practice in individual work programs. With this study we aim to inform the present students, restoration artists, but also the future students who choose this specialization, about the possible installation of column deficiencies due to the working conditions they expose to in some cases. 

No: 67
Title: Valuing the Information and Communication Technologies in Education. Collaborative Tools
Pages 522-529
Author(s): Adrian Lupașc*
Open Access

Full Text 67
The collaborative approach has become a vital component in many fields, its benefits being visible even in education. In this context, in order to come to the aid of the educational activities, we are witnessing today an explosion of tools and technologies that we can use to support didactic projects based on collaborative learning. The actual context and changes require every teacher to have a clear and detailed image of the available software tools and on how they can be used most effectively in order to achieve the specific instructive-educational objectives. Moreover, the continuous development of IT makes the focus to move slowly towards collaborative tools developed for mobile systems. The software tools are used in education today mainly for creating and transposing teaching content or for processing and making accessible the existing ones. From the education system perspective, the educational purpose is that these new information and communication technologies to be accessed and used by pupils or students on a large scale and to generate genuine learning by facilitating reception, understanding and assimilation of scientific content. 

No: 68
Title: The Impact of Advertisements for Romanian Food Products on Consumers
Pages 530-544
Author(s): Laura Manea*, Gheorghe Epuran
Open Access

Full Text 68
The advertisement, regardless of its object, implies a symbiotic relationship between image, text and product, it is amplified by the media used to promote, it meets the manufacturer's needs regarding promotion and it must also overcome prejudices in order to form the consumer's decision to purchase. Analyzing the sociological studies about publicity and advertising in the material, we invariably find that the psycho-social approach observes the way in which the group membership determines specific consumer behavior and a specific way of perception and evaluation of advertisements. We aim at carrying out an exploratory research about promoting Romanian food products through advertising in the past two decades and aim at identifying the type of consumer to which advertising and the evolution of advertisements has caused the change of consumer behavior. Through the case study of media market in Romania in recent years, we analyze the evolution of advertisements for food, aiming how social values and needs of the individual physiological influences consumer behavior. And because more and more often in the advertisements to food products of the domestic manufacturers, we encounter elements regarding the geographical origin of the products, in the context in which the advertisement promotes a healthy lifestyle, we have analyzed the expected impact by the Romanians producers of food products using the slogan Made in Romania. 

No: 69
Title: The Idea of Olympism: About the Necessity and Possibility of Correction
Pages 545-551
Author(s): Veaceslav Manolachi*
Open Access

Full Text 69
The philosophical-culture logical consideration of the problem “sport and the idea of Olympism” is carried out. The ideas on the problem of Coubertin, which are reflected in the Olympic Character, are analyzed. It is revealed that the idea of Olympism of P. de Coubertin and the idea of ancient Olympism are not identical, and the latter, in particular, is more metaphysically grounded. It is shown that in accordance with the view of ancient Greeks, Olympism is the philosophy of agonistic (competitive) life, and the agon itself is treated as a basic principle of cosmological and social relations as well, and the Olympic sport reproduces this principle, and in this case there is an emphasis on the opposition and unity of those basics, which make up the foundation of agonistic process. It is stated that in philosophy of the modern period the competitiveness is also considered as a universal and internally contradictory social relationship, as an event, which constantly accompanies the fact of self-awareness and self-realization, in which two human strives are realized: individualization and participation. It is shown that primary important task, which is connected with the development of the modern sport and modernization of the concept of Olympism, is the upheaval to the qualitatively new level of world-outlook competence of the coach and sportsman and on this basis-reorganization of the system of the Olympic education. 

No: 70
Title: Ethics and Individual Liberties
Pages 552-562
Author(s): Petre Mareş*
Open Access

Full Text 70
In today's society, there is a genuine “paradox of sexual liberty”. On the one hand, it is difficult to deny the existence of a movement of sexual liberalization and democratization which expresses itself by coming out of the penal space of adultery or homosexuality and increasingly acknowledging, on a social level, sexual minorities. On the other hand, it is just as difficult to deny the existence of a movement of punishing sexuality. To some jurists and philosophers, these two trends are not at all conflicting, for both would emphasize the importance that the concepts of consent and human dignity have acquired in our society.

No: 71
Title: New Approaches, Challenges and Future Development of the Teaching Profession
Pages 563-570
Author(s): Simona Mioara Marin*
Open Access

Full Text 71
Education systems worldwide are under constant pressure to adapt to changes generated by the new needs of society and the economy. The national context is imposed in correlation to global orientation and European policies to which Romania has subscribed, as well as to the overall specificity of the knowledge society that brings a grid of values dominated by education, research, development and innovation. The impact of the European agreements and regulations is felt throughout society and at all levels of the education system, but this paper aims to achieve a concise analysis of the most significant challenges and changes that have occurred in recent years in the teaching profession felt at global and national level, as well as policymaking structures reactions in the field of training human resources in education. This study aims to explore the possibility of making the difference between the direct characterization of the teaching profession, where the competences and the character’s features are explicitly presented, and the indirect characterization, where the features must be analyses against the social perception an expectations, with opportunities and limits, all these having a meaning only if it emphasizes the typology of didactic style created at the mental level. Combining both perspectives, we propose to explore the different perspectives about the representative teaching profession profile for a society at institutional and personal level. 

No: 72
Title: Education, Labour Market Status and Household Income Dynamics in Romania
Pages 571-581
Author(s): Eva Militarua*
Open Access

Full Text 72
During the last decade Romania experienced considerable economic and social instability and household income has been subject to changes both in level and structure, though not equally for all households. It seems that low income households are more exposed to the risk of losing parts of their income during economic downturn, but also middle or high income households may be affected. Household characteristics, such as education and labor market status, are amongst the main determinants of household income level and can be associated with income dynamics. This paper aims at studying the role played by education and labor market status in the dynamics of household income in Romania in the period between 2007 and 2010. Our approach is twofold; we study the distribution and the income mobility patterns over time between income classes, paying attention to education and labor market status of household members. We attempt to analyze the extent to which education and labor market status count for the evolution of household income. A special focus has been on low income households. We base our analysis on EU-SILC data and we employ growth incidence curve analysis and transition matrices to determine the movement of households along the income distribution. Our results show that income dynamics is strongly related to education, as almost two thirds of the low income households are poorly educated and remain trapped in the same relative position on the income distribution over the years. Precarious labor market attachment as well is a drawback in income mobility. 

No: 73
Title: The Psycho-Communicational Group Structure and the Activity Efficiency
Pages 582-589
Author(s): Nela Mircică*
Open Access

Full Text 73
Any type of human activity is inextricably interconnected with the communication process. Living and working within a social community entails interaction between people, which leads to exchanging views on experience, expressing ideas, intentions, goals and aspirations. The interpersonal relationships are influenced by various characteristics of the psychic life and are configured within socio-cultural context. The internalization of a set of rules, specific types of behavior, habits, action modes a.s.o. are an integral part of the system of elements which contribute to the development of individuals’ ability to cope with various problems encountered in their professional and family life. The current study aims to analyze a work group’s communicational structure starting from the hypothesis that intensity and especially quality of the communication process have an impact up on achieved results. The efficiency of the communication process depends upon psychological factors as well, or, more precisely, upon mental state of group members. The intelligibility and the results of the information conveying process depend upon the logical argument of the message. However, the message can have a persuasive effect if it has a motivational foundation, displaying both emotional and personal features. The psychic structure and, especially, the personality traits of each of the group members influence the act of communication and, consequently, the action efficiency. The climate favorable to cooperation brings about positive emotional states and enhanced group cohesion instrumental to a good coordination activity. We are in favor of constituting a work group according to psychological criteria in order to achieve higher productivity. 

No: 74
Title: Rhetoric and Intentionality in the Political Discourse
Pages 590-597
Author(s): Nela Mircică*
Open Access

Full Text 74
The main reason for this study is the urgent need to clarify the relationship between rhetoric and intentionality in the dialogue between the politician and his audience. Rhetoric is a “blank check” for the political discourse; it is concerned with the accurate transmission of what the politician wants to convey, while intentionality aims to achieve the predetermined target, i.e. a certain targeted audience. The rhetorical turning of the language is represented by the argumentative discourse, based on concrete forms of evidence. With all these requirements, expressly formulated, it remains (as a constant) the increased efficiency, pursued within communication, although we cannot expropriate policy from its language. But the rhetoric of the political discourse is a specific one, whether we are talking about the visual or verbal communication. Most often, the messages are proving to be effective only when formulated in simple terms. The logic of the discourse, its degree of susceptibility and so on belong to a language adapted to the expectations of the audience. The cognitive and rational dimension of the discourse must be completed by the argumentative dimension. We consider that the efficiency of the political discourse depends on the way the message is conveyed, on the purpose of conveying a message as well as on the orientation towards the targeted audience. Therefore, it requires an increased attention on the part of the one elaborating and documenting the discourse. 

No: 75
Title: The ‘Good Society’ and the ‘Good Citizen’ Children’s Right to Participate
Pages 598-602
Author(s): Rareș Alexandru Miron*
Open Access

Full Text 75
This article discusses how the children’s participation rights and competence has maintained unchanged and unchallenged over the years. However children are still not considered apt to be included as an opinion giver in the polity. Although there are international projects which give voice to children, society is not ready to allow children to participate in decision making process. Participation rights have been established by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child in the Article 12 under ‘the right to freely express one’s opinion’, on the condition that the child is capable of taking it, and in matters that affect them. The article shows that children’s opinions should be given due weight depending on their age and maturity. Children are unique and gifted and it is the adults’ duty or task to bring out the spark within them. Children’s participation rights have not been the result of children’s own mobilization and dispute over their social condition of subordination and oppression, but there are granted by their representatives (parents, school, government), who could speak in their ‘best interests’. Children’s participation rights did not enhance a clearer understanding, from the point of view of children themselves, about the directions in which relationships of subordination and oppression between children and adults that involved them should be changed. 

No: 76
Title: Mass Media as an Instrument of Conflict Management in the Sphere of Consumer Rights Protection
Pages 603-611
Author(s): Leila Mirzoyeva*, Oxana Syurmen, Karlygash Toganbayeva
Open Access

Full Text 76
Consumer rights protection in Kazakhstan is insufficient nowadays due to many factors, one of which is the lack of systematic information support of consumers in the media. There are some researches in the field of media conducted by Kazakhstani scientists but they concern the state of the media and its problems in general and do not touch upon the problem of consumer rights protection or support in the media. Conflicts between consumers and businesses caused by consumer unawareness of their rights and absence of the information support through special Internet-platforms or online services have not been analyzed from the viewpoint of media space formation. This research examines the role of Kazakhstani media in the sphere of consumer rights protection in order to identify the necessity of designing the model of special competence in conflictology for journalists in the sphere of consumer rights protection. Training of specialists in this sphere will strengthen the impact of Kazakhstani media on prevention and solving the conflicts concerning consumer rights protection. The data have been collected through the analysis of available researches, media sources such as the Internet sites, television programs, newspapers and magazines containing the information concerning consumer rights protection and a questionnaire among students of two universities majoring in journalism. The results of the research prove the urgency of focusing on the training of media specialists in the sphere of conflict research with the accent on consumer rights protection. 

No: 77
Title: Globalization of Higher Education by Practice Exchange
Pages 612-618
Author(s): Petronel Moisescu, Florentina Moisescu*
Open Access

Full Text 77
Globalization brings an international dimension within academic environments, concept exchange and social life per se. Therefore, the universal knowledge’s heritage is re modelled and the result of this is the added value among the graduates’ professions. The new world of higher education is characterized by a constant competition for status, talent and resources measured against national and international values. National and international tops determine universities to prioritize their politics and practices in order to reach a higher position in the hierarchy. The paper deals with the impact ERASMUS programs have in Romanian education and in the academic globalization as a strategic piece for increasing prestige, competitiveness levels and fundraising.

No: 78
Title: Accounting Ethics and Social Responsibility in a Knowledge-Based Economy
Pages 619-624
Author(s): Florentina Moisescu*
Open Access

Full Text 78
The numerous cases of fraud, incorrect representation of interests, rigged accounts, etc. brought to light by the financial crisis have featured the professional accountant as one of the artisans of fraudulent financial reporting. In these circumstances, the ethical duty of a professional accountant goes beyond the financial limits. It overlaps with the area of corporate social responsibility in trying to ensure that businesses and the individuals they are advising are aware of their own ethical responsibilities. The paper is an empirical approach to the idea of accounting as asocial stake in front of its users, in the context of defining accounting information through social characteristics. The social role of accounting emerges from the substantiation of decisions taken by users regarding the distribution of added value between different social groups. Thus, the financial status of the company is both the result of a modelling and a social validation process.

No: 79
Title: Cartesian Moral Code, Principles of Errors and Limits of Reason. Descartes and Pascal
Pages 625-632
Author(s): Cristian Moisuc*
Open Access

Full Text 79
The second rule of Descartes’ “provisional moral code” stressed the obligation of mastering oneself rather than fortune. Of Stoic inspiration (The Manual of Epictetus), the Cartesian rule carefully delimitates what is and what isnot in man’s power. In addition, the rule calls for the distinction expressed in the fourth Metaphysical Meditation between the intellect and the will and for the necessity to temper the will’s natural tendency to overcome its inherent borders. In the Preface of his Principles of Philosophy, Descartes views philosophy as a form of therapy that can treat illnesses of the mind, just as medicine treats illnesses of the body. Philosophy is thus charged with leading us to the “true health of the mind,” by cultivating a “true and sound judgment”. This Cartesian moral code that seems to provide a minimal balance between concrete action and man’s will is violently criticized by Blaise Pascal in the Conversation with Mr. de Sacy, where the principles of Stoic morality are called “principles of a diabolic pride [that] lead him to other errors”. The provisional moral code is discredited by Pascal because, in his opinion, human will cannot be limited – as Descartes thought – because it is infinite: “Self-will will never be satisfied, though it should have command of all it would”.

No: 80
Title: Savings and Ethics of the Population in the Republic of Macedonia
Pages 633-640
Author(s): Snezana Mojsoska*, Nikola Dujovski, Dance Nikolovska
Open Access

Full Text 80
The financial system as a subsystem of the global economic system plays an essential role in the efficient functioning of the global economy. Some of the main features of the financial sector of the Republic of Macedonia are the low degree of inter-sectoral integration and the limited intercross ownership among the separate financial segments. The aim of this paper is to prove the influence of the financial institutions on the macro economy in the Republic of Macedonia through savings of the population correlated with the importance of knowledge of the ethics in savings. A surveying research was conducted on a statistical sample of 1250 respondents, where the analyzed data obtained with the basic statistical parameters of 7 variables were estimated measures of variability(Std. Dev., Skewness, Kurtosis and KV%). As it is obvious in the above-mentioned research, we can conclude that in Macedonia the amount of savings of the population is generally low. The respondents were mainly insufficiently acquainted with the financial conditions and the possibilities of the market and the financial institutions. People don’t have any knowledge about ethics in savings in order to increase savings. In this direction, in the conclusion of this paper, some new measures for increasing of the savings in other financial institutions will also be offered. 

No: 81
Title: The Control of Explosive Force Training in Volleyball Using MGM 15 Jumping Mat
Pages 641-651
Author(s): Alexandru Mureşan*, Codruţa Florina Bulduş, Vlad Grosu
Open Access

Full Text 81
Background. Explosive force testing provides information on the effectiveness of training methods and can provide enough evidence on the quality of adaptation and future orientation in training programming. Using equipment that provides objective and stable information on the physical status, provides coherent guidance to dosing means and adapting effort to each sport possibilities. Aims. The research aimed to study the effectiveness of a training method on a female volleyball team using the MGM15 jumping mat. Methods. The Miron Georgescu modified test with 15 jumps – MGM15 was used to evaluate the explosive force on a female volleyball team. The determined parameters were the unitary power (PU) on both legs, on the right leg (Pud) and left leg (Pus), the average height of jumps (Hzbor), the repetition speed (Vrep) the difference between the unitary power on both legs and the unitary power on the right and on the left leg. Data interpretation had as support a reference values kit of performance level. Results. The values of unitary power and average height of flight shows a middle level of training, insufficient for competitive sport. Repetition speed registered weak values. The difference between the power unit on two feet and the power unit on both feet expressed lack of force. The values of determined parameters are low for both parameters of force and speed. Conclusions. Research results show an average level of training, which is insufficient to competitive sport. Training program does not provide a suitable training as regards the explosive force. 

No: 82
Title: Education for Children’s Rights - Prolegomena to a Modern School Curriculum
Pages 652-659
Author(s): Mihaela Gabriela Neacșu*
Open Access

Full Text 82
The present paper displays the results of a psycho-pedagogical study carried out in the Arges County focused on the child’s rights in school. The purpose of this research was to make a survey among the teaching staff, mainly those teaching civic education, regarding the opportunity of introducing the subject Education for children’s rights in the secondary school, the identification of some methodological aspects with a view to teaching this subject in the schools, as well as the teaching staff need to train/ develop competences for the approach of teaching the child’s rights in school. The methodology of research encompasses the analysis of the curriculum documents and the questionnaire-based inquiry. The conclusions of the paper highlight important psycho-pedagogical aspects regarding the modernization of the curriculum in secondary school, the training/developing of the students’ social-civic competences through means of settling the study of civic education since the primary school throughout the secondary school, the adoption of modern didactic strategies in order to assume the child’s principles and rights in the school and setting of a school environment based on respect and on promoting the human rights, the participation of children in the democratic governance of the school, the involvement of children in supervising and reporting on the child’s rights observance, as well as some practical aspects of the teachers’ training/developing of competences for the teaching-evaluating process of the child’s rights in school. 

No: 83
Title: Group and Social Collective Manipulations
Pages 660-667
Author(s): Xenia Negrea*, Aurelia Dumitru
Open Access

Full Text 83
This study is circumscribed to the field of ontology of the persuasion and aims to clarify what kinds of manipulations can be identified a) in the manipulation group type and b) in the social collective manipulation type. The ontology is understood as a coordinate of all knowledge, in which it clarified about the concepts, categories, terminology, taxonomies (classification) and dictionaries (lexicons). This research takes into account manipulations a form of persuasion and aims to achieve a taxonomy of manipulation on the target criterion manipulation. Used method is a mix between meta-analytic method and comparative method. Meta analytical method is used to synthesize the literature about the classes and the types of manipulation. The comparative method is used in particular to distinguish the different specific kinds of manipulation. The paper is a continuation of a previous research and take into account the existence of three types of manipulation: interpersonal manipulations, group manipulations and social collective manipulations. Then, there are analyzed two forms of group manipulations (collusion and role playing) and six forms of social collective manipulations (dehumanization and demonization, de-individualization, institutional manipulation, political and journalistic.

No: 84
Title: The Assessment of Benefit in the Health System
Pages 668-672
Author(s): Emanuela Alisa Nica*
Open Access

Full Text 84
In the Romanian socio-economic context, in a society marked by permanent discussions regarding the sub-funding of the health system, we intend to apply an instrument to measure costs and benefits in the health system, by analyzing a part of the economic indicators as well as the income and expenditures between 2012-2014. We shall estimate the socio-economic impact owed to the implementation of certain economic actions and policies in health. The method used is the cost benefit analysis which, by minimizing costs, we must obtain the maximum benefits. The results will provide an overall picture of the system because, in this study, we involved only the economic indicators. The cost-benefits analysis applied in health will always be a topic of discussion; there will always be answers to the question: What do we need to do to have a satisfactory health system for the majority of those involved?

No: 85
Title: Forms of Manifestation of Economic Concentration in International Trade
Pages 673-679
Author(s): Manuela Nita*
Open Access

Full Text 85
Economic development of participants in international trade is a naturally goal which leads to the creation of complex structures, with or without legal personality that tend to dominate the market. A dominant position can only be the result of successful actions that have created a prosperous position, customers for the company with such a position. The legislature could not conceive that the professionals in trade to remain in positions of approximately equal share without distinction in terms of market domination. Such a picture of market competition is more compatible with a centralized economy, an economy in which resources and operations are distributed or arranged by a national authority. These structures, the result of economic concentration, can have different shapes and sizes, their diversity being given by each national legal system, but are characterized by certain traits, peculiarities which we will analyze in our study. In Romanian law, as in the French-inspired national systems, is recognized the existence of the Economic Interest Group (EIG) which is outlined at the European level as a European Economic Interest Group. Joint venture, all French-inspired, is not a new institution from law point of view, being taken from the old commercial code, but it is applied frequently in the market, being a simple operation aimed to realize a business partnership to achieve in joint activities. Our approach will extend to other manifestations of economic concentration known in international trade, in particular on those existing at European level, referring here to the English and German law.

No: 86
Title: Contribution of Aesthetic Education at Teens Self-Formation and Personality Development
Pages 680-684
Author(s): Ileana Gurlui, Ioana Panagoret*
Open Access

Full Text 86
Education in the new socio-cultural context in which moral, aesthetic, behavioral, etc. models that should be submitted by the school,, are replaced by those offered by the street, film and music industry, etc., are increasingly faced with a trend of limiting the role of educational institutions and the expansion of media, television, internet, etc. Such institutions, in their pursuit of profit, are missing the formative aspect and promotes `models` which are taken without much taken without discernment by the teens, and the effect can be seen in the behavior, slightly rakish, even immoral sometimes, that they manifests it in their inter and intra group relations. The impact of the action of these institutions over the individual is reflected in structural changes, which occurs in the social and cultural reality, and formal education becomes unable to give a real foundation for all that relates to the culture of the school as a landmark.

No: 87
Title: National Case Law Regarding Judicial Stamp Duties in Disputes between Consumers and Professionals from the Perspective of European Jurisprudence
Pages 685-689
Author(s): Liana-Teodora Pascariu*
Open Access

Full Text 87
The article analyses the relevant legal provisions from the GO no. 80/2013 regarding stamp duties published on 29June 2013 in disputes between consumers and professionals. According to doctrine and jurisprudence, in disputes between consumers and professionals, usually the consumers don’t pay any duties; therefore we will make a particular characterization of the obligation of taxation from the perspective of the professionals. In the case law of the European Court of Human Rights, the Court decided in several occasions if national law violates the conditions of proportionality from the perspective of article no. 1 of the First Additional Protocol of the European Convention, and the present study aims to search arguments for the exemption of taxations for the professionals.

No: 88
Title: The Main Structural Deficiencies on the Rural Labour Market and Employment Quality
Pages 690-701
Author(s): Daniela Pașnicu*, Gabriela Tudose
Open Access

Full Text 88
Economic and social importance of rural areas in the country's context is given by the significant weights on the area, population, gross value added, employment and by the high percentage of rural population who does not have any other form of income than the one earned from land use. The rural development strategy and the other programmatic documents for the period 2014-2020 have as the fundamental objectives revitalize rural areas, the agricultural sector to become an engine of growth and a source of jobs. This paper highlights through a comparative analysis between Romania and Member States of EU, the main structural deficiencies of agricultural sector and of rural labor market concerning to employment on economic sectors, the employment status, level of education and structure and dynamics of agricultural holdings. To capture the effect of structural weaknesses on the quality of employment in rural areas was used a sociological investigation which was designed by the authors of the paper, carried out in 2015 and aimed at collecting and analyzing information which formed the basis for assessing the employment potential in rural areas. The paper ends with principal conclusions identified as follow of data analyses and recommendations for active policies strands based on the transfer of labor from subsistence farming into the non-agricultural activities with added value, with growth potential and competitiveness and increasing employment quality.

No: 89
Title: Private Development of Road and Air Transport Market from Romania – Implications for the Economy
Pages 702-709
Author(s): Iulian Gabriel Păun*
Open Access

Full Text 89
Transport has an important role since the earliest periods of human history when certain routes were used for trade between different regions of the globe leading to the development of culture, spreading ideas and establishing strategic partnerships. The role of transport is extremely important for regional, national and world economic development because it stimulates the growth of other industries by creating the premises of a harmonious progress. Lately it can be noted an increase in air and road transport sector worldwide and this trend can be identified even in Romania. By 1990 the transport sector in Romania was totally controlled by the state, as otherwise the entire Romanian economy. Starting that year began appearing private initiatives to meet the needs of people who had to travel to other destinations. This paper aims to identify the effects of private air and road transports market growth in Romania.

No: 90
Title: Built Cultural Heritage. Perceptions, Attitudes and Opinions Met among the Population of Dâmbovita County (Romania)
Pages 710-719
Author(s): Gica Pehoiu*, Mihaela Sencovici
Open Access

Full Text 90
Preservation and protection of cultural sights represent nowadays an important issue within human communities, especially because they are interesting in terms of using tourism for local development. In this context, one may state that between the local community and the heritage sights there is a special relationship which highlights the connection between present and past and generates values such as identity, traditions, belongingness, social cohesion, etc. Approaching the issues of cultural heritage built among the population of a community surfaces a series of perceptions, attitudes as well as opinions of the inhabitants in relation to them.

No: 91
Title: Expression of SELF in and through the Romanian Language
Pages 720-726
Author(s): Cipriana-Elena Peica*
Open Access

Full Text 91
Romanian is a Romance language, characterized by several particularities that distinguish it from the other Romance languages. Some of the particular features of this Romance language are the grammatical ways in which self is expressed; these particularities have important consequences that are reflected in literary expression and are explained from a grammatical stand point. The purpose of this paper is to show how the expression of self is extremely interesting in Romanian from the morphological and syntactical point of view. In the first part of the paper, we will refer to the morphological particularities of Romanian with respect to the expression of self and we will consider the personal pronoun, the reflexive pronoun, the nominative case, the accusative case and the reflexive voice of Romanian verbs; the second part of the paper will detail the aspects reflected also in the Romanian syntax, presenting the subject and direct object syntactic functions. We want to point out in this paper how the grammatical peculiarities of this Romance language contributes to the semantic and stylistic richness of the language in general and to the semantics and style of expression of self in particular; both situations are reflected in particular in the fictional style of the language. 

No: 92
Title: The Issue of the Linguistic Structure Concept in Contemporary Romanian Syntax
Pages 727-731
Author(s): Cipriana-Elena Peica*
Open Access

Full Text 92
While it is fundamental for the linguistic system concept to be considered as a set of stable and interdependent structural rules, it is fundamental for the linguistic structure concept to be considered as a scheme of functional relationships, because the structure rules and the relationships are structural rules and relationships only if they ensure certain functions. This means that any minimal unit of a system belongs to that system if it has a function in a scheme of relationships, and it fulfils such function only if it belongs to a proper system. The concept of relationship has been theorized and clearly defined by Ferdinand de Saussure. In modern linguistics, this is a key point because everything in a natural language is based on relationships, starting with the linguistic sign – which is the result of a relationship between a signifier and a signified.

No: 93
Title: Saint Basil the Great on Confessing Sins and the Severity of Penitence
Pages 732-740
Author(s): Liviu Petcu*
Open Access

Full Text 93
Writing at about the middle of the 4th century, Saint Basil the Great, the bishop of Caesarea, has remained renowned for his ascetics and also for being a church canonist. He describes in detail the different categories of penitents and the type and duration of the repentance to which those who would commit sins of a sexual nature, murders or apostasies. Saint Basil does not conceive a confession in the absence of the priest, for he is the one who receives the secret confession, regulates the public one and imposes to the penitent the necessary canon in order for him to be healed of the disease that sin is. Therefore, a great role in designating the role of the penitent is played by the bishop or priest, who is described in numerous places by Saint Basil as being the “manager of repentance”. He is at the disposal of the ones he shepherds in order to listen to their confession and give them the canon they need. Saint Basil’s canon 34 imposes the secrecy of confession, as the role of the sacrament is not divulging the secrets of a man, causing a scandal or exposing him to the judgement of people. This study will introduce the reader in the teachings of Saint Basil the Great on confessing sins and the severity of penitence. The guidance which he offered in these respects remains eloquent for Christian clerics everywhere for good. 

No: 94
Title: Valorization of Specific New Educational Contents in Science Lessons
Pages 741-747
Author(s): Ana-Maria Aurelia Petrescu*, Luminița Mihaela Drăghicescu, Ioana Stăncescu
Open Access

Full Text 94
With the launch - in the early ‘80s -, of the “problematic of the contemporary world” concept, it was started for being used, in an associative manner, the concept of “New Educations”. That paradigm constitutes on specific contents generated beyond the traditional dimensions of education (intellectual, moral, aesthetic, technological, physical), and also answers to the requirements of education systems development, adapted to the changes of the actual world. In the literature, there are identified three practical ways of introducing “new education” in the context of national education systems: the introduction of new disciplines focusing on a particular type of education; the creation of specific teaching / training modules, mostly interdisciplinary, within traditional disciplines; the infusion of the messages related to new contents in the context of teaching of traditional disciplines. More, it was recorded an chive process of restructuring and reforming the curriculum devoted to Sciences (Physics, Chemistry and Biology).Based on those records, in the paper, we intend to consider a series of point of views of a representative sample of secondary students involved in the European FP7 project PROFILES, on considering the value of new education issues (economic education, entrepreneurship education, gender education and health education) introduced in Science lessons. The obtained results after applying a questionnaire with 12 items were related to those coming from discussions in focus groups and configured the idea that inserting specific content of new education in the science curriculum increased the attractiveness and enhanced the student’s learning motivation. 

No: 95
Title: The Role of Aesthetic Communication in Advertising
Pages 748-755
Author(s): Iasmina Petrovici*
Open Access

Full Text 95
What roles do aesthetic categories play in advertising imagery? How does aesthetic communication affect advertising? In light of such questions, this paper aims to point out the importance of aesthetic communication in advertising. It set off from a contextual discussion on the particularities of aesthetic communication in advertising imagery. Next, it elucidates the conceptual frame of such advertising component. To further highlight the aesthetic communication functions, this paper proceeds to revealing the primary aesthetic categories specific to advertising imagery. On the positive side, it points out the beauty, the sublime, the graciousness, the humor, the poetic etc. On the negative side, it reveals the ugliness, the grotesque, the monstrous etc. In the end, conclusive remarks reiterate the role of aesthetic communication in advertising.

No: 96
Title: Women in PR. A Romanian Perspective
Pages 756-765
Author(s): Amalia Petrovici*
Open Access

Full Text 96
Recent years have marked an influx of women into the practice of public relations, which generated a number of studies on the role of women in this field. Fitch & Third (2010: 2) noticed that the dominance of women in public relations defines the coding of public relations as “feminine”. The aim of the research is two-fold: to analyse the field of public relations and its defining dimensions, the perspective of women in the PR sector, respectively to identify what means the public relations for women working in this sector. The case study explores the correlation between the basic concept of public relations and the practice of public relations, the basic qualities for asuccessful career in public relations, trends, challenges and perspectives for the PR sector. As the research method, we have applied the questionnaire-based inquiry in some institutions, organizations and PR agencies from the county of Bacău, Romania. In Romania, we may notice an increasing preference of the female audience for the PR sector. The practice of public relations is an feminine activity because PR is an inciting domain that offers multiple challenges, such as building strategic relationships and spirit of initiative. Maintaining and consolidating relationships with publics should be a priority for public relations practitioners. Responsibility and professionalism should constitute priority lines in (re)configuring public relations. 

No: 97
Title: Entropic and Negentropic Transitional Model: A SemioPhysical Context
Pages 766-775
Author(s): Ioan G. Pop*, Ilie Soritau
Open Access

Full Text 97
The two very complex symbols, Bethel and Ai, are associated with two very specific axiological communicational sources for the people living on the earth, with information and knowledge transmitted in every possible direction, having a different impact on the listeners. BETHEL is considered to be the place where neentropic actions are happening, where Wisdom and goodness are speaking to all the smart people interested in the message. AI is the source of the entropic events, where complete chaos and madness spread outward to all the people of the city, where foolishness and evil have a permanent voice. The transitional processes are well-defined processes, aimed to create new emergent states, evil or goodness; also, using the Kuramoto weak coupled oscillators model as a basis in order to explain the entropic and negentropic transitions in different semi physical contexts by introducing the interaction parameter fp of faithfulness within the environment, represented in this context by the Pantokrator. The use of the transdisciplinary knowledge search window as a new methodology works with the top-down and bottom-up levels of knowledge, integrating complementarily the advanced knowledge through DIMLAK (Data, Information, Messages, Learning, and Advanced Knowledge) model. The apokataphatic method identifies the most probable trend of the transitional processes in a given context x, as a pattern of three main questions: what is, what isn't, and how does it work as a transitional process in a synergistic context (space-wise, time-wise, and act-wise). 

No: 98
Title: The Contribution of the Human Element in Shipping Companies
Pages 776-783
Author(s): Liliana Viorica Popa*
Open Access

Full Text 98
In the maritime context, the term human element embraces anything that influences the interaction between a human and any other human or system or machine aboard ship. The human element has been with us since time immemorial, but it is the humans, systems and machines that have changed, not only through the increase in technology, but also because of the need for operators to maintain the competitive edge by reducing running costs, which has resulted in a reduction in manning scales and the employment of multi-national, multi-cultural and multi-lingual crews. There is no such thing as ‘the perfect ship’, because the end product is inevitably a compromise between what is needed to satisfy the regulations, what is absolutely necessary to fulfil the operational role, and what is affordable. But, it must be ‘fit for purpose’. However, the global nature of our business is such that not only is the maritime workforce multinational and multicultural, but also there can be differing interpretations of international guidelines and inconsistent standards in lifestyle, training and education. The aim of the paper is to analyze specific styles of performance management met within the shipping sector, as well as the issues relate to performance management that shipping companies are facing in order to better understand the capabilities and challenges of the sector. 

No: 99
Title: The Impact of the Training Programmes Over the Teacher`s Performance and Professionalism in the Pre-University Education
Pages 784-791
Author(s): Constanța Popescu, Antoaneta Roxana (Georgescu) Surcel*
Open Access

Full Text 99
The human resources competitiveness from the pre-university education represents a strategic priority of the Ministry of the National Education and Scientific Researches for Romania in 2016. The favorable background provided by the training schemes/programs developed by the Sectorial Operational Program in the Human Resources Domain allowed a numerous attendance of teachers at training courses, which had an impact over the improvement of the educational system and an increasing of its adaptability to the labor market requirements, promoting lifelong learning and acquiring competences for personal and professional development. This research presents the most important results referring to the impact of the training programs, developed for the last five years in the South Muntenia Region, targeting the teachers’ performance and professionalism. The figures were obtained by questionnaires applied to a number of teachers from the pre-university education system of South Muntenia Region. These teachers develop their activity in theoretical, technological and vocational high schools. These figures provided a general overview of the today’s training system of teachers (suppliers, duration, costs, certificates, organization, and strengths, improving aspects) and also details referring to motivation, the quality of the training programs, facilities, their impact over the teaching process, future training needs, needs adapted to the specialized culture, methodic and pedagogic activity. 

No: 100
Title: Comparative Study on the Lower Limbs Explosive Force Measurement by Classical and Modern Methods
Pages 792-797
Author(s): Adrian Pricop, Nicoleta Leonte, Ofelia Popescu*
Open Access

Full Text 100
Human development was permanently conditioned and achieved by physical motion. Physical fitness together with cardiorespiratory fitness highlights the development level of the physical capacity of the human being. The explosive force (the detent) is a basic parameter that emphasizes the physical fitness level. The present study proposes to make a comparative analysis on the measurement of the lower limbs explosive force by two different methods: a classical method (the Alpha Fit test) and a modern method (the Myotest device).The Myotest device does not calculate and does not measure only the muscle performance, but it is a tool for improvement and analysis, whose purpose is to optimize the sports performance. The Alpha Fit test, conducted by direct recording with the metric strip, is based on measuring of the height jump. This paper aims at highlighting the most accurate method of measuring the detent. The modern methods of measurement, by means of the devices used, confer a special fidelity of the measured parameters, these being more successful than the classical methods of measuring the detent. The study subjects are represented by male and female students from the University Polytechnic of Bucharest. As a result of the analysis and of correlating the parameters registered between the two methods of measuring the explosive force at the lower limbs level (the Alpha Fit and the Myotest), there was found that there is a significant difference between the classical testing method (the Alpha Fit) and the modern method (the Myotest). 

No: 101
Title: Integral Formation and Metacognition from the Mathematical Dimension
Pages 798-806
Author(s): Maria de Lourdes Rodriguez-Peralta*, Juan Salvador Nambo-de-los-Santos, Paula Flora Aniceto-Vargas
Open Access

Full Text 101
This article presents the results of an investigation to establish the relationship between metacognition and the construction of mathematical knowledge when this is carried out in a mathematics classroom of an engineering area. In order to identify the elements that enable implementation of cognitive and metacognitive strategies that will to lead the continuous improvement of student academic performance from the mathematics dimension. The methodology used was the construction of a conceptual cartography with metacognition as the central theme, and through its eight axes of analysis, the documentary sources were the epistemological cognitive and didactic areas. The framework was the socio formative approach, the integral formation guided by the educational model of the educational institution: the Instituto Politecnico Nacional, within the area of engineering. The mathematics subjects are taught in the first four semesters of the academic program, so students are aged in the range of 19–22 years. Results: a direct relationship was evident between the elements of a metacognitive process and mathematics through problem solving. The work allows us to conclude the importance of articulating that the cognitive dimension (in this case in the field of mathematics), metacognitive dimension and emotional dimension developed by solving problems could promote specific and essential competences of graduate profile of an engineer.

No: 102
Title: The Implementation of Different Types of Portfolio in the Assessment of Student's Knowledge and Performance
Pages 807-815
Author(s): Ioana Roman*, Roman Raoul
Open Access

Full Text 102
Portfolio can show us an evidence of students learning during a semester or year for a discipline. It is a complex evaluation tool. It represents an alternative to standardized tests, leading to the emission of a value judgment based on a set of results, reflecting the complexity of the development of the person who prepares it. The comparing study was done between three types of portfolios applied in the evaluation of students from second and third year, students from Department for Teacher Training (DPPD) from USAMV Cluj-Napoca. First type is the portfolio of development, elaborated by groups of students (four students by each group) and used as a portfolio of progress for the discipline Didactics of Chemistry. Second type is an individually portfolio; it is used for students’ assessment at the Teaching Practice. Third type is an e-Portfolio use for assessment of students’ knowledge for the discipline Computer-aided Instruction. This paper has focused on systematic evaluation of influence which achievement of portfolios can generate in training of future teachers. There was determined a tendency to minimize the role of portfolios in this training, although from the point of view of the learner it is a complex activity. Teachers, who used portfolios like a variant of assessment, generally agreed that it was a holistic qualitative evaluation method, which involves students in educational activities. Majority of students considered that portfolios were an interesting experience; they had an active role which made them to know better their possibilities to study and learn.

No: 103
Title: About Recourse within Recourse: Opinions, Solutions, Jurisprudence
Pages 816-821
Author(s): Angelica Roșu*
Open Access

Full Text 103
The law issue under discussion aims the admissibility of appeal against the judgment ordering the suspension of trial proceedings, judgment pronounced by a court of appeal (i.e. an appeal court), when the (final) judgment to be delivered by this court, it is excluded from the judicial remedy of appeal. This approach focused on logical analysis was necessary because the old rules of Civil Procedure Code excluded from this judicial remedy the judgments pronounced by the courts of appeal (art. 2441 Civil Procedure Code, 1865). The new Civil Procedure Code no longer provides this exception. According to art. 414 par. (1) of Civil Procedure Code, the decision is final only in situations where the suspension was decided by the High Court of Cassation and Justice. The issue of admissibility of the appeal has been decided differently by the doctrine, and the jurisprudence reflected the different doctrinal opinions. Given that the course of proceedings has been stopped, we believe that the access to a judicial remedy is an issue that concerns the right of access to a court, right as established by art. 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights. The aforementioned legal text generates different solutions since the requirement of predictability and clarity established by the Convention is not satisfied.

No: 104
Title: The Impact of Theory of Mind over Ethics and Law; Few Arguments
Pages 822-831
Author(s): Viorel Rotilă*
Open Access

Full Text 104
Due to the situation in a social context, the theory of mind (ToM) has inevitably moral coordinates. Even if it is formatted in the context of evolution, having the character of a survival strategy, it is shaped by ethical vectors as well. In Law there are two institutions whose existence is based on a ToM: negligence and intention and in both cases operated the presumption of the ability to know what was in the mind of the person at the time of committing an illegal act or of the intent of this type. Both situations presume the ability of an adequate ToM capable of understanding a person's mental states. The demonstration of ToM legal role is the proof of its moral role; the discussions about the ToM have significant consequences for ethics. If we admit that ethics is based on the ToM as a mediator of relations with the other, we can consider that the space of ethics is open by every appeal to a ToM. If we accept the access in varying degrees to an adequate ToM and if we also accept the role of the ToM in the knowledge and moral behavior, then the access to the theory of mind becomes an important variable for morality. If the access to an adequate ToM is dependent on the cognitive abilities and if the competence in the development of the ToM has a significant impact on moral behavior, the cognitive development is an essential variable of moral competence. 

No: 105
Title: The Theory of Mind is Part of the Theory of Society, Both Being Integrated into the World Reality Thesis
Pages 832-844
Author(s): Viorel Rotilă*
Open Access

Full Text 105
The theory of mind is a way of relating consciousness to a certain dimension of the world, namely to its social region, being an essential element for the social existence and ensuring the foundations of mutual understanding. The theory of mind is the most important social integrator, the face of this integration being the theory of the society, as a particular form of aggregation of mind theories that govern the relationships with others; thus, to the theory of mind a theory of the society corresponds. From an evolutionary perspective, the essence of the theory of mind is the survival strategy centered on the ability to predict the behavior of other people, namely on the anticipation specific intentionality; it is the gateway to the complexity of social relations, the third degree representations ensuring the highest level of integration due to the ability of anticipation and prediction that it brings along. The theory of mind is a specific form of intent, characterized by metallization: orientation to identifying mental states. The world reality thesis shall be applied to the theory of mind: we do not “issue a theory ”at every reunion with a known person, but we use the previous one every time, possibly updated in the light of our further experiences / comments / interests. Any theory of mind is “a reality thesis.” The world reality thesis has a stabilizing function, generating a reference context in a multitude of possibilities.

No: 106
Title: Teachers’ Efficacy Beliefs: Narrative Systematic Review
Pages 845-854
Author(s): Elena - Mirela Samfira (Mandache)*
Open Access

Full Text 106
Teachers’ beliefs represent an important element in teaching and classroom management. Teachers’ efficacy represent a base concept in beliefs domain researches, because of its correspondence with teachers’ availability to apply innovative methods, and to remain in educational system. This paper presents a systematic narrative review of articles, which approach teachers’ beliefs, indexed in PsycInfo, ERIC, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, and Google Scholar. There were analyzed 22 articles (N=3572) which used as a research instrument, different scales to measure teachers’ efficacy. This concept was introduced fourth decades ago, as a highly predictor of pupils’ motivation and learning being a measure of perceived capability. The results of this review reflected the decisive role of teachers’ beliefs about efficacy in pupil and subjects to teach approach, pupil control, on pupil motivation, achievement and learning, their beliefs acting as a filters, frames, or guides. Teachers’ beliefs exist as a complex system, and one of the main challenges is to change those beliefs, which are dysfunctional. The complexity on this concept generated three other concepts: self-efficacy, general efficacy, and collective efficacy. 

No: 107
Title: Towards Value-Based Professional Ethics in Public Administration
Pages 855-864
Author(s): Antonio Sandu*
Open Access

Full Text 107
The postmodern administration redefines its role as ‘instance of mediation’ between the citizen and politics. Public administration has a double purpose; maintaining a political position of axiological neutrality, while showing the citizen transparency and encouragement to participate in all stages of the public decision, from adopting and implementing to its evaluation. In this paper, we will argue the importance of a public administration centered on ethical values. Public good, alongside justice, can be considered a constitutive ethical value of any type of public administration, and the values of equity transparency and responsibility, as ethical operational values of a contemporary public administration system. The constitutive values make necessary the emergence and functioning of a system of social institutions –in this case, those related to public administration. The ethical operational values are those values that manage the functioning of an institutional system and establish its limitations. We bring a series of arguments for replacing the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic values with a distinction between constitutive and operational values, in the context of social-constructionist ethics development in public administration. 

No: 108
Title: The Establishment of Probation Systems in Romania and the Republic of Moldova
Pages 865-874
Author(s): Antonio Sandu*
Open Access

Full Text 108
The article targets a historiographical analysis of the establishment of probation in Romania and the Republic of Moldova as a system of social alternatives to the incarceration of persons who have committed crimes. The evolution of probation lies in the institutional perspective on an ascending track, so both countries seems to understand, at least at the level of public policies, the need for alternatives to the non-custodial punishment. The penal reform has included probation as central social institution in the system of recovery of people who have committed crimes.

No: 109
Title: Self-Image as a Predictor of Success in Career - An Analysis in the Field of Sciences
Pages 875-882
Author(s): Elena Ancuța Santi*, Gabriel Gorghiu
Open Access

Full Text 109
The human potential represents the highest point which can be reached by an individual in his/her development and requires the activation of all bio-psycho-physical resources. Among the factors that converge in the maximal development of the individual, it can be included the self-image, which may influence the success in life and the failure of personal actions. The self-image is a fundamental psychological structure and is involved in the holistic development of the personality, which is constructed through social interactions of the individual, through the internalization of models and experiences. In this respect, the present paper highlights a number of components of the self-image that can be found in the psychological portrait of science specialists. The students who think to a career in the field of sciences tend to design at the level of self-image, specific features of this field, identifying so with their models in the psychological plan. For each person, it is important to choose a profession that meets their needs and expectations. The self-image is one of the factors that make the correspondence between desires and possibilities of accomplishment, but also of the success in carrier and life. The study was done based on the feedback offered by the secondary students to a specific questionnaire applied after the implementation of inquire-based science teaching modules, developed in the frame of the European FP7Project entitled: “PROFILES - Professional Reflection Oriented Focus on Inquiry-based Learning and Education through Science”. 

No: 110                                
Title: Training New Teachers in a Changing World
Pages 883-890
Author(s): Eitan Simon*
Open Access

Full Text 110
To combine good teaching, educational reform and continuously improve the efficiency of the education system requires a workforce able to meet society’s expectations. Teacher-training institutions still deliberate on the optimal way to select and recruit candidates appropriate for teaching and the criteria for their evaluation. Research on teacher-training has attempted to identify the personal characteristics that teaching candidates should exhibit, and teacher-training focuses on several factors: the background of the applicants; their motives for choosing teaching; their attitude to education and their expectations from training. The fact that many graduates of teacher-training institutions drop out of the profession raises questions concerning the training costs of preparing teachers for school, the quality of the training which may cause teachers to quit their work, the profession’s status in society and the manner of induction into the profession, which may by comparison, have less orderly induction procedures than other professions. Relevant aspects from this research for the purpose of the present research are: who are those who turn to education. This paper includes a history of teacher-training in Israel relating especially to the rapid changes in education in the 21st century and the era of IOT (Internet of Things). Out of a desire to improve the evaluation process of student teachers we constructed and modified the process for the assessment of student teachers’ practicum experience. Integration of new assessment tools and a new curriculum can improve teacher-training to create a worthy teaching candidate equipped appropriately with 21st century teaching skills. 

No: 111
Title: Blood Oxygen Dynamic, during the Effort Test in Conjunction with the New Technologies for Sports Horse Training
Pages 891-898
Author(s): Eugenia Şovarel*
Open Access

Full Text 111
The purpose of this study was to reveal the oxygen blood content in horses, due to training for sport performances, in order to sustain the importance of equestrian sports for multidimensional education, as a interdisciplinary combination of veterinary medicine and sport. The quantity of circulating red cells and hemoglobin, carried by the arterial blood, influences favorably the amount of circulated oxygen. Ensuring a higher aerobic capacity in horses used in equestrian sports, by increasing the oxygen transport capacity, associated with erythrocytes realizing through spelch no contraction, is a factor of prime importance. The present work aim at measuring the values of arterial oxygen in the effort test, during the different periods of training. Increasing the speed determine a decrease in the partial pressure of O2 no matter which month was assessed, the most important being in heating in the third month (13,46±0,05 KP), while the lowest was also in the third month at 500 m/minute speed (7,59±0,04 KP), most differences being highly significant. It can be noted a decrease in pO2value, which is less important compared to the second month of training. Understanding the influence and interaction of factors dependent or independent of the animal body, in conditions of health security for sport horses, go to the application of innovative methods of training appropriate to obtain athletic performance. On international level the importance of this topic is seen in the necessity of knowing the dynamic of oxygen levels. These researches lead to obtain horse performances but also to avoid illness situation. 

No: 112
Title: Research Over Blood pH Dynamic Values in Horses used in Complete Trial Competitions
Pages 899-904
Author(s): Eugenia Şovarel*
Open Access

Full Text 112
The purpose of this study was to reveal the pH content of blood in sport horses, in order to sustain the importance of equestrian sports for multidimensional education, as a interdisciplinary combination of veterinary medicine and sport. During equestrian competition, the chemical energy necessary to sustain the horse effort is synthesized in an over whelming proportion through lactic anaerobe metabolic path. Biologic material used for research was represented by sport horses well trained for complete trials competitions (Eventing). To determine pH values, the test was conducted over 2 days (1-steeplechase and cross-country trials, 2-jumping trial). These kinds of trials require maximal and sub-maximal effort intensity and need both speed and jumping skills. From the horses participating in the test there were collected venous blood sample. The obtained values were statistically calculated and also there were determined the difference significations. pH values were based on the intensity of effort so that the maximal and sub-maximal efforts leans towards acidity (acidosis tendency), low and middle efforts towards alkalinity. The statistics allowed understanding the biochemical and physiological mechanisms that lead to poor results in horse sports. This phenomenon is common and represents a constant challenge for the physician, coac hand horse owner for finding new training methods appropriate to obtain sports performance. On international level the importance of this topic is seen in the necessity of knowing the dynamic pH levels. These modifications appear during different types of training and trials. These researches lead to obtain horse performances but also to avoid illness situation. 

No: 113
Title: Teachers’ Perceptions Concerning the Characteristics of a Learning Environment Dedicated to Science Education
Pages 905-910
Author(s): Ioana Stăncescu*, Ana-Maria Aurelia Petrescu, Luminiţa Mihaela Drăghicescu
Open Access

Full Text 113
The study of the disciplines from the Sciences area (Chemistry, Physics, Biology) is essential for handling the students with scientific concept, and equip students with the necessary skills with the view to produce an optimal adaptation to the specific requirements of knowledge based society related to the forming of positive attitudes towards science. To achieve such goals, it is very important for science teachers to create a suitable learning environment, enabling so the students to develop autonomy in their actions and thoughts, particularly to take control of their own learning. Only in an appropriate learning environment, students can capitalize in a maximal way their own learning experiences; they can form their skills of investigation, experimentation and abilities to operate independently and effectively in a given situation. The present paper is based on the analysis of the teachers’ perceptions concerning the characteristics that must be present in an optimal learning environment for sciences. The analysis was performed in the frame of the European project called PROFILES, and involved teachers from secondary education who answered to a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire items were aimed directly to some features of the learning environment such as: use of the teaching student-centered philosophy, taking into account the prior students’ knowledge and skills, as well as the proposals of involving the students in lesson planning, promoting communication skills, guiding students on developing social dimension and questions about scientific issues, promoting their analytical thinking, promoting an effective collaborative learning etc. 

No: 114
Title: Postcoloniality and Global Affiliation: the International Writer
Pages 911-921
Author(s): Angela Stănescu*
Open Access

Full Text 114
The present paper explores the discourses of global affiliation and transnational identity informing the professions of personal and artistic self-identification characterizing some of the most important representatives of the postcolonial novel in English: V. S. Naipaul, Salman Rushdie and Timothy Mo. While anatomizing in their writing the historical, political, social and cultural resorts of their endemic non-belonging, we aim at analyzing the discourse by which they construe and articulate their self-assumed status of ‘international writers’.

No: 115
Title: Comparative Analysis of the Biological and Motor Potential of School Population from Romania (Urban and Rural Areas)
Pages 922-934
Author(s): Monica Stănescu*, Corina Ciolcă, Marius Stoicescu
Open Access

Full Text 115
The population health state is conditioned by the biological and motor potential of the individuals. It is one of reason for what we identified a permanent interest on the assessment of somatic, functional and motor human potential. The relation between the individual development and the environment influence, represents an important topic for many studies, among these the analysis on life environment influence it was noted. The accepted opinion is that children development is influenced by many internal and external factors, biological and social, and the specialty literature emphasize a tendency of decrease of children motor capacity in the same time with the overweight tendency. All these aspects have major social and economical implications at national level. This paper presents the results obtained under the national project Evaluation of somatic, functional and motor potential of the school population from Romania (2011 - 2012, MECTS, UNEFS), are search that sought to identify the bio-motor characteristics of students from Ist, Vth, IXth and XIIth grades. From the analysis of the data collected at national level, we can confirm that children biological and motor potential is influenced by life environment, and that between children from urban and rural environments there are significant differences on biological and motor development, on certain aspects. 

No: 116
Title: Study About the Psychological Profile of the Future Sport Managers
Pages 935-942
Author(s): Monica Stănescu*, Luciela Vasile, Rareş Stănescu
Open Access

Full Text 116
Being a sport manager requires certain personality traits of those who are interested in doing this job, and experts in this field explained why. Knowing these characteristics, they can support those who are training the managers in designing and implementing a vocational training program capable of supporting both the development of specific skills, and their personal development. This paper highlights the personality profile of the future sport managers and analyzes the activities dedicated to support their professional training. The research evaluated forty-seven (47) students from the sport management master program developed by the University of Physical Education and Sport from Bucharest. They had to complete a personality test (Siewert, 2007), a leadership test (Niehouse, 1983) and a temperament test (Eysenck,Eysenck, 1958). The information was centralized and interpreted by reference to the information in the literature. The results indicated that most students have the features necessary for a successful career in sport management. However, they must continue their strive to develop those traits that can ensure greater efficiency in their future occupation. Results are interpreted by gender, and fostering debates related to androgyny in sport management. 

No: 117
Title: Perception of the Rural and Urban Population about Healthcare in Romania during 1990-2010
Pages 943-950
Author(s): Maria Livia Ştefănescu*
Open Access

Full Text 117
The aim of the present paper is to analyze the opinions of Romanians regarding the quality of the healthcare. This study used self-assessed health (SAH ) data obtained from 13 representative samples during the period 1990-2010.We measured comparatively the intensity of the polarization and inequality healthcare aspects in rural and urban areas too. The indicators which were selected are specific for ordinal variables. Concerning the healthcare in Romania, the polarization phenomenon is usually greater in the villages. Contrary, the inequality between the perception of the individuals is in general more accentuated in the cities.

No: 118
Title: Audience Dynamics and Market Share Transfer
Pages 951-956
Author(s): Poliana Stefanescu*
Open Access

Full Text 118
The concept of audience changed over the time depending on new theoretical and empirical axes׃ the sender approach and the receiver approach. The sender approach represents the studies conducted by media companies as a marketing activity. Those companies are interested in the public or audience as a market that buys their products and provides benefits for the share holders. The receiver approach is mainly developed by public and »or academic institutions to investigate the media consumption and their effects (on short or long term) on the public. Based on audience study for Romanian TV channels we will analyze the evolution of audience figures from the sender perspective. We used data from the National Audience Study. Conclusions will be drawn by applying niches theory. This analysis can explain the mutations we see on the media market, the transfer of the audience from an old medium to a newer one.

No: 119
Title: Innovation Progress at International Level
Pages 957-964
Author(s): Mirela-Madalina Stoian, Ana-Maria Nica*
Open Access

Full Text 119
Innovation worldwide is a key factor for increasing competitiveness and ensuring progress, being an effective way to respond to different challenges of climate change and sustainable development, and also an important way of adaptation to new social and economic needs. The article offers an analysis of the evolution of innovation at an international level during the period 2007-2014, putting under the loupe 34 countries in Europe. The analysis is based on values of summary innovation index proposed by the European Commission to measure the competitiveness of European countries in terms of innovation activity. Another direction of analysis pursued in this paper is to identify the level of influence showed by a number of indicators, which contribute to the development of this summary innovation index, on the performance of the analyzed countries.

No: 120
Title: Gendered Constructions of Romania’s Tourist Destination Image
Pages 965-974
Author(s): Oana Mihaela Stoleriu*
Open Access

Full Text 120
In the context of a rich international literature on country branding, this paper brings new evidence for Romania. The paper explores a new approach in the analysis of Romania's destination image construction in regards with the gender representations communicated through tourism promotion campaigns. Given the frequent sexist representations of Southern and Eastern countries in Western tourism advertising, the paper analyses there production of a similar sexist imagery for Romania, meant to fit the Western male tourists' expectations and confining the Romanian people and destinations into stereotyped gendered roles.

No: 121
Title: Dimension of Severe Poverty in Romania – a Dynamic Picture of Social Cohesion
Pages 975-983
Author(s): Cristina Stroe*, Silvia Cojanu, Eva Militaru, Codruta Dragoiu
Open Access

Full Text 121
The paper presents the dynamics of severe poverty, as a minimum threshold of poverty calculated at 40% of median income per equivalent adult. This severe form of poverty is affecting a relatively large mass of population and represents a step towards material deprivation and social exclusion. The severe poverty is an important indicator, along with the common set of European indicators on poverty and social exclusion, developed and quantified by all European countries. To capture as much of this diagnosis of severe poverty as possible, the analyses in dynamics takes into account a multitude of features such as the residence, gender, household size or number of people in the household, age of household head, etc. These assessments capture the dynamic evolution of severe poverty incidence during 2008-2013/2014, expressed by severe poverty rates. Because the own-consumption size is an important element especially for poor households, or in rural areas, this component was included in determining the disposable income per equivalent adult, when the severe poverty rates were estimated. Databases belong to the Household Budget Survey, conducted by the National Institute of Statistics, Romania, during that period. Shaping this complex picture of severe poverty, especially through the analysis of those determinants, represents a first step toward knowledge of an important dimension of social cohesion. Highlighting the dynamics of this dimension is significant for the analysis of how the severe poverty has evolved over time and contributes, even indirectly, to offering an important feedback in the light of the Europe 2020 Strategy. 

No: 122
Title: Cosmic Thinking as a Factor of Harmony of Being
Pages 984-992
Author(s): Galina Svyatokhina*
Open Access

Full Text 122
Modern society is characterized by a high level of scientific and technological development. But this does not solve the problem of crises in different spheres of life. The cause of the situation we are facing is seen in the tradition of abstract scientific thinking. Emerging in the New Time, this tradition excluded the spiritual constituent from the systemic consideration. This methodological approach resulted in problems in spiritual and ethical development of man. The purpose of the article is to reveal the algorithm of the holistic cosmic thinking contributing to spiritual and ethical development of man and the harmony of Being. The object of the research is to reveal the holistic approach of cosmic thinking, its universal principles, world view peculiarities, and the system of interrelations. The research methodology is based on the holistic systemic approach stemming from the ideas of the Teaching of Living Ethics and other philosophical works. The research employs comparative philosophical analysis of the principles underlying the Bases of Being and their synthesis. As a result of the research we obtained an algorithm of cosmic thinking expressing by itself a triune dynamics of ontological, epistemological and axiological aspects of Reality. Representing by itself a synthetic unity of life, cognition and self-perfection, the algorithm shows their systemic interrelation and mutual influence in the process of cosmic Being.

No: 123
Title: The Effects of Migration to EU Countries in the Case of Active Population in the North-West Region, Romania
Pages 993-1000
Author(s): Arpad Szarka*
Open Access

Full Text 123
This paper approaches the causes and effects of human and labor force migration, two highly dynamic phenomena generated by globalization and the loss of stability caused by political and social conflicts from countries with low standards of living and social security. Globally, remittances to developing countries rose in2014 by 6.3%, i.e. USD 414 billion, this sum rising to EUR 540 billion by 2016, according to the World Bank. The Romanian migration to the Western countries requires a comprehensive and complex approach. The data analyzed here regards the North-West Region of Romania, especially the case Bihor County. Officially, this migration reaches low levels, i.e. about 200.000 persons. Though, the illegal one is appreciated to reach 1.7 to 2.3 million persons. Its effects are mainly due to the loss of tax payers, the weakening of social solidarity in the social security system, the remittance of important amounts of money in the origin countries, the contact with other economic, social, or cultural models. At the same time, the effects of migration on families, especially on children left at home, have material and social consequences, affecting both the individual and community, this problematic situation requiring, in order to be solved, a complex approach. 

No: 124
Title: Economic, Social and Environmental Effects of Electric Traction
Pages 1001-1006
Author(s): Mihaela Stet*
Open Access

Full Text 124
This study highlights the most important social, economic and environmental effects of the electric traction. There had been revealed the economic and social benefits, but also the costs involved by the introduction of electricity action in rail and road transport. In rail transport, there are highlighted the additional impacts of electrification on the performance of rail operators. Regarding the environmental impact, it is emphasized also the extent to which the introduction of transport with electric vehicles helps to reduce pollution of the environment and, in particular, of the urban air quality.

No: 125
Title: Partnerships of Educational with Local Community and Their Benefits
Pages 1007-1013
Author(s): Mihaela Stet*
Open Access

Full Text 125
The paper deals with the role of the relations of educational institutions with the local community, with its social actors. These relations are determined by the characteristics of the community, but also by the competence of the institution to initiate and develop partnerships with it. There have been highlighted the problems of educational institution that can be solved by setting up partnerships, potential partners who can contribute to solve them, and as well as the roles that can be assigned to such demarches. In particular, it treated the issue of partnerships of medical schools with existing organizations at local community level.

No: 126
Title: Between Life and Books: Words
Pages 1014-1021
Author(s): Ileana Tănase*
Open Access

Full Text 126
Words play a crucial role in our existence. They are the fundament of the entire life schemata of the human being, and the very world of a subject of consciousness often identifies with them. The present article is aimed at analysing the mediating function of the word in the logic of life representation, as well as in its transfiguration in the book of an emblematic thinker: N. Steinhardt’s Jurnalul fericirii.

No: 127
Title: Is the Progress Enough in the Actual Equation of the Social-Economic Becoming?
Pages 1022-1026
Author(s): Alexandru Trifu*
Open Access

Full Text 127
The fact that we are interested in this era is the finding of a modus vivendi, both at zonal communities level, and the national, regional and world level. The globalization phenomenon, considered in the last decades, as being the main cause of the new human (world)realities, it is followed by the reactions of the participants to this holistic production and distribution system of the commodities (goods) and services in today economy and society. These functional components, subject to powerful and diverse challenges of human, material, cultural, religious and economic nature, are exactly the national communities. What they have to do? First of all, to progress themselves, to permanent modify their status and existential level. And how the progress is primordially based on the population dynamics, we consider that the human factor is responsible for the imperative process of the continuing life and activities (acts).But, on the other hand, we consider in this paper, that the equation of the functioning and upward trend of any society (economy) depends on the qualitative and structural factors, which influence the human resource and, consequently, influence the permanent improvement of the life standard and of the Macroeconomic indicators in evaluation for each national entity. 

No: 128
Title: The Mutiny on the Russian Battleship Potemkin in the British Press
Pages 1027-1038
Author(s): Ștefan-Cătălin Trofin*
Open Access

Full Text 128
The beginning of the twentieth century heralded the major changes that the autocratic Russia of Czar Nicholas II would have to manage. The precarious existence of the peasants and the majority of the townspeople, coupled with internal and external conflicts had turned The Russian Empire into a powder keg ready to explode. A first sign of this explosive situation was shown on 22nd January 1905, "the bloody Sunday", when soldiers of the imperial guard opened fire on unarmed protesters, who demanded only to hand the Tsar a petition expressing their discontent with the living conditions, they were subjected. The news of the massacre at the gates of Winter Palacewas spreading rapidly causing shock and terror in the hearts of the people and also the desire to bath in the blood this injustice and with it the entire autocratic Tsarist regime. The news reached the ears of sailors aboard Potemkinbattleship, amplifying the already present spirit of revolt among the crew because of the poor conditions and the intransigence of the commanders. The tension was high and the revolt requires only a trigger that was produced on27th June 1905 when the crew protested and refused to consume altered food. The officers who intervened brutally to punish the leaders of the mutiny were killed, others were taken prisoner. So, the sailors took control of the vessel. Needing fuel and food Potemkin Battleship was first directed to Odessa, but he was banished, and then to Constanta. Aware of the gravity of the events in Russia and interested in the fate of a rival power, at the time, the British have turned with interest the attention of the facts that the British press has presented in detail throughout the crisis, manifesting rather sympathy for the courage of the Potemkin sailors. 

No: 129
Title: The Great Romanian Peasant Revolt of 1907 Reflected in the British Press
Pages 1039-1052
Author(s): Ștefan-Cătălin Trofin*
Open Access

Full Text 129
Erupted on the background of ample domestic unrest, The Great Romanian Peasant Revolt of 1907 had benefited increased attention from the European chancelleries and press, due to the destructions caused and the brutality that was stifled by the Romanian authorities. The British diplomacy and the British press have expressed a keen interest in its development especially due to the ample campaign orchestrated by the Jewish organizations in London, which identified the uprising, started in Moldova and then extended across the country, as a broad anti-Semitic movement. But detailed analysis of the situation, the government statements and the Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Minister of Great Britain in Bucharest reports revealed that the background of the uprising was notanti-Semitism (even though there were many Jewish properties destroyed) but provided by the poor condition of Romanian peasant.

No: 130
Title: Comparative Analysis towards Therapeutically Story and its Role in Child’ Life
Pages 1053-1058
Author(s): Monica Turturean*
Open Access

Full Text 130
In this article we will try to realize a comparative study in order to find out if the therapeutically story has a positive or a negative role for healing the child ‘problems The purpose of this study is to identify the perception of psychologists and psychotherapists regarding the effects of therapeutically stories in children ‘life The study is based on data obtained from the application of a sample survey which studies the opinion of psychologists and psychotherapists regarding the role of therapeutically story. The sample size was 42 psychologists and 42 psychotherapists from Iasi County.

No: 131
Title: Dynamics of Migration in Romania and Management of Financing Instruments
Pages 1059-1067
Author(s): Oana Vasile*, Armenia Androniceanu
Open Access

Full Text 131
Changes in the international context in recent years have caused tensions and conflicts, having an impact on population and producing an effect of acceleration of the migration phenomenon. Following the escalation of conflicts, the states, their governments and international organizations, including the European Union, have adapted their strategies and policies to face the exodus of immigrants. Our study presents and analyses the dynamics of the migration in Romania during 2010-2015 and the management of the dedicated European funds. The aim of this study is to identify the main positive and negative aspects resulted from the use of the financial instruments in the area of migration in Romania, considering the fact that these are essential to identify ways of improving Romania's capacity to manage migration. We used SWOT analysis on Romania's case in our research methodology. This study is aimed to address relevant topics regarding the evaluation of migration in Romania. Furthermore, the specialized institutions may consider our recommendations on how to improve the management of EU funds allocated in the area of migration in Romania. 

No: 132
Title: The Role of Monitoring Raters in Ensuring Accurate and Meaningful Test Scores. Case Study: RFL Examinations
Pages 1068-1076
Author(s): Lavinia Vasiu*, Antonela Arieșan
Open Access

Full Text 132
Providing accurate and meaningful test scores is an extremely important issue especially in the case of high-stakes examinations like the one considered here: the RFL examination, level B2, which practically conditions the admission of students to an academic program in Romanian. The paper aims to describe and explain how data regarding the achievement of raters are collected and analyzed in order to ensure rating accuracy and rater reliability. Monitoring, co-ordination, standardization measures all aim at dealing with problems of leniency, inconsistency or severity of raters. The paper details the procedures used for calculating rating accuracy, intra-rater reliability, inter-rater agreement in the case of marking both receptive and productive components of the RFL examination. 

No: 133
Title: Overview of Organizational Culture in Professional Emergency Services in the Timis
Pages 1077-1083
Author(s): Irina Vastag (Vlăduțescu)*
Open Access

Full Text 133
The cultural characteristics of today’s society, with their numerous multicultural and intercultural elements, make the study of organizational culture become very tempting. Each organization has a distinct personality, determinedly the values, beliefs, principles shared by its members. The present study centers on the problem of organizational culture of professional emergency services in the Timis county, a rather recent institution, in the first line of public services, so as to bring about unavoidable changes. The idea of a studying and identifying the characteristics of organizational culture of the professional emergency services in the Timis county is extremely useful, as long as there has been no previous research in this field targeting this type of structure inside the Ministry of Internal Affairs, and the data of this study could be a starting point for establishing the fundaments, outlining and applying managing strategies that prove to be adequate for the existing culture and organizational environment, suggesting ways of applying the programs of change in organizational culture. We have considered in this study a sample of 650 members of the staff of the Emergency Inspectorate Banat in Timis county, who have been given a questionnaire in order to identify their fundamental cultural dimensions and their attitude towards change. The results show that we can clearly outline the need of undertaking certain steps towards cultural-organizational change, targeting mostly a shifting in accent from an inward orientation, conservatory views, dogmatism, rigidity, the absence of transparency toward a more open, proactive attitude, toward flexibility and association. 

No: 134
Title: Romanian Political Practice Concerning the Functions of the President
Pages 1084-1093
Author(s): Crina Mihaela Verga*
Open Access

Full Text 134
The aim of this presentation is to make a comparative analysis between the constitutional regulation of the role of the President in Romania, defined by the functions exercised while in office, and the political practice in this matter, in the light of some decisions of the Constitutional Court. This paper is a study structured in two parts. The first one presents a general overview of the Romanian president’s functions, according to the constitutional provisions, namely representation of the state; guarantee of certain fundamental values, such as national independence, unity and territorial integrity of the country; mediation among state powers, as well as between the state and society. The second part of this study refers to some relevant aspects from Romanian political practice concerning the performance of the last two functions previously enumerated. The actual manner in which Romanian presidents exercised their role determines us to outline certain tendencies. In this regard, by its decisions pronounced in the matter, the Constitutional Court has provided a broad, even subjective interpretation of the prerogatives of the head of state in the execution of the two functions mentioned above. The attitude of the Constitutional Court has encouraged excesses of power – up to the limit of the constitutional provisions and even with their violation – committed by the presidents which have held the office of head of state. 

No: 135
Title: Three Basic Dimensions of Manipulative Message
Pages 1094-1100
Author(s): Ștefan Vlăduțescu*, Dan Valeriu Voinea
Open Access

Full Text 135
This study aims to clarify the role, place and dimensions of message in persuasive manipulation action. Used method is one of meta-analytic type. Main results of the research consist of revealing planned character of the message provided in the manipulation and highlighting the main aspects of manipulative message. It appears that in the action of manipulation, planned, well thought out, well structured, sequential and phased messages are always performed. In the center of manipulative message targets and actants of manipulation (those that act on targets) are situated. As original scientific contribution, there emphasized three basic dimensions of manipulative message: self-securing coordinate (conspiracy of the sources and targets), informational dimension (frag mentation and distortion of information) and psychological dimension (sensitizing the target to the manipulative message).

No: 136
Title: Diversity, Success, Motivation, Burnout and Professionalism among Young People in Moldova
Pages 1101-1108
Author(s): Mariana Zubenschi*
Open Access

Full Text 136
It is common that careers which offer social services are identifying different professional approaches depending on geographical mentality, either the former Soviet space or capitalist one. The dominants of political representations regarding professional standards and social carelessness influence the fingerprint relating to the contents, conjunctures, standards, statuses and professional acceptance of young into the professional society, where nor Moldova hasn't been excluded from this avid transformation. At the national level, the connection between education, research and needs (community or individual) should be revised as a condition for any changes. Currently, the career orientation process of young people are left to chance, without particular operation alwork efficiency, they are forced to cope with fluctuations in the systems, legislation gaps, formalism, state pressure, bureaucracy, different approaches in solving social problems, managerial failures etc. The article has the aims to elucidate the issues, in terms of capabilities that underpin international professional standards in creating new professions, taking into consideration motivation, success, professionalism and burnout where diversity is considered a circumstance career moderator in social perception of young professionals. Thissynthesis is operated logistically on research study carried out in Moldova, where the vocation confers a significant as a gift of self.

No: 137
Title: The Impacts of Albania Imports on Innovation, IT, Productivity
Pages 1109-1115
Author(s): Andia Pirja*
Open Access

Full Text 137
The imports in Albania compared to exports, are in higher levels. Still, the levels of imports compared to the border of Albania aren’t high, meanwhile the level of exports is increasing day by day. To measure the real levels and to compare the reports they have with each other, we study their effect in the innovation, technology, productivity and other factors related to the total economic situation in Albania. This paper aims to examine and study the impact that imports of Albania have towards productivity, innovation and technology (IT) of the country, using descriptive method of showing data and conclusions, by the research work made in different sources of information from the author herself. How the import from other Balkan countries affects the up-mentioned factors(Macedonia is taken as example to be based on for this group of countries) and how the import from Western Europe countries effects these factors (Germany is taken as example to be focused on for this group of countries).By studying these two cases of how importing from different groups of countries, effects the innovation, IT and productivity of Albania, we will reach the conclusion that our country benefits more from importing from different countries. This happens because the products that enter our country from Germany let us say, have better quality-price report compared to Macedonian products. We will see how these products impact positively by improving all3 up-mentioned factors (productivity, innovation and technology) more in details in the following pages of this paper.