Volume XXVII, Pages 1- 893 (30 July 2017)
The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences EpSBS
©2017 Published by the Future Academy
Edited by:
 Antonio Sandu, Tomita Ciulei & Ana Frunza
Articles: 1-103
Conference: MEPDEV 2nd edition 2016 - 2nd Central & Eastern European LUMEN International Conference - Multidimensional Education & Professional Development. Ethical Values
Dates: 17 - 19 November 2016
Location: Targoviste, Romania
Conference Chair(s): Antonio Sandu, Tomita Ciulei & Ana Frunza
Cover Page here

Title: Contents

Open Access


No: 1
Title: Editorial - Multidimensional Educational and Professional Development. Ethical Values in Central and Eastern European Countries
Pages 1-4
Author(s): Roxana Stratulat
Open Access

Guest Editor's Message 

No: 2
Title: The Development Of The Teaching Competencies. Guidelines And Instruments
Pages 5-11
Author(s): Carmen Alexandrache*
Open Access

Full Text 1
Objectives: This paper presents the importance of the mentor relation for the development of a didactical career. We consider that a successful mentor relation is represented by the professional qualities of the mentor and by the way these qualities are being exteriorized and adapted to the students. For students, the mentor is a model of learning, a support for the formation and improvement of the didactical performances. In this way, we exploited the data obtained from an educational research regarding the pedagogical practice of students who are preparing for different professional domains. Approach: Our propose starts from premise that the development of didactical competencies is a professional training process which is strongly influenced by the intervention of the mentor. Firstly, we present a few types of the mentor relation. Then, we identified the aspects which are optimizing the mentor relation. Also, we propose some guidelines and instruments to assist in the optimizing the relationship between the mentor and the mentored person. Using them it can be built the most appropriate model of mentoring relationship.Results: The relation between the mentor and the student is being built in time, this is why the mentor and the students are conceiving together the instruments for planning and developing the stages of their professional cooperation. The paper may be a real support for those who are interested to have a successful mentor relation 

No: 3
Title: The Educational Environment Of School And Its Implications On Learning
Pages 12-18
Author(s): Gabriela Alina Anghel, Gabriela Alina Anghel*
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Full Text 2
The present work aims to analyze the implications of the educational environment of school on learning with higher secondary school students. The theoretical framework this research relied on considers the functionalist-systemic paradigm of Talcott Parsons (1902-1979). According to Parsons, school, regarded as a social system, needs to answer the following functional imperatives: adapting the students to the institutional environment, reaching the educational goals, socio-educational integration, accepting and supporting cultural values, stimulating motivation for learning. The specific objectives of the research were: identifying the level of importance perceived by the students regarding the actions undertaken by the school on the individual level in order to support school success (SO1); identifying the level of importance perceived by the teachers regarding the collective educational actions undertaken in order to obtain school success (SO2). The research is of a standard type: qualitative and quantitative. The measurement of the result was realized using a Likert scale and the data interpretation was realized based on the interpretations obtained through the use of the bidimensional matrix of Nice &Gaps type. The results of the research have led to the following conclusion: the quality of the institutional and familial educational environment is a major condition for individual school success. This aspect is justified in the context of a direct correlation between the individual factors and the functional and structural capacity of the school and of the family. 

No: 4
Title: Romanian Healthcare Financing Based On The Diagnosis - Related Group Payment System (Drg)
Pages 19-28
Author(s): Valentin Marian Antohi*
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Full Text 3
Starting with 1983, when the DRG payment system was introduced in the United States as a control system of healthcare costs, the medical community expressed concern related to the impact this will have on the quality of medical assistance. Nevertheless, it is remarkable that a convergence was created between a payment pattern for hospitals and the efficient execution of medical services, by introducing the DRG payment system. Thus, through the DRG payment system, patients can be classified simultaneously based on their illness and based on the care costs, which ensures the possibility of associating types of patients with realised healthcare expenses. Implementing the DRG in Romania has started between 1999 – 2001, having as objectives the calculation of cost per patient, based on electronic records of patient data and grouping these in DRG, changing the financing method of hospitals, in view of increasing the quality and efficiency of care given to hospitalized patients. The DRG was developed in Romania based on defined strategies for different time periods, for a number of 409 hospitals, by elaborating the necessary legislative frame, developing a collection app for clinical data, encoding diagnoses based on International classification of Illness, classifying discharged patients into diagnoses groups (DRG), collecting and electronic reporting of clinical data, calculating necessary tariffs on patient levels / DRG, assessing clinical activity of hospitals based on discharged patient data.  

No: 5
Title: Thematic Evenings: Analyse Of A Pr Project In A Tourism Company
Pages 29-38
Author(s): Simona Bader*
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Full Text 4
The traditional methods used for communication in Public Relations prove sometimes to be insufficient or without expected results on targeted campaigns. Even small companies need to rethink and invent new strategies in such a way that their products and services have the desired impact to customers. The purpose of this paper is to make an analysis of a communication strategy which is less used in public relation: conceptual events named thematic evenings (TE) having as main items locations for possible cultural, gastronomic or recreational tourism. This paper is a retrospective study on a number of 15 events which took place during two years being designed in order to facilitate and spread specific cultural and touristic values from different parts of the world to the public. I made a multifactorial analysis taking as landmarks the number of participants, sociological distribution on age and professions, formal and informal impact of these thematic events. We discuss the outcomes, on medium and long term reflected on oral and written feed-back from customers. My own contribution is represented by the concept, design, logistic and realization of these conceptual events and the analysis of the feed-back taking into account different criteria.  The results and the conclusions of these 15 conceptual events are detailed in the text with tables and graphics which reflect the socio-professional distribution of participants and show the interest to cultural tourism in the west part of Romania. 

No: 6
Title: Managing Interpersonal Relationships 
Pages 39-47
Author(s): Raluca Bălăită*
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Full Text 5
At the core of the new approaches to verbal interaction lies the idea of intersubjectivity placing a great emphasis on the creation of social relations. Interaction implies not only following particular conventional principles or some discursive strategies, but also adopting certain social behaviours. In 1975 Grice mentioned in his article Logic and Conversation about the existence of moral, aesthetic and social rules which all fall into the principle of politeness: “Be polite!” Brown & Levinson (Politeness. Some Universals in Language Usage, 1987) developed a theory of politeness having as starting point Gofman’s concept of the face (The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, 1956). The interactants have to spare or to protect the positive and/or negative faces within the verbal communication, since the presence of FTA (Face Threatening Acts) leads to the application of certain strategies in order to avoid this threat. The Facework consists of a series of procedures at the interactants’ disposal meant to save these faces. Interactants resort to different indirect forms of expressions that can help the process of conversation. Having in mind that the non-verbal aspects and the social context are essential in defining the Facework, we try in our paper to show that certain linguistic phenomena (such as Indirect Speech Acts, the apologies, the implicit, etc) are tightly connected with the management of interpersonal relationships 

No: 7
Title: Aspects Pronounced By The Prosecutor With The Closing Solution
Pages 48-52
Author(s): Denisa Barbu*
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Full Text 6
The closing is the solution of not sending to Court ordered by a Prosecutor’s judgment when it finds the existence of an impediment to the implementation of criminal action or movement of the exercise provided for in art. 16 C.P.C., regarding the criminal material verification. The closing is ordered, whether by a Decree, whether concerned was willing or not continuing to carry out criminal prosecution in relation to the suspect or whether it was or not put in motion the criminal proceedings, either by indictment, when for some of the facts there must be suing, and for another/other the closing. There are situations when the Prosecutor who is referred to the proposal by the closing of criminal investigation, handed back the cause of the criminal investigation to continue carrying out the prosecution, when he finds that the legal conditions are not fulfilled, ordered the closing or when ordered the closing and separated the cause. Through the act of ordering the closing, then the Prosecutor must decide lifting the measures taken to ensure that insurers sentence or fine precautionary measures relating to the maintenance and civil repairs and restoring the previous situation as regarding crime, restitution of property raised, seizing the appeal judge of preliminary chamber making the measure of special confiscation, to refer to the Judge of the Preliminary Chamber with the proposal for total or partial split-up of a registered or proposing of taking or where appropriate, confirmation, termination or replacement of safety measures. 

No: 8
Title: The Objective Civil Liability For The Environmental Damage
Pages 53-57
Author(s): Florin Octavian Barbu*
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Full Text 7
The issue of civil liability under tort law must be analysed in a dynamic, evolutionary context, regarding everything that means social actuality. Initially seen through the prism of its sanctioning function, torts complained and advertised new trends in terms of finality. For practical purposes was discussed repositioning torts, not in relation to the illegal fact, but prejudiced person from the civil illicit fact. Thus, the centre of gravity of torts is the victim of the illegal act, the main person interested in settling the civil. Also in this respect, there is the restructuring of hierarchical functions torts. Assuming the premise that the central pillar of tort liability is the person injured by the wrongful act, we appreciate that reparative function of the liability acquired as a corollary ground at the expense of its sanctioning function. Furthermore, the increased industrialization of different fields, found on the integral country territory, had new activity risks which, in turn, generated a plurality of hypotheses that can fit to the tort. In this context, the liability of tort requires a thorough knowledge needed to resolve possible disputes that may arise in practice. Industrialization that marked the beginning of the twentieth century and was perpetuated to this day added diverse new forms of accountability based on theories centred on the compensation and not-sanctioning the culpable conduct. Also as a novelty aspect in legislature removed the actual subjective concept which governed the law of torts, being concerned to regulate targets assumptions of no-fault liability.

No: 9
Title: Transfer: Condition Or Result Of Mathematics Learning In School?
Pages 58-66
Author(s): Daniela Căprioară*
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Full Text 8
Rethinking the entire educational process, implicitly the mathematics education, in terms of skills training, requires identification of learning strategies to support this goal. The teacher's role requires the ability to instrument the student with such means to facilitate learning and contribute to a sustainable and effective learning. Background. Correlative to the notion of competence is the transfer learning, approached on the one hand, as a facilitating learning strategy, helping to build a coherent and logical mathematical knowledge, and on the other hand, as the purpose of learning. Mathematical competence, translated by the ability to mobilize knowledge to practical problem solving situations involves transfer of knowledge. Purpose. The present study aims to highlight the importance of the transfer in the learning of mathematics at secondary school, which is the forming stage in mathematics component of the general culture of any individual. Methodology. The research focused on two directions: a theoretical direction, making capital out of the most significant results of studies conducted on transfer in learning, and the empirical one, focused on investigating directly by questionnaire secondary school students’ opinions on strategies for learning mathematics. Results. Although strategies for implementing the transfer of learning should be explained in the classroom, it leaves most times up to student always unprepared in this respect and therefore it is carried out sporadically and to a very small extent compared to its importance. Conclusions. Without this transfer, mathematical knowledge remains isolated, not integrated into the student's field of knowledge, deprived of flexibility, operationality and functionality. 

No: 10
Title: The Legal Schengen And The Unity Of The European Community
Pages 67-75
Author(s): Liviu-Bogdan Ciucă
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Full Text 9
The attempt to achieve a European Civil Code, always doomed to fail or become a suspended step, challenges us to raise a number of questions that aims the value of national legal traditions from the perspective of the need for Community unity. The recent European event, called generic, Brexit is another example that underlines the vulnerability of the European project in terms of intra community connection bridges and once again confirms the rule that sharp differences of cultural, economic and especially of legal nature between EU states are unmanageable. In our analysis, based on the example of hypothetical European Civil Code, unrealized chiefly because of disguised pride under the motivation of preservation of the national legal culture, we try to design the possibility of managing national legislative policy in harmony with Community law proposing to achieve such phased harmonization starting from the fundamental law, respectively the Civil Code, the Civil Procedure Code, the Criminal Code and the Criminal Procedure Code. We believe that this approach will be staged from the perspective of EU countries that adhere to this project, thus realizing a genuine "European legal Schengen space" nucleus of Community harmonization. 

No: 11
Title: The Impact Of Online Marketing Campaigns Conducted Through Blogs
Pages 76-85
Author(s): Iuliana Constantin*, Victor-George Constantinescu, Catalina Gabriela Belgiu (Curea)
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Full Text 10
A blog is a communication canal for people with same interests as the author. For  corporations a blog is a  more efficient way to collect feedback from customers than the offline obtaining procedure. A blog is also an interaction canal through which the company communicates and attracts potential customers and also can inform existing clients of promotional offers, and about launching new products. The authors of this study will explain why and in what circumstances businesses, no matter of their size or targeted market should use blogs as a communication channel with their customers. In order for advertising agencies and companies to use the blogs in an efficient way, in one of the chapters there will be presented the pros and cons of blogging and also some situations that must be avoided. In this article is presented the impact of blogs on a world wide scale and in particular on Romania. So far the traditional mass-media was considered to be the most reliable source of information but in the last decade the traditional mass-media is being overtaken and replaced by blogs. The power of blogging was a surprise for a lot of individuals because of the influence over the behavior and mentality of the readers. 

No: 12
Title: Decentralization And Organizational Resistance In The Educational System
Pages 86-93
Author(s): Mariana Constantinescu*
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Full Text 11
The current changes and reforms in the pre-university education system have made schools shape their own managerial vision. This research shows an analysis of how school managers relate to the decentralization in the pre-university education system. The methods used to measure the attitude towards the main categories of reforms pinpoint high correlations between the decentralization reform, continuing education and quality in the pre-university education system. This research illustrates the presence of some conservative tendencies that can be changed through an educational-formative process so as to optimize teachers’ attitude toward educational reforms. Learning how to change has been vital in this research, which allows us to support and propose an education of the school organization and its members through and for change.The respondents realized that, in order to put into practice this goal, the school must activate its mechanisms of strategic management which are meant to lead the educational actors towards a continuously engagement in the development and reconstruction process of school and professionalizing the teaching career. 

No: 13
Title: Teaching – Learning – Assessment In Physical Education And Sport
Pages 94-99
Author(s): Ionela Alina Cucui*
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Full Text 12
Assessment is based on the measurement and assessment using criteria, objectives or closeness or proximity of a product of the student in relation to the norm. This represents a stable component of the educational process, mainly having a regulatory role for both train the students and to improve teaching strategies. Assessment and verification methods are traditional: minutes; Written; and complementary tests that can be achieved through - systematic observation of students' activity and behaviour; investigation; project; portfolio; self-evaluation, etc. Efficiency and correctness of the assessment depends on the educational process of teacher evaluation criteria. Physical education and sport, a professor documented, and well-meaning, using evaluation as a way to increase interest in practicing physical exercises performed assessment taking into account a number of criteria, among which: the criterion achieve educational objectives; compliance criteria indications, requirements, rules; criterion involvement in solving tasks; the average level reporting criteria; interest test; behaviour criterion. Modern strategies of teaching-learning-assessment seeks to emphasize the size of interactivity, which give students sufficient and varied opportunities to demonstrate what they know, as a body of knowledge but above all what they can do, as a set of skills, skills, abilities. The constant concern of practitioners in education to find and exploit new techniques and methods of evaluation has resulted in the identification and use of assessment methods that may represent a viable alternative to traditional evaluative formulas, which complement them. 

No: 14
Title: Evaluation In Physical Education And Sport
Pages 100-105
Author(s): Gheorghe Gabriel Cucui
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Full Text 13
Evaluation is a stable component of the education process, mainly having a regulatory role for both train the students and to improve teaching strategies. The rating is a measure necessary in a business process management and decision-making, it providing information necessary adjustment and improvement of teaching, adopting measures appropriate training situations. It is present in any teaching activity and is related to inter-determination, functional interaction with teaching and learning, making them more effective. Through educational activities, evaluation aims to achieve awareness and appreciation of the changes students in all areas of their personality (intellectual, affective, psychomotor, creative capabilities, etc.). Nature rating action is to know the effects of the activity in order to improve the process in phases. For teaching to pursue an approach that guarantees success, special care should be given to designing training sequences, following conjugation natural elements of teaching with learning, assessment concluded. Assessment in physical education and sport is a continuous feedback purpose of confirmation or rejection by students of both quality and quantity properties of knowledge and skills quality and quantity properties psychological and social driving. The evaluation process is an ongoing, formal or informal, quality assessment of the importance or usefulness of teaching - learning. A proper evaluation involves defining, formulating process as objective characteristics evaluated, and identify the most relevant techniques and assessment tools. 

No: 15
Title: Tracks Utilitarian Of Applicative - Means Psychomotor Skills Development To Young Schoolchildren
Pages 106-110
Author(s): Gheorghe Gabriel Cucui*
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Full Text 14
Physical education alongside other activities intended to contribute to training and educating students and improving quality of life. Currently systemic approach in the sphere of physical education and sport, structural analysis of both the organizational form and the means used is a necessity. Physical education has a variety of means whose judicious use leads to the objectives and tasks of this activity. The physical education means not simply refer to their systematic hierarchy but envisages that leads to a new quality characteristics and own shares do not meet the taught elements outside the system. There is a dual relationship between the system means of influencing physical education and integrative system - bio - psycho - social that it is man. The physical education means used properly optimizes intrinsic and extrinsic relations of the body, a new quality in the relations manifestations of matter and energy exchange with the external environment. Optimizing the ways of manifestation on all levels of human personality requires constant improvement and diversification of means of physical education enrichment system. At the same time, this relationship caused double plays an important role methodical methods and procedures system. The main means of physical education is to exercise in different forms. In order to achieve a healthy education for school physical education tasks routes utility - applied provides the proper driving education and psychological capacity. 

No: 16
Title: Physical Education And Sports Opportunities To Lead Positive Social Change 
Pages 111-114
Author(s): Ionela Alina Cucui
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Full Text 15
Physical education and sport have a significant impact on the development indivdului. Changes can be seen both as a motor, emotional and psychosocial. Sports activities are necessary for early development of children and youth, through the purchases acquired during their practice, knowing that physical education and sports contributes to the holistic development of the individual. By sport individual accumulates a set of values, such as honesty, cooperation, fairness, self-respect for opponents, and respect the rules, which will lead to moral and social development of a child. Involving children in sports cultivates the spirit of competitiveness, helps to maintain optimal health and form the habit of practicing exercise. To achieve the overall objectives in education and development, sports programs should focus on developing the individual and not only sports skills development. While the physical benefits of participation in sport are well known and supported by large volumes of empirical evidence, sport and physical activity can also have positive benefits on education. Physical education activity seeks to promote and develop complementary aspects of education, such as school attendance and reduce absenteeism. The literature stresses the vital role of physical education teachers and providers of sports as determinants of educational experiences of individuals. This shows the positive relationship between involvement in sports activities and psycho-social development of the individual. 

No: 17
Title: The Marker And The Morpheme In The Romanian Grammars
Pages 115-121
Author(s): Daiana Cuibus*
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Full Text 16
The modern academic grammar – ”Gramatica de bază a limbii române” (GBLR, 2010) – is meant to represent a ‘sophisticated’ theoretical description of the contemporary Romanian language. Its deliberate modernity – in both conception and themes – implies nevertheless the terminology. Within this perspective, we will focus upon the term and the concept of ‘marker’. The marker is defined as ”any element on the level of expression (of the word’s form) constantly associated with a certain grammatical meaning and which serves to the recognition of that meaning.” (GBLR, 2010, p. 8). Still, the term ‚marker’ is adopted not only with its meaning of ’morpheme’, but it also stands for ’class of words’. Our observations regard its status and its use, in strict relation to its accuracy and coherency throughout the academic work. Meanwhile, we will try to answer some essential questions regarding the types of grammatical mark(er)s, the conceptual and terminological relation between the ‘marker’ and the ‘morpheme’, in order to decide if the term is accurate, relevant and sufficient in order to describe the corresponding linguistic facts in the Romanian language. As a preliminary conclusion, we argue that more coherent arguments and a more consistent use are both needed in order to consecrate the contextual, unambiguous meaning of the ‘mark(er)’, along with an rigorous definition and standardization. 

No: 18
Title: Jordanian Health Employees’ Job Satisfaction. A Vroom Theory Investigation
Pages 122-133
Author(s): Adriana AnaMaria Davidescu*, Marji Tania Issa Eid
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Full Text 17
The National health strategy in Jordan for 2015-2019 has the objective of building a viable health care system, utilizing both public and private service providers and improving the quality of health services by implementing a national health services accreditation program. Human resources are the main drivers for achieving the needs of citizens optimally and a special attention need to be granted to managing these resources in order to raise the productivity of the health sector. In this context, the paper aims to prove the validity of Vroom’s expectancy theory on six Jordanian both public and private hospitals having as main purpose the main determinants of employee motivation.  According to Vroom’s theory, the motivation is regarded as function of three distinct perceptions: expectancy, instrumentality, and valence. The study aims to test the hypotheses that each component-expectancy, extrinsic instrumentality, intrinsic instrumentality, extrinsic valence and intrinsic valence have a positive effect on employee motivation using data from 325 health workers (doctors and nurses). The results show that from all five components, three of them best explains the process of motivating hospital employees-expectancy, extrinsic instrumentality and intrinsic valence. The results of the study emphasised the influential role of intrinsic factors comparative with the extrinsic factors, highlighting the importance of intrinsic factors on increasing the level of motivation of Jordanian employees. 

No: 19
Title: The Professional/It Sentence Loan-Translations In Romanian Language
Pages 134-141
Author(s): Dana Camelia Diaconu*
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Full Text 18
In the present study we are aiming to explain the mechanism of forming, receiving meanings and the relation between languages, of IT Romanian loan-translations, the loan-translations consisting in integral (full sentence loan-translation) or partial (partial sentence loan-translation) of some sentence units in other languages. As this represents a meaning loan, whereby the word from their receiver’s language enriches the content under the influence of the correspondent/the synonym) from a foreign language, through sentence loan-translation are translated, most of the times, the so-called common combinations, mostly scientific terms, or from specialized languages, in this case in the field of informatics. The category belonging to those sentence units are: expressions and set expressions, common combinations, as well as formulas and international clichés. Of course, in this respect, under etymologic aspect, many sentence loan-translations from computer science are explained by “copying” some English phraseological combinations. In order to distinguish between the loan-translation and the mere translation, this study is taking into account the “fidelity” to the foreign model. In the case of loan-translation, it shall comply with the structure, both as the model and the meaning, whereas the translation seeks exclusively the meaning of transposition. 

No: 20
Title: Diversity Of Education And Professional Development – Important Factors For Employment Relationships
Pages 142-149
Author(s): Luminita Dima
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Full Text 19
Over the past decade, European labour market has met a series of serious challenges: restructuring of businesses involving massive dismissals followed by increase of the unemployment rate and significant decrease of the of vacant job positions. While the compensation packages and other means of protection of the employees dismissed were always modalities of attenuating the immediate effects of losing the jobs, it was necessary to find other measures that do not only involve costs for the employers and state budgets, but are also useful for the respective individuals to create value for themselves and also for the business and contribute to restarting the economic development. This study aims to assess to which extent the diversity of education and professional development were and continue to be valuable measures considered in order to avoid dismissals and increase the chances for both individuals and businesses’ future development. From a methodological perspective, it was useful to identify, analyze and compare the policies promoted at European level, the Romanian legislative measures and practice of the labour relations. The author’s personal contribution resides in the screening and analysis of various situations met in practice when assisting various companies on the occasion of implementing restructuring procedures. This analysis has revealed various measures taken by employers that underline the role and importance of the diversity of education and professional development and built the conclusion that such measures offer increased protection to employees by avoiding dismissals, finding easier a new job or identifying other opportunities in their professional life. 

No: 21
Title: Orientation Of The Monetary Policy Of The Nbr In Simulating Econonmic Growth
Pages 150-158
Author(s): Violeta Elena Drăgoi, Larisa Elena Preda*
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Full Text 20
The main objective of the Romanian economy is to increase the standard of living of the population by maintaining the prices stable. During the last few years, in Romania, a generalized increase of the prices has been recorded, which has led to the emergence of the inflationist phenomenon. The National Bank of Romania (NBR) has acted by means of monetary policies meant to eliminate the distortions on the level of the prices and to stop the process of erosion of the economy. So, an anti-cyclical conduct has been adopted, both before and after the emergence of the global financial crisis, a process aiming to maintain the financial stability and assure an optimal framework for re-establishing the economic equilibriums. This case study offer to all the people interested the possibility to know and understand as well as possible the macroeconomic analysis framework and implicitly the fundaments of the monetary policy decisions adopted by NBR to assure and maintain the stability of the prices. In this context, the present research would like to determine the optimal degree of involvement of the monetary authorities in the economy, focusing in this approach on the in-depth study of the monetary policy transmission mechanisms and on the complex processes assuring the transit of the monetary policy decisions’ effects towards the macroeconomic variables envisioned. 

No: 22
Title: Improving The Sciences Teaching Strategies Through “Engage” Curriculum Materials 
Pages 159-164
Author(s): Crinela Dumitrescu*, Laura Monica Gorghiu, Ana Maria Aurelia Petrescu
Open Access

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The main goal of “ENGAGE - Equipping the Next Generation for Active Engagement in Science Equipping the Next Generation” project ( is focused on the training of next generation of students by changing the way of teaching and learning Science. 14 institutions from 13 countries put in common their efforts to make Science lessons more attractive, by promoting different interactive - participatory teaching strategies, based on investigation of reality, identifying and testing alternative solutions, which teach students to think and apply their knowledge and take responsible decisions based on the received information. In order to achieve these goals on students’ level the partnership has designed continuous development programs for teachers, organized through face to face workshops or online courses, where interactive - participatory teaching strategies and examples of applying these strategies through ENGAGE curriculum materials are introduced. This paper points out some aspects related with the improving of Sciences teaching strategies using pedagogical tools based of inquiry-based methodology. Curriculum materials designed in the frame of the project make use of the following instruments: productive dilemma, group discussion, problem solving, and conversation. A study was made on over 170 Romanian science teachers who adopted / implemented those curriculum materials in Sciences teaching (Chemistry, Physics and Biology 

No: 23
Title: Eating Healthy Or Just Feeling Good?Food Commercials And The Romanian Market
Pages 165-171
Author(s): Elena Maria Emandi*
Open Access

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The present paper aims to approach food and drink commercials running on Romanian TV channels with a view to establish the message sent to viewers of different ages. This medium has been chosen precisely because the voice of television is a constant presence in the majority of Romanian homes. Food consumption trends are an issue of both national and international importance, taking into consideration the numerous mass of vulnerable people. The emphasis is laid on the consumer’s sense of self or the social environment, and the purpose of food in ads goes very many times beyond the necessity of providing the body with the nutrients it needs.  The method of work is semiotic and stylistic analysis, thus revealing linguistic, paralinguistic and stylistic devices used by advertisers in order to get everyone’s attention. With a view to getting the audience’s attention, advertisers use complex devices, which include language, music, characters of the “story”, society, etc. Very often food and drink are perceived as symbols and nobody can deny the existence of a “language” of food and beverages (certain linguistic symbols when describing what one consumes). The interaction of text and context, the combination of images, language, symbols – all these elements are directed to a precise goal, that of making the commercial emotional in one way or another (irrespective of the correctness of the message from an ethical point of view) and enticing potential consumers to buy food and drinks which are not all the time good for health. 

No: 24
Title: The Importance Of Documentary Research For Defining The Future Career
Pages 172-179
Author(s): Agnes Terezia Erich*, Laura Monica Gorghiu
Open Access

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The unprecedented development of the means dedicated to access the information imposed a new type of training, oriented on documentary research, which is found nowadays in the center of the global movement related to the formation of an information culture, aiming to a better using and understanding of the tools and techniques of information and documentation. The documentary research formation intends to improve the documentation abilities till the moment of reaching the full informational independence of users. Under the big pressure of being documented which is felt mainly from the growing sphere of the Internet (together with a variety of information techniques), the need to assess the resources, required more than ever, the organizing of training courses for acquiring the documentary research necessary skills. It is also a strong need for a theoretical framework designed to help establishing a relationship between the user and information or between the user and document. The documentary research formation is important for the students not just for helping them to retrieve and structure the information, but also on finding relevant and proper information in the process of defining of their future career. In this respect, the paper tries to make known the feed-back of 185 high-school students, from the 11th and 12th forms, related to the need and importance of documentary research for being well informed and oriented on their future career. 

No: 25
Title: Freedom As Gift And Human Responsibility From The Christian Teaching Perspective
Pages 180-188
Author(s): Ştefan Florea*
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This article presents the Christian teaching on freedom and realizes delineations and conceptual definitions from the perspective of the divine revelation.Freedom is an ontological gift and a human responsibility, being related to God and strictly related to doing good and the virtues.In human liberty is embedded the Creator’s divine image, the believer having the duty to carry this image to an ever deeper likeness of God. In this sense, human responsibility is double, on the one hand, its consequence is responsibility for the actions committed, and, on the other hand, it relates man to obtaining God’s likeness, unto deification and sanctification. The Christian teachings present man as a “person” bearing “God’s image”. This concept is very complex, including in itself reason, will, affectivity, liberty, conscience, love etc. From Christian perspective, liberty means “stabilization in goodness”. When man does evil, man is not free, but the slave of his own lack of power. Liberty determines the spiritual progress or regression, and this fact is determined by the manner in which man’s liberty collaborates with the divine grace.  Christian liberty must always be ontologically regarded, as it is connected to God and has only one coordinate – the one of the good. 

No: 26
Title: Theological Grounds Of Man’s Life In The Body
Pages 189-204
Author(s): Ştefan Florea*
Open Access

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Life is the gift of God, it is an ontological principle and a fundamental human right. Life ought to be defended in every situation; from the Christian perspective, there is no justification for supressing it. As grounds for life we have approached the following: man - the creation of God, and the Christological, pneumatological, ecclesiological and eschatological grounds of man’s life in the body. According to the definition of the Holy Fathers, man is named “crown of creation”. He has the vocation of being “servant of the entire cosmos”. Whether it is named “microcosmos”, “macrocosmos” or “macroanthropos”, the fall of man determines the fall of the entire world, as his restoration attracts with it the restoration of cosmos, understood as world, harmony. Man is made of flesh and soul, spirit and matter. The life of man, as gift fro God, finds its fulfilment in the very manner in which the body collaborates with the soul in their demarche of gaining redemption. There is no permanence of one over the other. They both are equally important for life. This is why we say that man’s life is an ontological fact and that man has the responsibility of defending and fulfilling his life. 

No: 27
Title: Mirroring The Moral And Spiritual Profile Of Various Peoples In Folk Culture
Pages 205-210
Author(s): Cristina Furtuna*
Open Access

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Folk culture has the power of knowledge and is a common place, taken up and revived by all those who, in certain historical epochs and various ideological contexts, had something to say in this area. The forms of folk culture carry the solidest and most undisputable signs of what one may call the national feature or ethnic identity. Today, the study of folk culture has other priorities, other goals. Before, it was a matter of asserting national identity, but now emphasis is laid on preserving and keeping that identity, given the progress of scientific thinking in this area and in relation to the primary goals at a certain moment, in one society or another, in one culture or another.  Folk culture is “the way in which people think and express their thoughts, the way of expressing one’s attitudes and values that, perhaps, are not accepted when stated directly, but are still prevalent and direct people’s actions” (Wolf – Knuts, 1996, p. 300). In this study, we shall deal with the moral and spiritual profile of various nations, which results in certain people’s tolerance or intolerance towards others with whom they have come in contact. The world of today is a changing one, in which trends of integration, globalization prevail and the question of preserving one’s cultural identity is imperiously being stated. 

No: 28
Title: On The Borders Of Genres: Doris Lessing’s Alfred And Emily
Pages 211-220
Author(s): Elena Anca Georgescu*
Open Access

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This paper aims to analyse some of Doris Lessing’s life writings to show how the process of identity formation through autobiography is realised through the prisms of memory, history and narrativization. The investigation of Lessing’s sense of selfhood in her autobiographical and fictional works will focus on Alfred and Emily, her last book, as well as on Under My Skin: Volume One of My Autobiography, to 1949 and Walking in the Shade: Volume Two of My Autobiography 1949 to 1962. The study will highlight the autobiographical nature of Lessing’s fiction and the fictionality and constructed nature of her autobiography, in order to demonstrate that she constantly crosses the borders of genres in her life-long process of identity formation. As the autobiographical act is a rereading of one’s past, I will argue that for Doris Lessing it is a process that relies heavily on the memory of experiences that have shaped her identity. Memory and identity are intimately related, in a way that becomes integral to the very construction of the writer’s self. The process of self-representational writing enables Lessing to sustain a dialogue with her past in an attempt to heal inner divisions and traumatic experiences. Rather than a simple process of self-reflection, her writings under scrutiny here also turn out to be a potential source of self-invention and self-revision of the conventional views on authorial identity. 

No: 29
Title: Healthcare Policy-Making Within Eu Governance: A Content Analysis Of Media Coverage
Pages 221-233
Author(s): Cătălina Maria Georgescu*
Open Access

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Background: Managing institutional design of healthcare appears connected to three dimensions: (1) the logistical factor (including budgetary constraints), (2) organizational culture (values, norms, rules, image, communication) and (3) organizational structure. Method: The paper uses media content analysis as research methodology aimed at identifying the general themes, trends and patterns in the media coverage of the institutional design of healthcare services and portrayal of the systemic changes and challenges in the field. The analysis is founded on measuring both the quantity and quality of media coverage of healthcare services issues, extended interpretation of the articles (generic framing analysis) covering the institutional design/institution building and health policy-making. Settings: The analysis is centered on finding evidence of media bias towards certain issues covering the management of institutional design of healthcare services, within policy-making and policy-implementation of public health, challenges and responses to crisis situations, authorities’ actions and reactions. Hypothesis: The distribution of articles, frequency and themes associated to healthcare issues are correlated to the context of local elections campaign. Conclusions: The monitoring of online news sources and content analysis of selected articles produced evidence on the intensification of health-related issues during the first month of the monitoring period. In this sense, the analysis was firstly directed towards identifying frequencies in the distribution of articles along the studied period and among the specific news sources. Secondly, the analysis was targeted along identifying the key themes in the selected articles that would signal the interest in healthcare during elections campaign. 

No: 30
Title: Religious Identity And Multicultural Dialogue In Contemporary Europe
Pages 234-240
Author(s): Ionuț Adrian Ghibanu*
Open Access

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This study wants to emphasize the relationship between religious identity, mainly Christian in Europe, and multicultural dialogue through the new challenges of contemporary society, such as migration, globalization and secularization. We are witnessing a transformation of the world compared to what it was before. This article aims to analyze the main foundations of the European religious identity, as the Europeans are found today within this paradigm mentioned above. We underlined here the role that inter-religious and inter-Christian dialogue plays in the European project in the long term. As a novelty we bring here the Romanian Orthodox vision, emphasizing the need of dialogue and meeting, starting from the premise that multiculturalism is not a failure, but the way multiculturalism was conceived, ideologically and especially socio-politically, led to the European blockages. The common European project is viable, but must be boosted and this should be taken into account from the religious perspective, not just from the economic, political and military one. In building the concept of European civilization, the cultural, religious identity has an important contribution. The article promotes a policy in matter of ideology and emphasizes the role of religion in Europe, especially the idea that the inter-religious and ecumenical dialogue is a European creation, and freedom, tolerance, respect of otherness and of the dignity of others are also concepts with a strong European and why not Christian mark. 

No: 31
Title: The Failure Of The Teachers Training Policies In Romania Today 
Pages 241-248
Author(s): Catalin Cosmin Glava*
Open Access

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The public policies concerning the teachers training have made their debut in Romania starting with 1996, by the creation, through the Ministry Order No 4356 from 7.11.1996, of the Teacher Training Departments situated in a limited number of universities in the country. Up to the year 2007, the time of the” Presidential Commission Report for the analysis and policy development in the fields of education and research”, called "Romania of education, Romania of research", the concerns on the training of future teacher students were marginal, the only perceptible change being the introduction, together with the Bologna System, of Level II of the Teacher Training Programme, and thus the completion of the Bachelor-level training with a Master-level preparation. After the issuing of the National Educational Law in January 3, 2011, teacher training has become a subject of major interest for the universities in the context of the significant decrease of student population and the reduction of the budgetary resources. Today we can speak of a failure of vocational teacher training policies, and in this paper, we intend to capture the steps which have led to this failure. 

No: 32
Title: Metadiscourse Markers In Science Schoolbooks As Facilitators For Metacognitive Regulation Of Learning
Pages 249-256
Author(s): Adina Elena Glava*
Open Access

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The level of competence students has for the metacognitive control and regulation of own learning is constantly associated in recent literature with the effectiveness of their learning. The strategic learning and metacognitive control skills can be acquired in the school specific mediated learning situations given the adequate support from the teacher. The present paper underlines the importance of supporting students’ metacognitive regulation of learning through specific prompts and signs that can be used in the construction of the teaching discourse. In the study, we conducted we focused on the written didactic discourse of the school text books which we considered a source of knowledge and a specific form of didactic discourse. We analyzed the metadiscourse markers in two sets of secondary school Science textbooks in terms of types and frequencies of their occurrence and their implications for supporting the metacognitive regulation of students’ learning. Generally, the literature states the importance of metadiscourse elements as features of rhetorical writing that support the reader in constructing the meaning of the message conveyed. Yet, there is little research that analyses the role of the metadiscourse markers included in didactic texts for creating a supportive connection between the author of the text and the students and for helping learners to strategically approach the contents included in the schoolbook. Our exploratory study aims at identifying principles according to which the metadiscourse components can be employed into the written didactic texts in order to support students’ autonomous and metacognitive learning. 

No: 33
Title: The Flexibility And Efficiency Of Organizational Culture In Organizations
Pages 257-266
Author(s): Ioana Raluca Goldbach*
Open Access

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This paper aims to analyze problems concerning the organizational culture in institutions as a key phenomenon in the understanding of the methods by which the internal structure of a collective idea influences attitudes and behaviors. Organizational culture can decisively influence the actions which would lead to an increase in the profit margin or to the performance of activities within the framework of the institutions for the qualitative tubes. The importance of the organizational culture in the life of an organization can be deduced from the analysis of its functions, which most organizations don’t care about in the erosion periods of the company culture. We will show that the practice proves that  in the conditions to ensure the maintenance of beliefs, values, regulations, perspectives and concepts that time have been considered valid and levels, without an adaptation to the social changes, economic, technical, political environment, they may be converted into large brakes, true follower of insularism and rigidity. Saying that “intensity of culture”, especially the ability to adapt them to the environment transforms it into an instrument of success or failure.Organizational culture allows the identification and description of numerous factual, human nature, of the organization, with implications on the progress and the results of the activities of the incorporated and it also involves by its nature an approach human managerial very precise. It has a substantial impact on the increase in the functionality and performance of the organization, both directly and through the human resources management. 

No: 34
Title: The Organizational Culture In The Extension Of The General Procedure "Target Costing"
Pages 267-276
Author(s): Ioana Raluca Goldbach*, Constantin Aurelian Ionescu
Open Access

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“Target Costing” method - means an instrument for the management of the cost which allows reducing the total cost of a product throughout the life cycle of its integration due to a close link between the production, research-development, marketing, accounting and quality departments. The organizational culture is a success factor for the extension of the general procedure "Target Costing".On the basis of the investigations on the organization several models may be shaped which provide a framework for a more in-depth analysis of the concept of organizational culture and a means of identification of the implications of its practical effects. When the organization is focused around a leader, the organization depends, from the point of view of efficiency, on trust and empathy, and from the point of view of the communication, on intuition and interpersonal communication. The climate in the organization is very cold, the use of the relationship power and of the signal power causes a fluctuation of employees who do not survive in such a competitional frame dominated by informal rules. Organizations with this type of culture are in the form of concentric networks that focus on the source of the central power but with influences outwards. The purpose of this work is to present the role, the place and the importance of the organizational culture in the extension of the general procedure "Target Costing". 

No: 35
Title: English Teacher’s Classroom Language – An Empowering Tool For Engineering Students
Pages 277-282
Author(s): Anca Greculescu*, Liliana-Luminiţa Todorescu
Open Access

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The aim of the research is to identify the characteristics of the English teacher’s classroom language likely to encourage engineering students to improve their knowledge of English and endow them with a currently highly empowering tool – prerequisite for their multicultural professional mobility. The goal of an English teacher is to develop communication competences and implement a type of language that will better fit into the engineering students’ framework of professional needs and assist them in improving not only their linguistic social and emotional skills but also raise the quality of instruction in technical higher education. The research is a comparative study between two Romanian technical universities: University Politehnica of Bucharest and University Politehnica of Timisoara and was conducted on 234 engineering students studying electronics, mechanics and electrical engineering, between 2014-2016. A questionnaire was devised and students had to mention and identify their English teacher’s language characteristics likely to endow them with linguistic skills and ensure linguistic performance. Hence, the type of language to be used by the English teacher in technical higher education must be accessible, scientific/academic, correct/ fluent and accurate/expressive and specialized, flexible and adapted to students’ different levels of knowledge. 

No: 36
Title: Public Hospital Vs Private Hospital
Pages 283-289
Author(s): Cristina Iorga*, Andrei Șerban
Open Access

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This article aims to analyze the advantages and disadvantages from the perspective of health care beneficiaries, about public and private hospitals. The research instrument used was the questionnaire in which we effectively managed both independent persons (healthy) and addicts (with milled affections). The main objective of the questionnaire is to identify the reasons why they choose a public or private institute, when they need medical care. Following this analysis it has been found that regardless of age, medical act is a necessity and the choice of an institution to give them medical care, differs according to the status that they have in society and how they are treated / informed by health professionals. Data from the people questioned have led us to identify some positive / negative elements, which we found both in public hospitals and in private hospitals. We emphasize that the Romanian healthcare system can improve its might if it takes into account the opinion of medical professionals and patients. It is important to find a balance between the two institutions, in order for every person requiring hospitalization or treatment to receive medical care.

No: 37
Title: Motivational Process In Romanian Hospitals 
Pages 290-296
Author(s): Cristina Iorga*
Open Access

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The article aims to identify the desire of medium health professionals to practice in the country or abroad. The article analyzes the motivational process in Romanian hospitals. This initiative was made possible by using investigative questionnaire applied both individually and online on certain social groups with nurses as members. The instrumental research (questionnaire) had the following objectives: identifying the reasons why they chose the profession of nurse, investigating opinion on colleague’s exodus of Romanian health system and identify the degree of satisfaction on the Romanian health system; The research was conducted nationwide so they could highlight with greater certainty the elements that influence health professionals to conduct business environments in both health systems in the country and abroad. It should be noted that there are certain imbalances between those who want to practice in their home country and those who want to work abroad, both sides being conditioned by certain circumstances minor or major. Analysis carried me to rise to the solutions towards improving Romanian health system by fulfilling some pillars in order to increase the granting of medical care. 

No: 38
Title: Analysis Of The Dimensions Of The Destination Image Of Bukovina’s Touristic Village
Pages 297-313
Author(s): Ariadna-Ioana Juravle (Gavra)*
Open Access

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This article aims to identify the dimensions of the destination image of the Bukovina Touristic Village. In order to achieve this, we established three objectives. First, to identify the cognitive dimensions of the destination image of the Bukovina Touristic Village; second, to identify the affective dimensions of the destination image of the Bukovina Touristic Village, and third, to identify the conative dimensions of the aforementioned destination. Based on studying the scientific literature in this field, we suggested three main working hypotheses, and three secondary ones. In this article we performed quantitative research, and the used research method was the survey. The selected research instrument was the questionnaire, which was designed for online media via an internet platform. The dimensions of the destination image were measured via twenty three items, and the hypotheses were tested using SPSS. This study is part of a broader exploratory research carried out by the author for doctoral research. The overall goal of the exploratory research was to identify perceptions and expectations of tourists concerning the promotion of the Bukovina tourist village. 

No: 39
Title: Christian Meditation Groups As Communities
Pages 314-321
Author(s): Miroslav Kappl, Ondřej Štěch*
Open Access

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The paper presents findings from a survey focusing on meditation groups of Christian meditation, which are one of many types of spiritual communities in the Czech Republic. Christian Meditation is a contemplative prayer based on repetitive uttering of the mantra. This particular approach, which was developed by Benedictine monk John Main, is very different from the practices that were called meditation in the Christian culture in the past, but has on the other hand common features with some other approaches based on contemplative prayer, like the “Jesus prayer” and also with some forms of Asian spirituality. The goal of our research was to determine the most important characteristics of spiritual communities of Christian meditation of John Main. Research sub-questions were following: 1) what kind of relationships exist between members of these spiritual communities? 2) What relationship is between these groups and wider religious communities within which they exist? The findings show that there are certain benefits for community coming from this practice. Christian meditation is aimed primarily at building and strengthening of personal relationship with God. Still, meditation with others leads to greater benefits and deeper experience in comparison with being on one’s own. This contributes to the motivation to meet at regular (usually weekly) sessions, and during these emerges subtle sense of community. In this sense are meditation group beneficial for social capital of its members. 

No: 40
Title: Analysis Of The Possibilities Of Using Google Classroom As Moodle Replacement
Pages 322-331
Author(s): Karel Myška*, Lucie Samková
Open Access

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Moodle is the most popular open source e-learning system, which is available for free. In 2015, Moodle had 22,98 % market share. Just for sake of illustration, Blackboard LMS had 34,22 % (iSpring, 2015).  Although Moodle is commonly used on all types of schools in the Czech Republic, its complexity and robustness can be a problem for example at primary school. Simply put, it is too complicated in case that we want to use very simple and straightforward e-learning with basic functions. According to the Pareto Principle, 80 % of users need only 20 % of features available in LMS. That´s why Google released in 2014 Google Classrom - a very simple and easy-to-use LMS with elements known from world of social networks. Its market share is rapidly growing (Ronen, 2014) and by now, schools in the Czech Republic use this tool since it is a part of free Google Apps for Education. It is also available for non-pofit organisations for free. Google constantly improves this tool. In our research, we focused mainly on following questions: Is Google Classroom ready to replace Moodle? What are advantages and disadvantages of Google Classroom? Is it missing any important features and tools? For comparison, we used well-known methodology by Burgerová, introduced in 2013. This paper introduces Google Classrom and presents first results of comparative study. 

No: 41
Title: Problem-Cognitive Program Of The Students-Researchers In The Knowledge Society Cultural Reality
Pages 332-340
Author(s): Alexander O. Karpov*
Open Access

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The author develops a fundamental concept of the research education theory – the problem-cognitive program, which is a model of socio-cognitive self-making and a type of implementation of cognitive interests both for an individual student-researcher and for research community. The challenge is to study a scientific-type investigative behaviour as a decisive factor in evolution of cultural reality of knowledge society. Objectives of the study: 1) research and generalization of experience in finding scientific and educational paths for students-researchers; 2) conceptualization of a socio-cognitive type of student development through scientific research methods in obtaining knowledge. The study uses methods of pedagogical experiments, generalization of social and pedagogical work with creative students, a structural-functional and cognitive analysis of educational activities, and educational and cognitive practices. The methodology is based on 25-year experience in the Russian "Step into the Future" programme for scientific training of young researchers (schoolchildren and students), which currently involves more than150 thousand participants. As shown, the problem-cognitive program articulates the logic of spiritual values of personal growth. It diagnoses the cognitive vocation in cultural reality of knowledge society. The last is ethically predisposed to social distribution of people depending on their abilities to operate with knowledge. Methodological principles of drawing up a problem-cognitive program are formulated; components of cognitive capacities are defined; examples from teaching practice are presented. Research methods in obtaining knowledge give learners and teachers an effective tool for practical application of discipline knowledge and linking them with specific professional areas, achievement of cognitive outcomes having social values. 

No: 42
Title: Child Endangered By Social Networks In The Context Of Social Work
Pages 341-350
Author(s): Daniela Kvetenska*
Open Access

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Social networks are currently the most important means of communication for children and youth. Within social networks are entrusted with personal problems, establish virtual contacts and friendships. These social networks are also a means of blackmail, bullying and other pathological phenomena whose victims are often the children. This paper aims to map and assess the risk of pathological behavior on social networks. This will especially be the mapping of crimes against children through social networks. As the main research method was chosen interviews with experts. Was approached by an expert from the police, social worker and expert in the operation of social networks. The main question will be answered by analyzing the interviews with these experts. Using the evaluation interviews answering the research questions. These questions are aimed to assess the risk communication on social networks for children, features typical offenders against children through social networks and the most common type of crime in the virtual environment against children. The paper will focus on the modern phenomenon - moral crimes committed via the Internet. A partial aim of this paper is to define the role of social work in a multidisciplinary approach to child victims of crimes committed in cyberspace. At the end of the field will be determined by further research and recommendations for practice. 

No: 43
Title: Multidisciplinary Cooperation For The Benefit Of Endangered Child
Pages 351-363
Author(s): Daniela Kvetenska*, Karel Myska
Open Access

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Multidisciplinary cooperation is developing in many sectors helping professions. This trend is also true in the field of social work with vulnerable children. In working with the vulnerable child requires the cooperation of government agencies and nongovernmental organizations. The paper focuses on the possibilities and forms of multidisciplinary collaboration in working with endangered children. They defined the role of the various institutions involved in cooperative teams striving for effective cooperation. This paper aims to map and evaluate the effectiveness of multidisciplinary cooperation for the benefit of endangered child, especially the child as a victim of crime. Used the analysis of documents and interviews with experts in the field. Based on the interviews, it analyzes the role of social worker working with the child as a victim of a crime committed through social networks. The partial aim is to define the role of each operator in multidisciplinary cooperation for the benefit of endangered child. At the end of the field will be determined by further research and recommendations for practice. 

No: 44
Title: Personalized Intervention Program For Children With Special Educational Needs (Adhd)
Pages 364-371
Author(s): Florentina Ionela Lincă, Mirela Ștefania Hrițcu*
Open Access

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In this paper, we aim to bring into question a subject that has been addressed over the years by many professionals from the field of educational sciences, which consists in adapting the methods of teaching - learning to the educational needs of the student, in particular, those with attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder. The Custom Intervention Program lies at the core of the inclusive education of the student with ADHD and promotes the idea of a personalized and differentiated teaching method. In the past years, there have been adopted more personalized intervention programs based on behavior change regarding children with ADHD in the school environment, without significant results. Nevertheless, we pored over one that is being used in health psychology. In order to verify the utility of the program, we examined some relevant studies. The originality of our study lies in our own adaptation of the behavior change program based on the INTEGRATED THEORY OF HEALTH BEHAVIOR CHANGE (ITHBC) to the school environment. The methods that we used are the following: observation, interview, investigation of school documents and case study. We concluded that the problem of children with ADHD is linked to the adaptive behavior to the school environment and, therefore, we consider it necessary to use the above mentioned program. Creating a healthy educational environment implies adopting a functional behavior by the students with special educational needs, more precisely, by those with ADHD. 

No: 45
Title: Promoting Sustainable Energy Through Demonstrative Kits And Applications Having Educational Valences
Pages 372-382
Author(s): Gabriela Măntescu, Gabriel Gorghiu*, Laura Monica Gorghiu
Open Access

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The context in which the research called in this paper was made was strongly connected to the European and Romanian context of restructuring the energy sector: leaving the conventional and CO2 emitting energy production, using the renewable energy systems and advanced information and communication technologies issues, respecting the Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) dimensions. Based on the experience of the authors in research and education, the paper tries to promote good practices in non-formal educational activities, emphasizing on the results gained with teachers and students from Dâmbovița and Prahova Counties, through hands-on activities undertaken with solar and wind demonstrative kits, having as final results an innovative stand entitled: the “Intelligent Green House”. Aspects related to the promoting of sustainable energy - in the frame of a big event: the European Researcher’s Night, organized in Kiel, Germany - are illustrated, where the innovative stand was opened to visitors. More, students’ reflections regarding the sustainable energy are underlined, together with the introducing of RRI in specific applications related to the electric/green car mobility, which is part of the stand. All the results were recorded having the support of the European FP7 project called: “IRRESISTIBLE - Including Responsible Research and Innovation in Cutting Edge Science and Inquiry-based Science Education to Improve Teacher's Ability of Bridging Learning Environments” that offered a proper frame for such demarches. 

No: 46
Title: International Civil Society
Pages 383-391
Author(s): Petre Mareș*
Open Access

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The existence of a civil society is not a new theme; however, we can still wonder if today one can speak about an international or global civil society. Is there really an international civil society or a western civil society which is centred upon such different social, economic, political and cultural realities? According to some, international civil society may have emerged in 1992, soonafter the fall of communism in Eastern Europe; other people, especially those who lay stress on disputing the world economic model, believe that international civil society was clearly born in 1999. International civil society may have evolved from the new nongovernmental organisations which developed pretty much all over the world particularly during the last decades of the 20th century. The concept of civil society is often employed as a global or homogenous category. If international civil society does not exist yet, some of its practices have nowadays gone beyond the stage of embryonic formula. 

No: 47
Title: Eu Migration Policy And Ethical Values. Short Critical Considerations
Pages 392-403
Author(s): Constanța Mătușescu
Open Access

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The European Union has been based on a number of values that are the common identity of their members: respect for human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, solidarity, rule of law. These values give an ethical dimension to the European project. A series of decisions adopted at European level in recent years, in context of immigration crisis, and individual decisions of some Member States, however, call into question those values. Given that fundamental texts for European construction, such as those governing the Schengen area or regulations in the field of asylum, seem not to exist, the question arises to what extent the European Union can be considered the bearer of values which it proclaims. The study aims to highlight the main controversial aspects of the European migration policy from the perspective of ethical considerations, by reference to the values on which the European Union is founded, identifying the prospects as these aspects should be improved as a result of the recent actions taken at the European Union level and the proposals for reform in the course of implementation. 

No: 48
Title: Some Educational Landmarks Of Sacred Art In A Humanistic Perspective
Pages 404-412
Author(s): Georgeta Merişor Dominte*, Marina Vraciu, Bogdan Cojocea, Stelian Onica
Open Access

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As a presence in human life sacred art can act through similatforms of expression and reception in different moments of time and places. Humanistic education through sacred art can convey, through different creative manifestations, those ethical and aesthetical values which can transform the (restorers’) works of art into landmarks based on sublimation into models of self-realization in several fields. This paper presents some visual and synchrectic examples which illustrate the specific nature of the ethical, aesthetic and heritage aspects of some artistic landamarks in the Romanian and neighbourning Orthodox context of sacred art: motherly love and devotion, child devotion, student-teacherrelationship and, last but not least, personal self-realization and cultural awareness.The knowledge of, exhibition, conservation and restauration as well as theemphasis on some (hidden) aspects of sacred art objects can contribute to their appreciation; in particular, through them young people can connect to their own or other spiritual and material,old and updated tradition(s). 

No: 49
Title: Personalized Communication And Insight Into Social Care Services
Pages 413-421
Author(s): Nela Mircică*
Open Access

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The social upheavals of the early third millennium include also the social policies within the European Union. The current problems faced by national economies have generated unemployment, inflation and even increased poverty. These negative effects were amplified by the wave of migration from the Arab countries. Under these circumstances, it is absolutely necessary to develop the system of social care, both in terms of quantity and quality. The diversification and improvement of social care services involve a, materially, consolidated infrastructure, but, at the same time, require improving the ways of interaction in achieving these services. Generally, assisted persons are vulnerable persons, fact which leads to the need for an appropriate work methodology. The status, needs and aspirations of persons in distress, at a certain time, are modified; acquiring or regaining normalcy involves increased efforts from social agents who assist such persons, but also from the assisted persons. Hence the urgent need to study how to better streamline the interactions within social care services. We believe that the problem of communication in social care services requires particular attention, as it holds a fundamental place in the management of these services. The analysis of the behavioural sets and the need to tailor communication to specific situations require efforts that are to be made by teams composed as well of specialists in counselling and therapy. The study aims to investigate and identify the most effective ways of communication in order to eliminate difficulties arising from the partially compatible communication with the concrete situations. 

No: 50
Title: Online Media Between Semiotics And Rhetoric
Pages 422-428
Author(s): Nela Mircică*
Open Access

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The study aims to address the media existing in the cyberspace from a dual perspective, that of the persuasive and argumentative rhetoric and that of the concise and full of meaning semiotics. It is precisely the increasing diversity of the online media that allows us such an approach. Thus, the ideas may be concentrated in signs or may be developed into argumentative speeches. We believe that the two characteristics of communication are intertwined in viable constructions from the perspective of transmitters and receivers subjects’ intentionality. In this context, metalanguage, the concrete situation of communication, interpretation, perception, etc. play a key role in achieving the goal beforehand targeted.  Since the number of those using online media is constantly growing, we consider it necessary to make reference as well to the implicit psychological aspects of such a communicational interaction. At the same time, the problem of the message is one that requires a reinterpretation due to reality’s dynamic and language’s evolution (among which, sometimes, one can notice discrepancies). The question is what is the direction towards which is rhetoric heading in such a media. If the presence of semiotics in the online media leads to the development and especially the increase of communication, the rhetoric (adapted to the new realities) should lead to the clarity of the message sent. Thus the indissoluble relationship between semiotics and rhetoric in the online media is justified. 

No: 51
Title: Human Activities In The Universe And Ethical Value Of Life
Pages 429-432
Author(s): Lucian MocreiRebrean*
Open Access

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The spatio-temporal limitations of human existence can be considered a threat to the significance of our lifes.Ronald Dworkin proposes two competing models or metrics for the evaluation of our activities: the impact model and the challenge model. Using the first model involves assessing the contribution that an individual life brings to the objective value in the world, according to agent neutral and global standards. The second model is based on the assertion that our personal events, achievements and experiences can have ethical value even when they have no impact beyond the particularity of the life in which they appear. The assessment in this case is based on agent relative and localized standards. The purpose of the article is an analysis of how the two models solve the problem of the long term significance of our individual lives. If the ethical value of an individual life is the sum of its consequences, then, to the extent that they have no substantial effects on the world as a whole, human lives are threatened by insignificance. In the second case, it depends only on individual performance as a response to those challenges that we consider important for our own existence. This second view provides a more plausible explanation for how our achievements could remain meaningful even on a cosmic scale. 

No: 52
Title: The Usage Of Benzodiazepines By Medically Educated Persons In Macedonia
Pages 433-444
Author(s): Snezana Mojsoska*, Nikola Dujovski
Open Access

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The purpose of this paper is to show the frequency of usage of benzodiazepines in the Republic of Macedonia on the part of the population of medically-educated persons, as well as their attitudes, related to the use of benzodiazepines. This study is a segment of the huge cross-sectional study on 1328 respondents. It was conducted by students of the Highеr Medical School in Bitola and students of the Faculty of Pharmacy in Skopje in different municipalities in the R. Macedonia (2013), limited to 410 respondents. The results were verified by appropriate statistical methods and tests. Of a total number of 410 respondents, benzodiazepines were consumed by 104 (18.47%), of whom 28 respondents (7.1%) without prescription. Stress (26.0%), insomnia (24.0%), anxiety (13.4%), etc., are considered the most common reasons for use of benzodiazepines. Medically educated people have an attitude that benzodiazepines cause harmful effects if used while driving and/or machine operating, and can cause both psychological and physical addiction (p<0.05). In recent years, the use of benzodiazepines in the R. Macedonia has been on the rise, they have been used by medically educated persons of various and younger age groups. If medically educated people use benzodiazepines despite their education about the beneficial and harmful effects of the use and abuse, it is necessary to analyze, which are the causes for maintaining this phenomenon, and which preventive measures should be undertake in reducing the consequences. 

No: 53
Title: Multidimensional Value Of Education At Saint Basil And John Chrysostom
Pages 445-453
Author(s): Iuliu-Marius Morariu*
Open Access

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In this research, the author presents the vision of two important Christian authors, that lived in the 4th century of the Christianity, Saint Basil the Great and Saint John Chrysostom, on education. In works such as The Homilies on the books of the Bible, Homilies on the Hexaemeron, Homilies on the Holy Spirit (e. g. Saint Basil) or Homilies on Family and the Education of children, Homilies on Matthew (e. g. Saint John), both of them are in favour of trandisciplinarity and education. The author emphasises their outlook on this subject and its particularities using the following methods, among others: inducive, deductive and analythical. Works such as the ones mentioned above, but also the research of authors specialised in the life and activity of these Saints are analysed. Moreover, the paper presents the most important aspects of the way in whichthe multidimensional value of education is reflected in the works of Saint Basil the Great, the Archbishop of Cappadocia, and Saint John Chrysostom, the Patriarch of Constantinople. The actuality of their ideas is reflected in this research, together with the contemporary importance the ideas of the two Saints of the Orthodox and the Catholic Church has for the contemporary society. 

No: 54
Title: Romanians And Migrants - Between Parochial Benevolence And A Horizon For Democratic Value 
Pages 454-464
Author(s): Roxana – Elena Mosor
Open Access

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The appearance of the migration wave generates a series of questions regarding Romanians´ adaptability to an increasingly globalized world, in which the tolerance exceeds the conceptual stillness and ¨forces¨ the attitude and behavioural patterns. Public reaction on immigrant crisis reveals a dissonance from the principles of tolerance in Europe. It seems that Romanians are not different in terms of views from citizens of other Member States. The comparison requires, however, a high degree of precaution. Are we really prepared to exit the provincial frames and adjust our attitude, behaviour to a global community where diversity is inherent? Intensifying migration translates into new challenges for both civil society and Romanian institutions. In the context of the findings revealing mid and long term trends, the rhetoric regarding Romanians adaptability to a diverse and multicultural world, where migration is the cause and the effect, the measurement side should also be taken into account. This paper proposes a foray into the Romanian values landscape which oscillates between tradition and modernity, the interest being focused on the determinants for dissemination in civil society of attitudinal and behavioural patterns consistent with democratic values that define the Western world. 

No: 55
Title: The Role Of Media In The Construction Of Moral Panics
Pages 465-472
Author(s): Asaad Mustafa Faqe Muhamed*
Open Access

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In a society, wherein journalists, detectives, and individuals co-exist within a diverse cultural system, consideration of the relationship between media, society, and criminology is of paramount importance. This article begins by understanding the news-making process, and examining how this process affects the public in perceiving social reality. It also analyzes the interactions  between the media and the public, and the role of the media, particularly the news media outlets, in the construction of moral panics with examples of media reporting of moral panics from before the coinage of the term through to more contemporary examples. The term moral panic is a sociological concept which has been adopted  broadly both by the mass media and in everyday usage to refer to a magnified  reaction to almost all anti-social behaviours. It has recently become a subject of widespread debate since Stanley Cohen’s seminal work Folk Devils and Moral Panics where he defines the concept as occasional events which subject society to bouts of moral panics, laying a particular stress on the mass media as an “especially important carrier and producer of moral panics”. These episodes might be relatively trivial or routine but are fashioned, sensationalized, and publicized by the mass media. Such publicity eventually results in the accretion of general anxiety and concern about these episodes. So, this article focuses on moral panic as a magnified reaction to a sort of behaviour that is believed to be a social problem. 

No: 56
Title: Use Of Violence Against Bistriţa Monastery – Political Discourse In 16th Century Walachia
Pages 473-477
Author(s): Ramona Neacsa Lupu*, Marian Vilciu
Open Access

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This paper analyses the act of violence against Bistriţa Monastery inflicted by Mihnea the Evil in the early sixteen century Walachia. The main contention of this study is that this sacrilegious act was embedded in the struggles between the prince and Wallachian noble groups fighting for power and influence. Thus, by devastating the monastery, Mihnea the Evil, prince of the country, was trying to strengthen his own position, while undermining that of the founder of the monastery, namely the powerful Craioveşti family. Bistriţa monastery was an important symbolical place of power which played an important role in strengthening the religious, social, economic and political position of the ambitious Craioveşti boyars, who were in direct conflict with Mihnea the Evil. As a matter of consequence any act of violence directed against the monastery was actually aimed to its founders. A locus of history and legitimacy, any monastery had a significant capital of symbolic power that could be manipulated, destroyed or, on the contrary, restored. The use of violence against them in the 15th – 16th century Walachia is a complex research issue, for it has not only religious connotations, but also significant political ones: the destruction of churches was part of a political discourse. The purpose of our paper is to identify, within the pages of the chronicles and the princely chancellery documents, all the necessary elements which allow us to reconstruct the political princely discourse behind the violent act against a sacred place such as Bistriţa. 

No: 57
Title: Identity Crisis: Moldovan Identity And Macedonian Identity
Pages 478-488
Author(s): Ancuța Negrea*
Open Access

Full Text 56
Claiming a language means reclaiming its identity roots: it is hard to identify in a culture in which one does not possess the language in which it is expressed. That is why, this article concentrates on the cultural and linguistic security of a certain community that may be compromised due to competition with another language, in which case the will to protect the language and culture takes root in the public consciousness (it is the case of the competition between Romanian and Russian on the Moldovan territory). Having to resort to alternating the linguistic codes, Romanians over the Prut, as those in the south of the Danube (Macedonians) have kept generation after generation, their "home" identity consciousness. In the traditional society the identity of a person is predestined and is based on some criteria: place of birth, family, social class, religion, etc. and usually remains unchanged throughout life. The concept of identity and belonging in the globalization era was enriched by new meanings. Social mobility leads to the dissolution of the traditional model based on the hereditary principle. The search for identity is a recent phenomenon. Today, cultural identity cannot be conceived as being inherited from the family but acquired since the early years, in the process of socialization and literacy. Identity is the encounter between subject and culture. But culture cannot exist without language. Language is the essence of culture and its vector. 

No: 58
Title: New Approaches On Consumer Safety In European And National Programs And Strategies 
Pages 489-495
Author(s): Manuela Nita*
Open Access

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Consumer safety is not a new objective for the European and national legislator, the European Union being concerned right from its establishment by the provision and development of an appropiate consumer protection policy. Changes to the market level induced by the appearance of new products and services, evolution of the concept of security and quality for products and services and even the evolution of mentality of the consumer, of his preferences led to the reconsideration of the concept of consumer security through the adoption of the Europe 2020 Strategy and also the Program on consumer protection 2014-2020. In this regard there have been proposed several measures, on which we will focus in our study, showing the degree of reaching the proposed objectives until this moment. They are mainly reffering to a greater protection market, an increased involvement of citizens in this area, the education offered to them on early stages better inter-agency cooperation at the national level. The strategies adopted over time have shown that implementation of the policy of consumer protection is one of the factors of maintaining a single European market viable, competitive, given both the relationship professional-consumer, and relationships between professionals, aiming at a healthy competitive environment based on fair competition between them. 

No: 59
Title: Advancing A Health-Care Cross-Regional Model To Conform  Eu Policies And Migration Factors
Pages 496-510
Author(s): Anca Parmena Olimid*
Open Access

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Problem statement: Advancing a Health-Care Cross-Regional Model (HCRM) is aimed at revisiting the programmes and services facing migration and enriching the benefits of the European Union (EU) policies. The HCRM frames of the mixed public-private fixings are handled to recover the system’s shortcuts in the field of health-care policies and the input factors of migration. Research Questions: Does a Health-Care Cross-Regional Model (HCRM) provide a feasible and adaptable solution to EU programs surpassing the input factors of migration? What are the effective public health measures centring on the social assistance and offering most opportunities for the migrant population? Purpose of the Study: The study ventures the lack of public acknowledgement and of cross-regional scrutiny from the health-care field enabling concurrent engagements to the European and national headsets. Research Methods: Research methods were used as follows: 1) a CRQ (cross-regional questionnaire) assigned to 73 respondents; 2) an interpretative research for the social phenomena of migration; 3) a concept mapping for the HCRM’s determinants. Findings: 1) High level of engagement of the HCRM model maximizes the EU’s sectorial earnings 2) Interconnecting “win-win” approach to the EU policy offering most opportunities for the migrants 3) CPQ is aimed at showing an overall success of the implemented migrant support measures in terms of the social services outcomes Conclusions: It has been established that a Healthcare Cross-Regional Model (HCRM) will produce a feasible and approximate solution to the migration issues involving social and cultural conveniences and granting national policy-makers to enlist feasible opportunities.

No: 60
Title: Climate Changes In Non-Formal Educational Activities - A Multidisciplinary Approach
Pages 511-521
Author(s): Radu Lucian Olteanu*, Gabriel Gorghiu, Gabriela Măntescu
Open Access

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Scientific findings clearly indicate that a changing climate has - and will continue to have - a significant impact on human life and natural systems. The Climate change has become one of the main threats to the biological diversity of the planet, and is projected to become an increasingly important driver of change in the coming decades. Equally important, the massive changes that humans have made to the environment have reduced the survival options to some species, already under the pressure of the changing climate. Providing children with empowering and relevant education related to climate change can contribute to sustainable development of their communities. This paper points out some on particular aspects of the climate change issues, seen from the educational perspective in correlation to students’ feedback, expressed in dedicated non-formal activities, where they are introduced to such issues. The activities were developed using the discovery-based learning method, so that students were being involved actively in experiments, debates, bringing arguments on their claims. The students were also activated in investigating or solving community problems, introducing several solutions through group discussion, with proposals for alternatives. At the same time, the proposed activities contributed to the formation of conscious and responsible attitudes toward the environment. All the activities were adapted based on a special unit dedicated to Climate Change, designed in the frame of the EU FP7 project entitled: “IRRESISTIBLE - Including Responsible Research and Innovation in Cutting Edge Science and Inquiry-based Science Education to Improve Teacher's Ability of Bridging Learning Environments”. 

No: 61
Title: Assessment Of The Romanian Population Trunk Flexibility Using Eurofit
Pages 522-528
Author(s): Oroles Florescu*, Raluca Anca Pelin, Liliana Becea, Carmen Grigoroiu, Narcis Florian Neagu
Open Access

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Creating a data base for the population aged 20-29 is an element of actuality, generated by the need of permanent enrichment of the knowledge platform in accordance to the newest trends of the modern process of training and education at the academic level. The performed research is the first one of that kind in Romania aiming to initiate important different fitness branches in accordance to the recommendations of the Committee for sports development researches with the intention to implement and asses the concept of Health Related Fitness (HRF) as well as for evaluating of the European Council. Within this context, the aim of this research is to evaluate the torso flexibility for the young population of Romania using EUROFIT tests battery for adults. The research was performed with the participation of a number of 1469 young people aged between 20-29 years. Among them, 927 (63%) were male subjects and 542 (37%) were female subjects. In order to evaluate the torso flexibility, an element of the musculoskeletal fitness, we used the Sit-and-reach test, part of the Eurofit tests battery for adults. As a result of analyzing and comparing the results in the test of torso flexibility to the standards set by the Committee for sports development of the European Council for the tests in the Eurofit tests battery for adults one can observe differences at a level of +5% and -7.5%. As a conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the direction we are heading to is the correct one. 

No: 62
Title:   Influence Factors On Agrifood And Rural Development Policies In Romania 
Pages 529-536
Author(s): Ioana Panagoret*, Dragos Panagoret
Open Access

Full Text 61
One major concern of the Romanian Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development is the development and implementation of agrifood policies suitable for its citizens and to support increased agri-food competitiveness and sustainable development of rural areas in safety food conditions and a protected environment. Registering a structural change worldwide process due to the emergence of new global challenges with long-term effect (population large increasingly, global warming, climate change), a Europe with an aging population and of a Romania with the more pronounced structural divisions of land between all EU Member States have led the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural development and other factors responsible in achieving in 2015 a Strategy for developing agri-food sector on medium and long term - horizon 2020/2030 which supports agricultural sector progress and rural development in Romania. Compared to rural population size and workforce occupancy rate, agriculture plays an important role (approximately 45.7% of the population lives in rural areas in Romania, compared to approximately 23.6% in EU Member States) and the development of agriculture and provision of public goods in rural areas is therefore essential for Romania's European integration and for achieving social cohesion. So, Romania needs to maximize the fact that global and European trends are favorable for her and to adopt a strategic approach to the challenges and opportunities of scale and maximize the opportunities and benefits that can be achieved by implementing the CAP and by participation in the EU market and third countries. 

No: 63
Title: Independent Physical Activity- Efficient Mean Of Good Health
Pages 537-543
Author(s): Florina Liliana Paraschita*
Open Access

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Due to its accessibility, physical education and sports are practiced in many different forms throughout life, having her formative strategies and methods for implementing the objectives for each age category. The purpose of the research is a study on assessing the level of effort capacity of students and providing a basis for reporting and subsequent revaluation to estimate the effectiveness of measures to be taken. Hypothesis of the research. It is assumed that involvement in a regular program of physical activity can have a beneficial impact on the body, stressed the effects on functional levels and can improve significantly the effort capacity. The research methods used were: bibliographic study method, observation method, method of registration results on separate sheets for each student. Ruffier – Dickson test - was described in 1920 and named for its author "assessment test of fitness (fitness)". It is a functional sample cardio-vascular valuable especially for children, untrained people and the elderly, but less valuable for athletes, especially those who practice dynamic efforts. The research was conducted on a total of 81 students from the specialty of kinesiology and special motricity in the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports of the Ecological University of Bucharest. The research aimed to aware the students about the effects of systematic practice of physical exercise within some programs aimed at maintaining and improving health to prevent premature degradation of the body and its functions in general. 

No: 64
Title: Research On The Fitness Level Of The Students From Unprofessional Faculty 
Pages 544-549
Author(s): Florina Liliana Paraschita*
Open Access

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Fitness seeks a tight end, to develop a healthy body, strong, beautiful, with smooth musculature, proportionate and prominently represented. Fitness not only contributes to the development of muscles but also to preserve or improve the silhouette, acquisition or retention of physical condition. The purpose of this study is to detect your fitness level at which students are found to have objective arguments in decisions to be programs for promoting, maintaining or regaining health. Hypothesis of the research. It is assumed that involvement in a regular program of physical activity can have a beneficial impact on the body, stressed the effects on functional levels and can improve significantly the fitness level. Objective: to evaluate the fitness levels of students deadlock specialization; Creation of data bases as support for information and training of a healthy lifestyle. The study sample was made up of 98 students in Kinesiology specialization and special motion within the Ecological University of Bucharest. To test the appliance myoartrokinetic system apparatus using test Hettinger, have been used 5 exercises to test joint mobility and balance, and 5 for testing the force. The research aimed to identify potential shortages of healthy subjects by testing myoartrokinetic system using appliance test Hettinger. We also wished to acknowledge students about the effects of systematic practice of physical exercise within some programs aimed at maintaining and optimizing health to prevent premature degradation of the body and its functions in general. 

No: 65
Title: Entrepreneurial Ethics – Evidence From Gcc
Pages 550-558
Author(s): Alexandrina Maria Pauceanu*
Open Access

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The globalization had a major impact in relocation of the investments across the world. GCC, due to many factors, represent an attractive business environment. Entrepreneurial ethics in GCC is a topic which is almost not covered in specialized literature. This study used purposive sample and aims to analyze the entrepreneurial perspectives from Islamic ethics point of view for three the most representative countries is GCC: UAE, Qatar and Oman. The research methods used in this analysis are in depth interviews and open-ended surveys along with literature review.  Ethical standards seems to vary from country to contry (in this case, UAE, Qatar and Oman). From our research, it is clear that ethical standards play an integral role in the success of businesses. Entrepreneurs face various challenges in their quest to establish business. In nations that have adopted the Shari’ a law, there are basic requirements that the business are required to adhere to so as not to violate the Islamic business standards. One factor that features prominently among the employees is the focus on labor laws. The business owners are required to focus on ways of ensuring that their employees are well remunerated. In terms of the entrepreneurs, the major problem relates to adherence to the regulatory and administrative issues across all three nations under consideration. 

No: 66
Title: Leisure Education Among Students
Pages 559-568
Author(s): G. Pehoiu, A. Anghel, M. Sencovici*
Open Access

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Education for leisure is a cross-educational activity that can be designed and carried out through various forms. It is a type of education aimed for training and skills management for rational management of leisure and can be transferred into lifelong learning. The research aims to achieve a mapping of ways to leisure among students in order to identify the behavioral characteristics of their free time behaviors. In this regard, we conducted a quantitative research based on questionnaire survey. Specific research objectives are: to identify cultural preferences of the students (OS1); identifying practices leisure agreed students (OS2); describe how students are relating to the traditional practices of leisure consumption practices versus modern - new media (OS3). In this framework it was considered following explanatory paradigm: subculture groups of which the young influence how it identifies ways of spending free time. The unit of analysis is the group of students from the profiles real and human, aged between 19 and 35 years. Recording unit is registered full time for each student. The general conclusion of the research is as follows: ways of leisure among students are influenced by the subculture group to which they belong. Satisfaction regarding life is as an indicator reveals major influence behavior in students’ free time. 

No: 67
Title: Floating Predicate – Why An Exclusively Academic Approach?
Pages 569-579
Author(s): Cipriana-Elena Peica*
Open Access

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After 1990, the study of the Romanian language in middle school and high school has suffered many changes; the principle underlying the school curricula and textbooks was to step away from the theorising academicism and turn to the functional practice of the language. Although the teaching/learning of Romanian was meant to respond to a growing number of requirements of real life by improving verbal communication of pupils and students, the reality of recent years, reflected both in the results of academic exams at national level and in the oral and written expression of pupils and students, indicates a clear failure which can be explained, in our view, by the faulty theoretical and practical approach of the Romanian language in school textbooks and auxiliaries. Another drawback is that school textbooks and curricula avoid a number of grammatical problems, some of them considered to be too difficult (e.g. floating predicate), and this often creates confusion, most questions remain unanswered in school textbooks and teaching auxiliaries and, consequently, only a certain type of texts/exercises/tests are approached in school textbooks and teaching auxiliaries. We consider this approach to be wrong because logical arguments can be understood by students at this age. These are the main reasons why I have decided to address the floating predicate issue in this paper which includes, on the one hand, the theoretical framework, and on the other hand the manner in which this issue, often so easily and wrongly labelled as ‘adverbials of place’, could be theorised and reinstated. 

No: 68
Title: The Holy Fathers On The Ancient Philosophy In Christian Education
Pages 580-589
Author(s): Liviu Petcu*
Open Access

Full Text 67
One of the greatest merits of the Holy Fathers is that of keeping and transmitting to the modern world the literature and the spiritual conquests of the ancient world. Having saved what was most precious and useful of its content, rejecting fallen, human wisdom, they commenced the long, tiring experience of a total recivilization without superfluous immolation; this is the task of Christianity, and mostly that of the Fathers. The patristic culture, appearing and developing at the springs of antique culture, is not a restrictive culture, but a signally selective one (Plato, Aristotle, Porfirio and Cicero are used in moderation), guiding itself after this principle: take from others just as the bee takes nectar from flowers, following the memorable words of St. Basil the Great and St. Gregory the Theologian. The problems of the patristic culture were numerous and complex: theology, anthropology, education, sociology, cult, history, varied mission, sacred oratory, philokalia, literary art in prose and verse etc., but the controversial and dialogic works are among the most interesting and attractive. Even though they proved to be fierce adversaries of paganism, the Fathers have still recognized some congruence between Christian and Hellenic doctrines - primarily because the analogies were sometimes strikingly similar and secondly, for missionary purposes, i.e., as a common ground for dialogue. In the convergence of the two cultures, the future of Christianity was clear. If, in its conflict with pagan culture, Christian culture was to thrive, it is first and foremost due to its divine origins. 

No: 69
Title: Why Does God Allow Sickness? The Holy Fathers' Response
Pages 590-600
Author(s): Liviu Petcu*
Open Access

Full Text 68
Our mind is often troubled by the following question: what is the positive side of suffering? The matter of suffering is a complex and profound reality which has so numerous and varied problems, that is very hard to understand and to make sense of them. Human suffering is a mystery which one can only comprehend through divine revelation. Theologians have admitted in several instances that suffering as retribution for sinfulness or virtue remains a mystery for us. Orthodox Spirituality helps us perceive suffering in a positive light, as a means of spiritual progress in Christ and not as a meaningless experience. The patristic texts encourage introspection, profound and constant meditation, based on the content of Holy Scripture, of the Holy Tradition and on the paradigms they offer on the subject of the fragility, corruptibility, inconstancy and ephemerality of this world. Among us, there have always been and still are blameless, righteous or even impeccable people that suffer. It is a great question and mystery which is hard to decipher: why do they suffer, too? This is the age-old issue of the suffering of the righteous. Taking patristic and hagiographic literature as a point of reference, I tried in this article to offer as much as possible, a satisfying answer to this burning question, naturally without asserting that I have issued the last word on the mystery of the suffering of the righteous.

No: 70
Title: A Research Perspective Concerning Work Related Early Wear
Pages 601-608
Author(s): Viorica Petreanu, Raluca Maria Iordache*
Open Access

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This paper presents some results of a longitudinal study concerning the survey of a group of employees in the power field, in order to identify the possible work related wear phenomena and specific occupational risks. Aims: establishing a system of exposure indicators and biological response to the identified occupational risks and a long term monitoring procedure of the physical and psychophysical capacities and health state; settling measures to maintain the safety and health at work as well as the working capacity all along the working life.The study involved a multidimensional methodology, starting from the premise of the human operator situation in a complex work system whose parts are interconnected and, thus, the influence of work on the health state should be holistically analyzed. The study emphasized the occupational risk factors which can contribute, together with the extra-occupational and individual factors, to the etiological-pathogenesis of the investigated personnel’ possible illnesses and the necessary measures in the OSH organisation policy. We consider the study as useful for the researchers and experts in occupational health and safety field. 

No: 71
Title: Empowering Teachers With Necessary Skills For Designing Non-Formal Educational Activities
Pages 609-616
Author(s): Ana Maria Aurelia Petrescu, Gabriela Cătălina Cristea, Ioana Stăncescu
Open Access

Full Text 70
Starting with the premise which considers that in the curriculum dedicated for the pre-service teacher training there are not included finalities and specific contents for their professional development concerning non-formal education, a series of educational actors have designed and implemented activities organized in non-formal environments. As UNESCO defined the non-formal education as a process of learning “embedded in planned, organised and sustained education activities that are outside formal education institution, responding to education needs for persons of all ages”, the teachers have to come in the front-line of such demarches, being equipped with relevant knowledge and necessary skills in order to perform successful activities, complementing in this way the formal education that their students receive in ordinary settings.This paper tries to make an approach for the defined topic, taking into account two perspectives: (a) a theoretical one - which envisages an overview of the main strategic actions related to non-formal education, and (b) a practical one - that valorises the teachers’ feedback regarding the modalities used in practice, dedicated to their professional development in this area. Several examples are presented, coming from the activities proposed by the Romanian Community of Learners, set up in the European FP7 Project: “IRRESISTIBLE - Including Responsible Research and Innovation in Cutting Edge Science and Inquiry-based Science Education to Improve Teacher's Ability of Bridging Learning Environments”. 

No: 72
Title: Ways Of Valorizing The Public Engagement In Responsible Research And Innovation
Pages 617-622
Author(s): Ana Maria Aurelia Petrescu, Gabriel Gorghiu*, Radu Lucian Olteanu
Open Access

Full Text 71
In the last period, it was noticed a clear trend in the scientific research, which is oriented on the promotion of responsible research and innovation. Thus, we have identified a growing concern in many countries for: conducting research and innovation based on ethical principles, facilitating the public / open access to results of the research, developing connections between research, education and society etc. As such, the public commitment assumed by those research and innovation activities implies researchers who are concerned to promote their work and results to facilitate the understanding and internalizing of the produced results by the societal actors. In this respect, the paper intends to analyse the public perceptions regarding the ways of its engaging in responsible research and innovation activities. For reaching this purpose, it was designed a questionnaire with ten items, which was administered to a part of the participants in a major event - the European Researcher’s Night - organized in the last Friday of September, in 2016. The questions targeted to a number of issues such as: ways of public involvement in research, methods to enhance the attractiveness of scientific research to the general public, effectiveness of current methods in order to raise the public engagement in research activities. 

No: 73
Title: PR And CSR: A Strategic Partnership
Pages 623-628
Author(s): Amalia Petrovici*
Open Access

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The literature pays special attention to the interaction between public relations (PR) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) (Masuku & Moyo, 2013; Goi & Yong, 2009; Ilieș, 2012), as strategic approach that will serve both the interests of the company and their audiences, by building good collaboration and mutual respect. Public relations can act in the public interest to answer the public's expectations and to support companies to be more attentive to social problems (Petrovici, 2015b, p. 77). In turn, the corporate social responsibility is perceived as part of the portfolio of public relations, a technique that establishes efficient relationships with different groups (Theaker, 2008, p.182). The paper rewiews the recent definition of public relations and corporate social responsibility and also examines the relationship between the two concepts. Our study will focus on the following research questions: (1) PR can be a mechanism to enable the realization of social goals ? (2) What is CSR ? As methodology, we opted for the questionnaire-based inquiry to a sample of 80 persons, students at Communication and Public Relations to identify the perceptions of a representative segment of public regarding the relationship between public relations and corporate social responsibility. In our opinion, the partnership between PR and CSR can be a reference point for the companies to improve corporate image and reputation and to cultivate collaborative relationships with different categories of audiences, stakeholders, customers, shareholders, donors or sponsors. 

No: 74
Title: Study On Young External Public Auditor
Pages 629-638
Author(s): Iliodor Tiberiu Pleșa*
Open Access

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The idea of this study came as a consequence of the Romanian Court of Accounts' participation to the second YES EUROSAI Conference for young external public auditors from the supreme audit institutions member of EUROSAI, held in 2015 in Jerusalem. The context in which this study was conducted is defined by the situation that will face the supreme audit institution of Romania (the Romanian Court of Accounts) in the near future, given the large number of retirements among specialized personnel (external public auditors). The study is based on quantitative research method of questionnaire, considering that this method highlights best the objectives proposed in shaping the young external public auditor' profile. The questionnaire contains 27 questions, classified in 3 sections and was filled by a representative sample of 48% of the total number of participants to the EUROSAI YES Conference. The results of this study can be used not only by the Romanian Court of Accounts but also by other supreme audit institutions when recruiting new young personnel, taking into account that are highlighted the main characteristics, needs and expectations that young people under 35 years have when opting for a career in a supreme audit institution.  

No: 75
Title: The Ethics Of Intercultural Communication
Pages 639-646
Author(s): Nicoleta-Aurora Popescu*, Gabriela Popa
Open Access

Full Text 74
There is considerable evidence that shows how people can improve their social skills. The secret of this type of training depends on the way the skills are defined. The main purpose of training social and communication skills is regarded as being complex due to various reasons. The pattern of social skills can be applied in many useful ways but it’s important in the same time to keep in mind that social skills are different from physical skills due to several important matters. As we can perceive our own and other’s behaviour, we have the capacity to reflect on how people perceive us, which is called meta-perception, and it was proven to be an important factor that defines how people react to one another. In this article I will try to identify the most useful communication skills when it comes to communicating with strangers. In order to understand the process of intercultural communication in order to improve its effectiveness, we need to take into consideration what makes the intercultural connection possible. The challenge is to understand  their cultural background and their communication patterns. By doing so, the first steps into knowing the others is done. It’s the step to further civilisation. 

No: 76
Title: Language And Its Relation To Surrounding Reality
Pages 647-653
Author(s): Nicoleta-Aurora Popescu*, Mirela Anghel
Open Access

Full Text 75
The present article proves that language is not a natural material, but the creation of a group, collectivity or people. This material, i.e. language, is not a given forever rather it is in a continuous change filled with loads that come from different territorial areas, from one social group to another, century by century. According to Max Muller, language, under the pressure of thought, becomes a true metamorphosis. Being intrigued by the amazing forces that people feel they are dependent on, they have started to reflect over these changes and therefore they constantly wonder what they consist of. They have made the effort to substitute the obscure feeling that they initially had into a more clear idea, a concept that was better defined. The idea and the concept are impossible to define without the word. Worf stated that “linguistics is essentially the quest for meaning.” The content of the thought influences the process of thought and differing contexts produce differing species of process, so that generalization about process becomes impossible without context’s being taken into account. 

No: 77
Title: Alarming Phenomen Of Infant Abandonment
Pages 654-662
Author(s): Rebeca Popescu*
Open Access

Full Text 76
The child abandonment phenomenon was influence by the cultural and historical period. In Romania, historical and political contexts are interlocked, the communist regime having still the major impact over the idea of child abandonment. The last decades were marked by the interest for deinstitutionalization and promoting alternative measures for each child who is deprived of his parents’ protection. However, child abandonment in Romanian hospitals continues to be high. The group age most vulnerable to hospitalization is the newborn children. Between 2008 – 2015, every year were abandoned in hospitals between 624 and 942 new-borns. Methodology: Secondary analyses of national data referring to hospitalized children, available on the Romanian Ministry of Labour, Family and Social Protection site. Conclusion: During the communist regime, child abandonment phenomenon was raised, and legislative changes in 2000s have contributed to the reduction of the number of institutionalized children, but did not led to the decrease of the number of abandoned children in maternities. The child abandonment and especially the newborn’s, continue to be a social problem affecting these children, but also the Romanian Society. During 2008 – 2015, 2 new-borns were abandoned in all Romanian maternities everyday. The time spent in hospital without the emotion connection of a caregiver, can cause psychological problems and also attachments disorders and is necessary to adjust legislation and promote alternatives at the newborn abandonment. It is also necessary to educate young people and inform them previous and during pregnancy so that no pregnant woman at-risk abandonment to leave her child in maternity. 

No: 78
Title: Evaluation Of “Physical Education And Sport” Curricular Area In Primary School
Pages 663-668
Author(s): Larisa Potop*, Valeriu Jurat
Open Access

Full Text 77
The main purpose of the study is the evaluation of the main abilities and competences based on teacher and student options in the research ascertaining stage, which must be performed in the curricular area of Physical Education and Sport in primary education. This scientific approach has led to the organization of an ascertaining pedagogical experiment. Research methods used: study of specialized literature, pedagogical observation, pedagogical experiment, method of tests and control events, statistical-mathematical method. During the study there were applied the test events included in School National System for Evaluation at Physical Education and Sport subject, having predominantly a regulatory role both for students’ assimilation activity and for the improvement of didactical strategies. The bi-annual evaluation will include at least three grades resulted from the events of speed, strength, complex of physical development, skill, acrobatic gymnastics and sports games. The results of the research highlight the level of motor skills, of basic motor skills, of elementary athletic skills and the capacity for performance acquired by students after practicing the physical education class. The application of the evaluation system depending on teacher’s and student’s options during the ascertaining stage of the research will lead to the accessibility and diversification of using the contents of gymnastics in order to improve the curricular area of physical education and sport in primary school. 

No: 79
Title: Teaching Technologies For Achievement Of “Strength” Learning Unit At 8th Grade
Pages 669-674
Author(s): Vladimir Potop*, Valeriu Jurat, Larisa Potop
Open Access

Full Text 78
This paper focuses on the use of didactic technologies for achievement of “Strength” learning unit by means of circuit method in 8th grade. The following research methods have been used: bibliographic study of the specialized literature study of specialized documents (students’ transcripts of records, medical records), pedagogic observation, experimental study, method of test events, method of circuit, statistical – mathematical method for data processing and interpretation. The “circuit” methodological procedure, formed of 8 individualized exercises for girls and boys, has been used to achieve “Strength” learning unit during Physical Education class. Test events included in the National School System of Evaluation of Physical Education and Sports were applied to check the level of strength development in 8th grade. This study showed that the experimental group managed to have obvious progresses after application of circuit method during the class of physical education, acting both on motor skills development indicators and on harmonious physical development.The large variety of exercises used during the circuit is a contributory factor for development of muscles trophicity and tonicity; thus the body harmonious development is achieved. The interest shown by students to develop strength by working in circuit in different workout stations proved that the circuit method used in physical education class was highly effective, which was also demonstrated by the results obtained after this study. 

No: 80
Title: Aspects Of Creativity Development At School-Aged Children And Preadolescents
Pages 675-680
Author(s): Claudia Sălceanu
Open Access

Full Text 79
Humakind has been preoccupied with defining what determines the new ideas in someone’s mind, hence manifesting a real interest in studying creativity. The study is based on the Imagination and Creativity Test adapted by Roco (2001) after Torrance, Osborn, Guilford, Wallach, Kogan and Meunier, composed of figural and verbal creativity tests, focusing on the evaluation of fluidity, flexibility, originality. The study was conducted on 133 preteenagers and primary school children from Constanta. The objectives and the hypotheses of the research are: the identification of the significant differences between the figural and the verbal creativity, depending on gender and age level; the identification of the significant differences on fluidity, flexibility and originality level, depending on gender and age level. There was no record of significant differences between the primary school children and the preteenagers or between girls and boys, from the creativity development point of view; fluidity and flexibility are relatively similar as development level, both for the two age categories and genderwise. We recorded significant differences on the originality level, between the primary school children and the preteenagers. The verbal creativity is more developed, compared to the figural one, for the primary school children and the preteenagers. There was a record of the same significant differences concerning the development of verbal and figural creativity, gender-wise. The study offers arguments for the obtained results, presenting a topical and modern perspective on the approached subject, and it is one of the few studies on this theme that have been conducted in Romania. 

No: 81
Title: Do Teachers Really Want To Change Their Beliefs Related To Education? 
Pages 681-689
Author(s): Elena - Mirela Samfira*
Open Access

Full Text 80
Teachers’ beliefs represented a special interest, for both educational and psychological researches. The aim of educational domain were aspects related to methods, evaluation, urban-rural schools, experience, the level of teaching (primary, secondary and high school), gender, the type of institution who offered program in teacher training, on the other hand psychological domain paid attention on personality traits, Locus of control, stress, burnout and maybe the most complex aspect, of belief change. The present article is a review of the ninth main models on belief change, proposed by researchers who have studied this domain. Teachers beliefs’ change represented a real interest concurrently with implementation students centred learning strategies and constructivist-oriented reforms. The main aspects that concern all factors involved in educational settings (teacher, administrators, and pupils) are teachers’ resistance to reforms, which hold them in a traditionalist position, and superficial belief change (assimilation), who does not affect the core beliefs of teaching only superficial beliefs. 

No: 82
Title: Probation Counselors' Perspectives On Their Professional Practice
Pages 690-699
Author(s): Antonio Sandu*
Open Access

Full Text 81
The present paper aims to address, in an exploratory manner, the probation counsellors’ perspective in Romania and the Republic of Moldova, regarding their own professional practice. The central purpose of this micro-research is to verify the plausibility and generalization of the main results of the research Axes of the Social Construction of the Probation Counsellor’s Profession (Sandu, 2016a; Sandu, Ignătescu, 2017), and to clarify the adherence of the probation counselors in the two countries, to the model developed in their framework. Using a quantitative methodology – we aim to answer to the following research questions “Can the model of social construction of the profession of probation counselor, inductively obtained within the research Axes of the Social Construction of the Probation Counsellor’s Profession (Sandu, 2016a; Sandu, Ignătescu, 2017), be considered valid, or at least verisimilous?” and “Do the probation counselors in Romania and the Republic of Moldova adhere to the specific of practice proposed by the model mentioned?”. 

No: 83
Title: The Teacher’s Role On Building The High-School Student’s Self-Esteem
Pages 700-706
Author(s): Elena Ancuța Santi, Gabriel Gorghiu*
Open Access

Full Text 82
The teacher represents one of the key-persons who can influence the student’s personality in a significant way. Often, the teacher’s mission has been compared with an artist who shapes the own creation, seeing its masterpiece in an ordinary bunch of clay. But being a teacher does not mean just to have scientific expertise in a particular field and pedagogical skills - here, it is also a matter of sacrifice, dedication, passion and consciousness, leading to be a model for the students. More, the teacher’s influence transcends the time and the school space. A good teacher can change the student’s life. Just as a teacher who is not aware of its own role can permanently cut the young wings. This can be happened in a period like the adolescence, when the younger’s self-image is crystallized. In this context, the teacher represents one of the most important modelers who contributes to the perfection of this irreversible process. This present paper tries to highlight the relationship between the actual-self and the ideal-self personality of high-school students and to emphasize on the teacher’s contribution to the building process of student’s proper and realistic self-image. The analysis was based on the feedback of 529 high-school students recorded in a dedicated questionnaire, addressed after the implementation of inquire-based science teaching modules designed in the frame of the European FP7 Project called: “PROFILES - Professional Reflection Oriented Focus on Inquiry-based Learning and Education through Science”. 

No: 84
Title: Development Of Force By Using Volley Means In High School Classes
Pages 707-713
Author(s): Cristian Florian Savu*
Open Access

Full Text 83
Volleyball sport game is promoted and practiced by a growing number of high-school students in physical education lessons, it consisting itself into an excellent means for improving and maintaining physical condition, also contributing to the objectives of school Physical education.Treating physical education lesson organized by high school students from the perspective of using the volleyball, can increase mobility of overall body and especially of motor skills required for it to be played, and the backdrop of these qualities can be achieved faster and with correct appropriation to the required technical elements for practicing this game.For a more efficient contribution to the objectives of school age, specific means volleyball can be organized and carried out in various forms. Their use in the lesson is useful, but only when they contain actions that lead directly to perform certain instructional goals of educative type, to improve driving ability of the students included in various studies.Volleyball is a team sport game, representing a significant branch of physical activity, with a significant educational value. It cumulates on the one hand the positive effects that sport and physical exercise, and on the other hand educational outcomes of this game. Analysis of Physical education and sport curricular area for the game of volleyball denotes accessibility to all ages, some physical and mental training being applicable from the early hours of physical education. 

No: 85
Title: Sociological Research Regarding Physical Training For Junior Basketball
Pages 714-721
Author(s): Cristian Florian Savu*
Open Access

Full Text 84
Modern sports training requires increased attention to all components depending on the specific structure of each branch or practiced sports events. However, in most cases, physical training is recognized as a fundamental factor in the preparation process of athletes, as only optimal development of general and specific driving ability can bring success in sports competitions. Based on the available information analysis of specialists, it can be said that the game of basketball and teams preparation are done globally, without taking into account the individual work stations. Each task in this game is in addition to a general orientation training and some specific features, which in turn require specific training methods. That is why we chose the present theme in an attempt to prove that the differential treatment of specific physical preparation by biological reasons, depending on the position held in the game (for junior basketball players of 17-18 years old, in our case), players could increasing efficiency and therefore better results being obtained in contests and competitions, which give our study regarding current concerns and trying their implementation. We use our research about the main topic, a questionnaire type dark character, applied for specialized teachers and coaches in basketball. Questionnaire’s items have lied to obtain information about their views on training objectives for junior teams aged 17-18 years, also the place and role of physical training appropriated to the age mentioned. 

No: 86
Title: Environmental Education In School, Family And Community
Pages 722-730
Author(s): Mihaela Sencovici, Gica Pehoiu*
Open Access

Full Text 85
In this study, inquiry was used as a sociological method, and, as an investigation tool, we used a questionnaire based on closed and open questions about aspects of the environmental state, the respondents’ perceptions and attitudes, the respondents being students who work in the area of Târgovişte municipality. This study also aims to assess the interest in the relation between urban and natural environment. It was found that the natural environment and man suffer increasingly more because of the absorption of resources by the society but also because of the inclusion of foreign components in the normal composition of the environment resulting from human activities or due to the fragmentation of the natural ecological system by continued economic growth and fragmented society, especially of the private sector. In addition to the questionnaire mentioned above, a literature review was realized, consulting bibliographical sources and archival directories of communicated data and information. Following the documentation and the questionnaire, we have conducted a series of graphs illustrating the involvement of families, schools and other institutions in local and national programs related to the environmental education perception, particularly in point of selective waste collection. 

No: 87
Title: The Treatment Of Social Cases For Tmj Disorders
Pages 731-743
Author(s): Laura-Elisabeta Checheriță, Ovidiu Stamatin*, Victor-Vlad Costan
Open Access

Full Text 86
Temporo-mandibular joint pathology is one of deficiencies quite common lately in prosthetics, oral and amxillo-facial service. Between 2012-2016 we assesed a wide range of patients who presented with temporo mandibular joint dysfuction level correlated with other pathologies, both local and general, order with a total of 42. In our study we chose patients experiencing TMJ pathology who needed prosthetic rehabilitation. The first element required was a anamnesis rigorously conducted after which it was examined the patient clinically by inspection palpation, percussion, finding the subjective and objective signs and the nature of dysfunction at the muscular or articular level indicated by the laboratory tests: OPG and tomography ATM after which Riketz Burlui balance was achieved - and a morphological analysis at the mandibular condyle. After this we determined the cranio-mandibular relationship of posture and relationship centric we make the personal ocluzogram and we checked the parameters of occlusion describing the static and dynamic occlusion. Following a positive diagnosis itself it follow the stage of treatment customized depending on the case consisting in miorelaxing drugs accompanied by mouthguards and interventions on occlusal areas completed with kinetoterapy exercises and balneophisioterapy finalizing with fixed and mobile prosthetic rehabilitation trying to obstain homeostasis of stomatoghnatic system. 

No: 88
Title: The Formative Impact Of The Career Plan On The Students' Professional Path
Pages 744-752
Author(s): Cornelia Stan*
Open Access

Full Text 87
Acquiring theoretical knowledge and practical skills regarding career choice and management are essential objectives for young people who are in a position to express their career choices at various stages of their formation. In this respect, the development of skills to design effective career plans should begin in school, when the person has the ability to project their future professional role by integrating career in the broader aspect of life planning. Naturally, the development of realistic and effective career plans mainly relates to developing skills of planning learning, healthy habits and skills relevant to the career, but also to promote an objective self-image in order to achieve professional success. Through the programs that the school implements at various levels, students will have the opportunity to know the professional outcomes of different training routes, to acquire specific knowledge of professional occupations, to form a positive attitude in relation to the action of exploring educational and career opportunities, by using various sources of information. In this context, self-knowledge of personal skills and characteristics that might define a person's career path should be consistent with the values, attitudes and motivations that underlie their own choices and decisions regarding their career. For this reason, the development and implementation of programs of vocational guidance, with the help of counselors, has a strong relevance in the planning and designing of the career of future workers in the labor market. 

No: 89
Title: The Importance Of Assessment In The Educational Process - Science Teachers’ Perspective
Pages 753-759
Author(s): Ioana Stăncescu
Open Access

Full Text 88
The focus of the PROFILES project lies on promoting reflection‐oriented teaching, in order to enhance the students’ scientific literacy. The emphasis is oriented on the promotion of the teachers’ scientific and pedagogical competencies, especially on IBSE (as a specific strategy) and related approaches that promote this strategy. From this point of view, Science teachers - Physics, Chemistry, Biology -, as reflective practitioners, should be concerned by the process of assessment, which has to support an important restructuring process. The assessment is not only a final point in the educational process, but it has to become an integral part of the process, able to provide to teachers and students the necessary feed-back to improve their activity during the educational process. In this way, the assessment gets a special importance in modern science lessons. The paper aims to investigate the science teachers’ perception concerning the importance of the assessment in the educational process, reported to the following aspects: (a) use a variety of assessment strategies that are designed to measure competencies; (b) undertake a range of formative assessment strategies with one’s own students; (c) provide suitable positive feedback to both “more able” and “weaker” students; (d) assess students’ knowledge and skills according to their portfolios. 

No: 90
Title: The Right To Know: The Whistleblower Debate
Pages 760-770
Author(s): Angela Stănescu*
Open Access

Full Text 89
In the wake of 9/11, with the ongoing War on Terror and the constant threat of terrorism, the legal deterrents applicable to the press liberties warranted by the Fifth Amendment of the United States Constitution are seen as more justifiable than ever. There are, however, many voices denouncing the strengthening of an extended system of state sanctioned surveillance and control considered to infringe upon these elemental freedoms. The so-called whistleblowers, brought to the fore of public debate by the revelatory project of Julian Assange’s WikiLeaks, reclaim their right to uncover the truth about governmental practices that infringe upon the citizens’ fundamental liberties and rights or the about the occult rationales of certain political, economic or military decisions. Whistleblowers who release classified documents pointing to allegedly unorthodox dealings of government have generated a worldwide debate, residing in the clash between two opposing views – on the one hand, there are those who condemn such leaks as treacherous acts which should be prosecuted accordingly, while others defend them in the name of the right to free speech and information. This paper examines the public rhetoric of both sides, analyzing the kind of discourses and arguments for or against such disclosures, which cast whistleblowers as either heroes, who uphold transparency and democratic values by challenging powerful institutions, or as traitors who unlawfully expose state and corporate secrets. The intended discourse analysis is mainly focused on the Edward Snowden debate.  

No: 91
Title: Exploring The Role Of Romanian Television In Public Sphere (1957-1989)
Pages 771-779
Author(s): Romina Surugiu*
Open Access

Full Text 90
The research regarding the history of public television in Eastern European states has focused on the issue of continuity between television in authoritarian regimes and its transformation into a public institution after 1990, since the onset of democracy. Nonetheless, there are other issues related to the construction of the public sphere and of the nation-state within the public broadcasting system which are important in order to understand the Eastern European media during the last 60 years. The aim of this paper is to discuss the relationship between television and public sphere in 1957-1989, in Romania. Our discussion will incorporate examples from the history of the Romanian Public Television. In Romania, the Public Television had a monopoly position spanning four decades, which saw the overlap between the ideal of ‘social unity’ and the process of nation-building. The link between culture and national culture was expressed in various broadcasting programs, essentially functioning as ‘social cement’. The public service was attributed cultural, moral and educative roles and its mission was to improve the general knowledge on issue related to society and science, but it also had a clearly stated political function. The political function was to support communism and its ideal, defined as the creation of a ‘popular democracy’. Though, the public broadcasting failed to fulfill its constitutive role in the public sphere during these four decades. 

No: 92
Title: Performative Discourse: The Power Of Words
Pages 780-787
Author(s): Ileana Tănase*
Open Access

Full Text 91
Until the advent of the studies of pragmatic linguistics proper, there had been analyses which, though belonging to other trends of language exploration, had directions of research in common with pragmatics. Ch. Morris, J.L. Austin, J.R. Searle, prominent representatives of language philosophy, N. Chomsky, J. Ross, generativist semanticists, as well as many others, fascinated by the actional dimension of language, opened the way for research destined to create a domain which has been receiving a lot of attention: language as action. In the present article I have focused, on the one hand, on a brief overview of the founding of pragmatics by non-pragmatists, and, on the other hand, on illustrating performative discourse in a text by A. Maurois, centre on the power that words wield in daily life. The conclusion would be that it is not only linguists, whose centre of interest is language, who intuit the power of words, but also philosophers, men of letters and all those who find pleasure in reflecting upon words. 

No: 93
Title: Subordination In Biblical Paremiological Utterances
Pages 788-792
Author(s): Raluca Felicia Toma*
Open Access

Full Text 92
In most biblical paremiological utterances, nuances may overlap, which makes it difficult to identify the type of subordinate clause. Nuancing and synthesising the semantic and syntactic markers are part of the expressive arsenal of the pragmatics of the paremiological text. In the absence of such subtle nuancing, communicative performance would be inconceivable. Regarding subordination relations, that of a subjective and its regent is the most common. The syntax follows the universal logical schema of any utterance, consisting of a Logical Subject (minimal), a Logical Predicate (maximum), and a conjunction. The differences between languages arise from the different possibilities of expressing the subject, primarily because the predicate, being the axis of the sentence in any language, remains relatively stable. In the vast majority of cases, the subject’s expression must go beyond the limits of the denotational function, since its use as an exemplary element for the receiver, its exemplary function for which it was selected in the utterance, assumes a brief description, but it is also loaded with connotations. 

No: 94
Title: Burnout Syndrome Among Informal Caregivers For Old People
Pages 793-800
Author(s): Zuzana Truhlářová*, Alena Vosečková, Ondřej Štěch
Open Access

Full Text 93
The text deals with burnout syndrome among informal caregivers caring for old people in informal setting, usually at home. Burnout syndrome has been recognized in past decades as a big problem for people helping professions, especially where there is great responsibility, chronic stress and little autonomy. Important for coping successfully with factors leading to burnout are internal coping resources and social support. Our research was conducted in a sample of 458 caregivers. We employed quantitative research strategy with a self-completion questionnaire consisting of standardized inventories and our own set of questions. Standardized inventories were a) the Burnout Measure by Pines and Aronson, b) Barthel’s Activities of Daily Living (ADL), and c) Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL). The other part of the questionnaire comprised of a set of items measuring the ability of the senior to fulfil her basic needs, which is partially comparable to ADL and IADL; and of questions asking about the relationships of caregiver with her family, social support, motivation, information availability, using social services and the extent of care and the amount of free time. Results show that 22% of our sample show symptoms of burnout, and more than half is in risk. This is similar as in other helping professions. The main factors causing stress on the part of cared for senior is low self-sufficiency in most basic activities of hygiene, eating and clothing. From other factors the most important is long daily care and lack of support. 

No: 95
Title: The Role Of Mathematical Models In The Evaluation Of The Knee Injuries
Pages 801-811
Author(s): Sorin Ungurianu, Doina-Clementina Cojocaru*, Robert D. Negru
Open Access

Full Text 94
This article studies the effects of mechanical lateral impact on the knee joint and tibial plateau, with pelvic limb supported and unsupported on the ground, using a mathematical model in AUTOCAD and transposed in COSMOS program. The effects were evaluated at the level of the knee in both supported and unsupported situations.  The principle of the mathematical model of the knee joint was to decompose each joint component in thousands of finite elements. The most important conclusions were obtained when we analyzed the mathematical model of the proximal third of the tibia in the lateral impact. The results of the model analysis suggest that a lateral impact on the knee, with a lower limb support at a speed of 20-30 km/h, will damage only ligaments; as speed increases, bone lesions will appear and force dissipates in the femoral condyle, where subchondral fracture are appearing. If the action of the traumatic agent generates the rupture of the anterior external cruciate ligament, the effect of the maximum force applied on the knee is dissipating, and there is no longer transmitted to the bone. Ligament injury always occurs before the appearance of the bone fracture. The only exception is fracture-dislocation when the movement of the bone fragments isassociated with a secondary cruciate ligament injury. The mathematical models can fairly predict the type of the fractures involving the bones of the knee joint. 

No: 96
Title: Management Style And Reduction Of The Psychological Risk Factors In The Company 
Pages 812-819
Author(s): Valentina Urbane, Inese Vilcane*, Janis Ievins
Open Access

Full Text 95
The authors analysed the management style types and principles, their characteristic features and influence on the employees, as well as the influence of the management style on the internal and external activities of the company. As well as they considered the stress factors in the working environment, their classification, as well as the effects caused by the psycho-emotional risk factors both on the human’s health and on the behaviour. The authors analysed the company’s K psycho-emotional working environment, determined the management style in the certain company’s structural unit, and compared the economic and psycho-emotional factors before and after the change of the management style. Authors carried out the survey in several company’s structural units, analysed the results and found out the existing physiological situation and relationships with the managers. They considered the effects caused by the risk factors in the company in the section of several years. Based on the conclusions on the results of the survey and based on the considered examples of the best practice, the authors have developed the proposals, how using different management tools, it is possible to improve the psycho-emotional working environment. They developed the methodology, how to achieve the proposed goals and to carry out the control of the results after the certain deadline of the implementation of the goal. 

No: 97
Title: Determination Of Requirements For Ventilation System In Manufacturing Of Electronic Products
Pages 820-830
Author(s): Valentina Urbane*, Tatjana Tambovceva, Janis Ievins
Open Access

Full Text 96
Nowadays there are more than 170 enterprises working in electrical and electronics industry in Latvia. Ongoing expansion and increasing of production at the enterprises of Latvian electronic industry simultaneously increases the risk of harmful chemical exposure on employees of these enterprises, because of the volume and intensity of the use of health harmful chemicals increases. The aim of the article is to analyze the chemical safety of employees in the electronic industry enterprises. The analysis of the production process of electronic products has been done. It is noted that the basic chemical safety is associated with the processes of soldering electronic components. An analysis of the impact of production volumes on the concentration of harmful substances in the working area was done by the example of one of Latvian electronics industry enterprises. It is noted that the main measure eliminating the harmful effects of lead vapors is the ventilation system. The authors performed the calculation of the concentration of lead vapors in the work area taking into account the increasing production and defined the requirements for the ventilation system.  

No: 98
Title: Somatic And Morphofunctional Development Of Male Athlete Rowers Competing In Open Category
Pages 831-836
Author(s): Sanda Urichianu Toma*, Adrian Ion Urichianu
Open Access

Full Text 97
Rowing is a cyclical Olympic sport which is characterized by an aerobic effort over a 2000 m race. To obtain high performance in rowing, meeting anthropometric parameters, showing stature, and meeting weight requirements is important. The selection of youth for this sport is subject to exceptional physical skills, according to data compiled by Romanian Rowing Federation for anthropometric models that facilitate the work of coaches. The anthropometric model is part of the biological model's performance and achievement in the growth and development of the individual that creates favourable conditions for achieving high-level results. The level of somatic development in rowers was determined in the study by measuring anthropometric data, and was reported in the calculation for the physical and nutritional status of the Basic Guide for Establishing Romanian Sports/Rowing, INMS 1987 (Men's Open Model). Research methods used were: observation, studies by specialists, tests and anthropometric measurements, and analysis of the results. Comparing the level of somatic, morphological, and functional development of competing rowers follows the specific physical preparation in accordance with the requirements and effectiveness of the model presented. The needs for modern training methods are consistent with the worldwide objectives and efforts in various stages of preparation and performance. 

No: 99
Title: Profiling Factors Which Act Upon Wellbeing Of Young Students Aged 18-25 Years
Pages 837-842
Author(s): Sanda Urichianu Toma*, Bogdan Andrei Urichianu
Open Access

Full Text 98
Young people must have a healthy physical and mental state and must be prepared to cope with changes in the modern world to obtain harmonious physical development and socialize well with others. We believe that poor health can affect the ability of young people to be physically active, discourages the ability to cope with various situations, and prevents participation in group and community activities; including participation in sports. The purpose of this paper is to run a study based on a questionnaire, to determine social factors that influence the quality of life and wellbeing in order to improve physical, mental, and social status. The questionnaire was applied to a total of 300 students, from I to III years of study from the Ecological University of Bucharest. Methods used were review of literature by theoretical analysis, observation, and sociological test. The study aims to evaluate the effects of physical exercise and other factors on the young students’ lives. 

No: 100
Title: Time Banking As A System Change: The Soft System Methodology Approach
Pages 843-853
Author(s): Lukas Valek*
Open Access

Full Text 99
The aim of this paper is to explore the possibility of a system change in an economic paradigm towards a community developing system through the use of what has been referred to time banking, a rigorous and tested methodology in which the main focus is on the human being. The scale of possible structured changes through this medium will be discussed, i.e. if the practical approach of time banking is applicable to an undefined range factors of economic reality, or should more usefully be geared toward a specific geographic location. In this respect, Soft Systems Methodology is introduced and discussed in this paper; a soft system version of the V-model is also touched upon, even though this process has not yet shown properties flexible enough to achieve the desired changes. Soft System Methodology is considered in all its seven steps, which are related and discussed within the frame of time banking. In the conclusion, possible ways of use as well as potential directions for further research are outlined, including the need for case studies to verify the findings. 

No: 101
Title: Factors Which Increase The Quality Of Learning Mathematics In Primary School
Pages 854-864
Author(s): Georgiana Velicu*
Open Access

Full Text 100
In our contemporary times - the era of the fast developments of all area, the claim that we cannot live without mathematics is justified. The culture of Math is the basic elementof the culture of modern people. Thus, learning Math is not reduced tothe mere assimilation of knowledge, it aims to the formation of a certain way of thinkingthrough permanent mind training. The “taste” for Mathematicsis formed in the first years of school, the lessons and complementary activities are essential for the acquisition of a mathematical thinking. The teacher, in the primary grades, has the task to putthe foundations of elementary mathematical notions and has the role to make pupils toget the core mathematical concepts and, also, to insist that their thinking to be stimulated in a wonderful way. The teacher must arouse the interest and lovefor the study of this beautiful matter. So, what makes Math lessons more attractive? What are the factors that can increase the quality of learning mathematics? To these questions we will try to answer in this paper. We talk about some factors that influence the quality of the lessons containing Math activities, like planning of Math lessons using modern strategies of learning. So we discuss about the use of active-participative methods and also we talk about interdisciplinary approaches, illustrating the strengths and weaknesses of those strategies. Finally, we present the importance of introducing specific methods and techniques of compounding and solving problems. 

No: 102
Title: Chargeability And Guilt As Features Of The Offense
Pages 865-872
Author(s): Lavinia Mihaela Vlădilă*
Open Access

Full Text 101
With the entrance into force of the new Criminal Code, a new perspective on the notion of offence has been promoted. The definition given by Art 15 Para 1 of the Criminal Code now recognizes, at least formally, four key features of the offence, namely: its statement in the criminal law or typicality, guilt, unjustified feature or anti-legality and the chargeability; among them, only two drew the attention of the specialists in law due to their redundancy: the guilt and the chargeability. Thus, the guilt as key feature of the offence represents the subjective aspect under which the offence is committed, being reproduced as three legal forms: intent, culpability and obsolescence. The chargeability refers to the fact that the offence is physically and especially psychically attributed to the perpetrator, which automatically relates to the guilt with which the offence is being committed. Also, the clauses removing the non-chargeability of the offence (defined by Art 23-31 of the Criminal Code) are clauses for removing the guilt. By adopting this new definition, the new Criminal Code has chosen the formal thesis of defining the offence, unlike the substantial one of the former Criminal Code. By analyzing all these and other contradictions, the current study aims to conduct and objective and comparative analysis of these two features of the offence, as well as the necessity of their common existence within the definition of the offence. 

No: 103
Title: Anyone For A Meat Pie? Accidental Cannibalism In Romanian Urban Legends
Pages 873-879
Author(s): Oana Voichici*
Open Access

Full Text 102
Insecurity in the modern world is a prevalent theme in most urban legends. Urban maniacs, be they invented or inspired by real facts, make up a gallery of evil portraits: the maniac who places AIDS-infected needles in cinemas or stalks his victims in the shadow, foully attacking them, the maniac who kidnaps children and steal their organs for clandestine transplants, or the serial killer who murders helpless young women. Legends suggest that delinquents are to be found everywhere in our social environment and are all the more dangerous as nothing distinguishes them from the ordinary man. On the other hand, the ‘accidental cannibal’ legends (as the American researcher Jan Harold Brunvand calls them) have also a xenophobic feature, that is to say, the fear of foreigners or hatred towards the other. These are the anti-Semitic legends in which Jews abduct Christian children and use their blood to prepare the Easter bread.  

No: 104
Title: Nascent Managers’ Initial Assessment Of Divergent Thinking Trait
Pages 880-893
Author(s): Iuliana Zaharia, Adina Iorga
Open Access

Full Text 103
This paper is an autonomous piece from the ongoing interdisciplinary research “Personality and Weltanschauung”, within we applied several instruments on 100 subjects (students) aged 19-22, both genders almost in equable distribution. For this paper we used, assessed and approached the data acquired through the test on divergent thinking, aiming: 1. to identify the degree of divergent thinking of the students sample we took into study; 2. a practical use concerning teaching (adapting and optimizing the didactic process to the peculiarities of the current students’ generations from the faculty where we teach); 3.the development / standardization of an assessment instrument for divergent thinking; 4. the dissemination of the results to the interested subjects of the research for psychological counseling and training. The results: item 1, the “Nine Dot” problem for flexibility, was solved by 11% of the subjects; the item 2, “The disc of traits” for fluidity, showed  50% subjects with low level, 35% with medium level and 13 % with high level of fluidity; the item 3 showed, on its qualitative scale we designed, 14% subjects with very low level, 31% subjects with low level, 32% subjects with medium level, 16% subjects with high level and 6% subjects with very high scores on originality and re-definition. Concluding, round about 80% of the subjects didn’t obtain scores for a positive prognosis regarding a future role as efficient manager on coordinates which can currently exploit creativity, but, probably, a stronger (self) motivation of the subjects will positively change their results.