ISSC 2016

Volume XIV, Pages 1- 883 (August 2016)
The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences EpSBS
e-ISSN: 2357-1330
©2016 Published by the Future Academy
Edited by: Bahtiar Mohamad
Articles: 1-123
Conference: ISSC 2016 International Conference on Soft Science
Dates: 11 - 13 April 2016
Location: Kedah - Malaysia
Conference Chair(s): Prof. Dr. Ayoib Che Ahmad, Director, Research & Innovation Management Centre, Univesiti Utara Malaysia
Cover Page here
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs(2357-1330).2016.8  

Title: Contents
Open Access

Contents
 

No: 1
Title: Guest Editors’ Message
Pages 1-3
Author(s): Bahtiar Mohamad*, Siti Mahfuzah Sarif, Syamsul Bahrin Zaibon
Open Access
 
Guest Editors' Message 
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.1 

No: 2
Title: Analyzing the Effectiveness of Social Media Marketing Original Research Article
Original Research Article
Pages 4-10
Author(s): Haslinda Musa*, Fadhlur Rahim Azmi, Namirah Ab Rahim, Abdul Samad Shibghatullah, Norfaridatul Akmaliah Othman
Open Access

Full Text 2
Abstract
The purpose of the paper is to report on the process and findings of factors that influence the effectiveness of customer engagement, brand reputation & image, and customer brand attitudes towards online performances of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Melaka. The paper contains sufficient details to support that objective and suitable to be presented at the conference. Besides, this paper examines the relationship between factors influencing effectiveness and SMEs performance and also examined the key determinants of those factors towards SMEs performances. A literature review is presented to explain the effectiveness of social media marketing towards SMEs performances. In additional, a survey was carried out through questionnaire in the area of Melaka. The effectiveness of social media marketing contributes to SMEs success and contribute to their growth in the future, although some problems are acknowledged. The limitations of this research includes the limitation of the scale and scope of the survey, hence there is a need for further studies in other locations. A practical implication of this study comprises the effectiveness of social media marketing to SMEs in their daily business operation. In addition, this study provides insights into how practitioners see the effectiveness of social media marketing and may help with decision making and strategy making towards better performances of SMEs in general and in Melaka in particular.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.2 

No: 3 
Title: Structural Classification as Preservation Means of Malaysian Folktales
Original Research Article
Pages 11-16
Author(s): Harryizman Harun*, Zulikha Jamaludin 
Open Access

Full Text 3
Abstract
Malaysian folktales as one of the intangible cultural legacies mirror the ancestry of the past generations to the present. It is worthy to be preserved systematically. However, it is discovered such preservation effort is absent in Malaysia. Consequently, a study to develop a structural classification of the Malaysian folktales is conducted to preserve. The structural classification is realized by obtaining embedded narrative structures of the folktales. Furthermore, the 31 functions of folktales' morphology are used and adapted as a method to get the narrative structures. In the end, this article offers the collection of the Malaysian folktales attained as the data and as well the finding of the analysis executed on the data which is the functions’ sequences that shape the structural classification.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.3 

No: 4
Title: An Identification Task toward Engendering a Malaysian Folktale Classification System for Preservation
Original Research Article
Pages 17-24
Author(s): Harryizman Harun*, Zulikha Jamaludin
Open Access

Full Text 4
Abstract
Malaysian folktales are one of the intangible cultural heritages that mirror and carries the lineage of the past generations to the present. It deserves to be preserved systematically but thus far; such effort is scarce if not lacking in this country. Consequently, a study is conducted to create a structural classification of the folktales with an aim to preserve such valuable heritage. Nevertheless, before the classification begins, an important task precedes which are an identification of the Malaysian folktales in a form of literary sources. The identification taskis guided by a combination of two qualifying factors: an operational definition established in the study and also an ownership of the folktales. Ultimately, this paper presents the method employed in the identification process and also the number of the accepted and excluded Malaysian folktales along with the titles of the folktales as findings of the process.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.4 

No: 5
Title: Situational Inhibitors to Informal Learning in the Workplace: A Case Study of Accountants
Original Research Article
Pages 25-31
Author(s): Muhammad Syahir Abdul Wahab*, Ram Al-Jaffri Saad, and Mohd. Amir Mat Samsudin
Open Access

Full Text 5
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate situational inhibitors to informal learning activities amongst accountants in a public accounting firm. A qualitative case study was conducted to develop a greater understanding of the situational aspects that inhibited them from engaging in informal learning activities. Four situational inhibitors emerged from the data analysis. The inhibitors are lack of time, lack of proximity to colleagues’ working areas, lack of support from others and structural inhibitor. Theoretical and practical implications of the research as well as suggestions for future research were also discussed.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.5 

No: 6
Title: The Influence of Personality Traits on Volunteers’ Workplace Deviance
Original Research Article
Pages 32-39
Author(s): Li-ChenLim*, Chan-Yin-Fah, Benjamin, Choon-Jin Teh
Open Access

Full Text 6
Abstract
The aim of this study was to empirically investigate a set of personality traits based on self-evaluations in relation to workplace deviance among volunteers at one of the national Emergency Relief departments, and to determine the importance of personality characteristics in contributing to volunteers’ workplace deviance. A cross-sectional research was conducted with self-reported questionnaire. The participants were 200 volunteers attached to six emergency relief centers in Peninsular Malaysia. Data were analysed using SPSS version 19.0 software. Data analysis procedures; descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlation and hierarchical multiple regression analysis were conducted. The findings confirmed the importance of taking personality traits into consideration during the process of recruitment of volunteers to minimise workplace deviance. This study contributes on the crucial role of volunteers’ personality traits that can be an imperative factor to minimise workplace deviance.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.6 

No: 7
Title: A ‘Quality of Use’ Model in Blended Learning
Original Research Article
Pages 40-45
Author(s): Noraini Nasirun*, Sarina MuhamadNoor, Rushami Zien Yusoff, Abdul Aziz Othman
Open Access

Full Text 7
Abstract
Blended learning is considered as a new research area. Previous scholars suggested more studies required to explore and confirm the quality dimensions for this area. Hence, the aim of this study is to develop a predictive model based on ‘quality of use’ concept in blended learning using flipped classroom. The model will be incorporated with contemporary variables, namely student engagement and student interaction. Data were obtained using survey method. A total of 299 undergraduate students participated in the study. Data were analyzing using SmartPLS. The finding revealed that the enhancement of ‘quality of use’ model by integrating student engagement and student interaction attained the validity and reliability of a predictive model for blended learning using flipped classroom. However, this model is only applicable for the context on this study. The replication of similar study need to be conducted in order to confirm the variables used in similar research context.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.7 

No: 8
Title: Related Party Transactions and Earnings Management
Original Research Article
Pages 46-52
Author(s): Zaharaddeen Salisu Maigoshi, Rohaida Abdul Latif*, Hasnah Kamardin
Open Access

Full Text 8
Abstract
This study reviewed some studies conducted on related party transactions and earnings management. Based on agency theory, agency conflict motivates managers to engage in self-enrichment transactions at the expense of the owners of the firm. Management or concentrated ownership is proposed to deal with this type of agency problem. However, this form of ownership structure came with its problem that give rise to type II agency conflict between controlling owners and minority shareholders. Controlling shareholders use their controlling power to benefit from the insider information and engage in prejudicial related party transactions at the expense of minority shareholders. This paper identified how and why managers or controlling shareholders use related party transaction as a convenient means to perpetrate accrual-based or real activity earnings management. It was recommended that empirical study be conducted to investigate whether disclosure regulation can constrain real-activity management through related party transaction.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.8 

No: 9
Title:  Investigating Rating Scale Design via Rasch Measurement Model: Analysis on a Scale to Assess Islamic Values Application in Quality management Context
Original Research Article
Pages 53-59
Author(s): Amal Hayati Ishak*, Muhamad Rahimi Osmana, Siti Khadijah Ab Manan, Rafeah Saidon, Ghafarullahhuddin Din
Open Access

Full Text 9
Abstract
The primary purpose of this article is to empirically analyze the rating scale categories applied in a scale to assess application of Islamic values in quality management context. In the literature, a plethora of Islamic values applied in quality management context have been conceptually elaborated in the literature. However, empirical data on that matter is scarce. Yet, an appropriate instrument could not be located. This article briefly explains the scale development process and initially proposes 60 items and eight dimensions. Applying Rasch Measurement Model, this article specifically analyses the appropriateness and effectiveness of the rating scale categories based on several indicators pointed by Rasch Model. For that purpose, data from 59 responses was analyzed using Winstep. Based on the results, the initial five point Likert-scale is suggested to be modified.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.9  

No: 10
Title: Nutrients Requirements and Composition in A Grouper Fish Feed Formulation
Original Research Article
Pages 60-66
Author(s): Soong Cai-Juan*, Razamin Ramli, Rosshairy Abdul Rahman
Open Access

Full Text 10
Abstract
Due to the high nutrients and desirable taste, there is a high demand of grouper fish. However, the supply of wild catch grouper fish is limited and insufficient to meet the cyclical nature of high demand in grouper fish consumption leading to the high price. Consequently, grouper fish is worth to be farmed due to its high value price and high market demand. In order to farm grouper fish, there is a need to have a lot of trash fish, but trash fish is expensive, hard to store, hard to maintain the quality of nutrient and quantity throughout the years. Thus, there is a need to formulate the fish feed based on the nutrients requirements with an extensive survey of literature. Results show that grouper fish need crude protein 40-45%, crude fat 1-10%, crude fibre 0.5-8%, moisture 0.8-95.5%, ash 0.4-18%, phosphorus 0.1-1.8% , calcium 2-4%, and essential acid amino (EAA).This important information can be considered in further study in formulating fish feed to minimize cost and maximize profit in farming grouper fish.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.10  

No: 11
Title: Nigeria’s 2011 And 2015 General Elections: The Mystery behind Agitations, Conflict and War
Original Research Article
Pages 67-74
Author(s): Isaac Terungwa Terwase*, Hindatu Maigari Yerima, Muhammad Bello Ibrahim, Asmat-Nizam Abdul-Talib
Open Access

Full Text 11
Abstract
To some countries, Nigeria serves as a place for market of their international goods and services, as such, her strategic position in Africa calls for concern on political, social and economic issues that may bedeviled the growth and development of the country. Nigeria as a country went through numerous challenges in the past such as the military takeover of political governance, from 1966-1979, and 1983-1999 when the military officers were in power. They handed over power in 1999 during the return to democratic rule that brought in the civilian regime from 1999 to date. The research paper seek to investigates the mystery behind the agitations in Nigeria that led to conflicts during the 2011 general elections and the agitations after 2015 general elections as well as the call for secession of the South-East region to create the Republic of Biafra. The paper made use of qualitative approach through the conduct of interviews, use of internet sources such as academic journals, online newspapers and review of previous literature as sources of data collection. The findings reveals that, conflicts arising from the 2011 general elections led to the continuous attacks on the Nigerian State by the Boko Haram insurgents, and the defeat of the incumbent president in 2015 general elections led to the new agitation for the secession of Biafra from the Nigerian state.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.11  

No: 12
Title: Modelling of SWOT Analysis Using Fuzzy Integrals
Original Research Article
Pages 75-82
Author(s): Meaza Haile*, Jiri Krupka
Open Access

Full Text 12
Abstract
To develop a strategy for an organization it is important to understand the organization and its surrounding environment. SWOT(Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat) analysis is a famous tool to perform this task precisely by showing the strength, weakness of the organization and the external factors, opportunities and threats that affect its success.  SWOT analysis is commonly used by business; however non-profit organizations also use SWOT analysis for decision-making and strategy evaluation. The limitation of SWOT analysis is it does not give weight for the factors and there is no quantified result from the analysis. The methods introduced in this paper are Sugeno lambda measure and Choquet fuzzy integral. Sugeno lambda measure is used to aggregate the importance of characteristics and Choquet fuzzy integral is used for the overall analytical evaluation of strength, weakness, opportunity and threat of a specific organization. A case study has been conducted for a currency exchange office to explain the application of the proposed approach.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.12 

No: 13
Title: The Actual Purchase of Herbal Products in Malaysia: The Moderating Effect of Perceived Benefit
Original Research Article
Pages 83-88
Author(s): Sarina Ismail*, Sany Sanuri Mohd Mokhtar
Open Access

Full Text 13
Abstract
Due to the increase interest in herbal products, the global herbal industry has expanded tremendously. There are several factors that have contributed to this situation, most important of which is changes in lifestyle. Even though there are indicators showing increase in demand of herbal products, there is a paucity of studies examining actual purchase. Hence the main objective of the study is to investigate the factors that influence the actual purchase of herbal products based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). This study has enhanced the understanding the factors that influence the actual purchase of herbal products. Nevertheless, the findings will be useful to entrepreneurs who are interested in knowing the fundamental factors that influence actual purchase of herbal products.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.13 

No: 14
Title: Factors Influencing Tax Evasion in Gombe State Nigeria
Original Research Article
Pages 89-95
Author(s): Muzainah Mansor*, Zakariya’u Gurama
Open Access

Full Text 14
Abstract
Tax evasion is a problem inhabiting revenue generation of developing countries over a long period of time. Literature exposes that tax evasion denote some of the difficulties in raising revenue in Nigeria. The consequence of tax evasion is tax revenue loss, which finally may undermine public utilities, capability and proper performance of government functions. This study assessed the factors that influenced tax evasion in Gombe State (a state in Nigeria). The study was conducted through a survey research design. A questionnaire was used to gather primary data from 303 randomly selected public and private sector personal taxpayers in Gombe. The results of the analysis show that tax system, income level and education level have significant positive relationship with tax evasion. On the other hand, tax rate and corruption have positive but insignificant relationship with tax evasion. This study recommends that necessary measures should be taken by the tax authority to improve accountability, transparency and management of revenue collection to reduce tax evasion. It is also proposed that campaign against corruption, public enlightens on tax matters and revision of tax processes should be undertaken.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.14 

No: 15
Title: An Investigation of Workability Experiment for Crowd in 3600 Panoramic View on Mobile Platform
Original Research Article
Pages 96-103
Author(s): Chen Kim Lim*, Kian Lam Tan
Open Access

Full Text 15
Abstract
In the computer graphics industry, there is a great demand for cost and time effective simulation and rendering while meeting an acceptable level of realism. Hardware based simulation and rendering has been taken to another degree of low level of details in environment modelling with grandeur of peoples. This paper presents an investigation to find out the feasibility of deploying crowd in 3600 panoramic view using the mobile platform as the case study. First, the crowd are modelled through some modifications to the Newtonian Laws, inclusion of proxy agents, speed control and turning. Second, workability tests experiments are carried out concerning the preferred parameters for each agent, improvement on random movements of the crowd and dynamicity, with the capability of collision avoidance. Finally, this investigation is discussed and has proposed some solutions in handling crowd in 3600 panoramic view on mobile platform.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.15 

No: 16
Title: Babalian and Community Rituals of Dusun Tatana Ethnic in Sabah, Malaysia: A Preliminary Study
Original Research Article
Pages 104-112
Author(s): A.S. Hardy Shafii*, Solehah Ishak, Hazman Hassan, Mohamed Ghouse Nasuruddin, Mumtaz Begum
Open Access

Full Text 16
Abstract
The belief system and cosmology of the Dusun Tatana ethnic which formulate the existence of Kinorohingan or Kinoingan (God or Creator of universe), is central in understanding the practice of rituals among this community. The word Tatana which means ‘earth people’ forms one of the 79 sub-ethnics of Kadazandusun in Sabah who are found mainly in the Kuala Penyu division of West Sabah, Malaysia. Tatana has a long history and tradition which are embedded not only in their myths, legends and oral stories but also in their ritual ceremonies and healings. These traditional/ cultural and ritual activities are considered as trajectories of their wisdom, maturity as well as about their cosmology and the existence of life. However, comprehensive studies on the Tatana’s rituals such as talang pongoh, mikajang, mamanta and barasik are very much lacking. This research traces the roles played by the babalian within their community by exploring and analysing their roles, methods and healing paraphernalia in several community rituals. Ultimately it is shown that these traditional rituals have become unimportant and the babalian’s roles have also waned as the Dusun Tatana community adapt to lifestyle changes and religion.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.16 

No: 17
Title: Ethnic Diversity and Share Repurchases Policy
Original Research Article
Pages 113-118
Author(s): Rohaida Abdul Latif*, Kamarun Nisham Taufil Mohd, Hasnah Kamardin
Open Access

Full Text 17
Abstract
This study investigates whether board diversity attributes as recommended by the Malaysian Code on Corporate Governance is relevant and effective in curbing misuse of share repurchases policy. Based on 275 firm-year observations among share repurchasing firms between 2006 and 2010, we find that ethnic diversity can help curb the potential misuse of managerial discretion in deciding whether to frequently repurchase their own shares. Our study contributes to the existing literature on board characteristics in several ways. First, it provides evidence that board diversity in terms of ethnicity can significantly affect companies’ policy. We find that companies with less diverse board as measured by ethnic group are more likely to  frequently embark on share repurchase which have a detrimental effect on current earnings. Second, we find that a large number of directors on the board can significantly reduce the tendency of managerial opportunistic behaviour. Finally, having independent directors alone does not guarantee companies are free from unwarranted opportunistic behaviours. Therefore, the study provides early evidence of the efficacy of recent Malaysian Code on Corporate Governance 2012 which recommended diverse balance of board members to ensure proper monitoring role and curbing the likelihood of unwarranted managerial opportunistic behaviour by unduly controlling owners.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.17 

No: 18
Title: Antecedents of Internal Crisis Communication: A Conceptual Framework
Original Research Article
Pages 119-126
Author(s): Adamu Abbas Adamu*, Bahtiar Mohamad, Nik Adzrieman Abdul Rahman
Open Access

Full Text 18
Abstract
This article is taking a conceptual approach to establish the relationship between organizational culture, leadership and social media content on internal crisis communication. The concept of internal crisis communication is relatively new, therefore the article will explore the stage of development of the concept and its contrast with other related concepts. Moreover, Complexity Theory will underpin the study to understand the consequences of minor signals that trigger Internal Crisis Communication. The paper finally offered a framework to guide public relations practitioners on the implications of Internal Crisis Communication on employee performance.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.18 

No: 19
Title: New Perspectives to Political Participation among Youth: The Impact of Facebook Usage
Original Research Article
Pages 127-134
Author(s): Shamsu Dauda Abdu*, Bahtiar Mohamad, Suhaini Muda
Open Access

Full Text 19
Abstract
Youth political participation is indeed an engaging area of academic research that is increasingly evolving. However, some recent studies suggest that traditional form of political participation especially among youth has been declining in developed and developing countries which may likely create uncertain future for democracy. For instance, in many countries youth are not stimulated by the traditional media such as Radio, Television and Newspaper. Conversely, other findings illustrate the sudden and unprecedented increase in youth engagement in political activities through the use of Facebook. Youth now have access to political information and interact directly with political candidates. Nevertheless, researchers have not clearly examined why youth political participation suddenly changed and what it’s the driving force is. In posing these questions, scholars have suggested that certain features of Facebook such as usage pattern, diversity network of Facebook friends and interactivity with political figures should be examined. The paper therefore concludes that there exists a positive linkage between Facebook usage and youth political participation.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.19 

No: 20
Title: Intrinsic Work Values on Building ASEAN’s Future Workforce: A Comparison between Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia
Original Research Article
Pages 135-142
Author(s): Bahtiar Mohamad*, Jafri Zulkepli, Ahmed Rageh Ismail, Hassan Abu Bakar
Open Access

Full Text 20
Abstract
The aim of this study is to examine the intrinsic work values that were perceived by the university undergraduates in the three nations (Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia). These three nations are among the founders of Association of South-East Asian Nations in 1967 that represents half of the population of the region. Intrinsic work values are an important medium through which employee behaviour can be understood and managed. Therefore, it is important to identify the dimensionality of intrinsic work value in ASEAN future workforce and assess an empirical conceptual framework of work values. The study uses an ASEAN university’s student sample from three nations for comparative study. The sample size of 198 students for this study has some external validity. The implications of this model for ASEAN future workforces are discussed, along with its future extension, to be based on a much larger data set. The study gives some indication of what should be included in a university syllabus for future ASEAN workforce planning strategy in order to improve their intrinsic work value. The paper draws attention to intrinsic work values of ASEAN university’s student who is considered as future employees in this region.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.20 

No: 21
Title: Exposure to Television Crime Shows and Crime Learning Behaviours of Adolescents: A Case of Pakistani Juvenile Delinquents
Original Research Article
Pages 143-148
Author(s): Mudassar Abdullah, Nik Adzrieman Abd Rahman*, Arminda Santiago
Open Access

Full Text 21
Abstract
The media have been condemned for contributing to crimes by glamorizing and publicizing criminal acts. The dynamic has come to be known as a copycat or contagion. This research focuses on the risky behaviours of Pakistani adolescents who are exposed to crime shows on television, which may have resulted for them to become juvenile delinquents. Juvenile delinquency is a serious problem worldwide and in Pakistan. The objective of the research are: to identify the most popular television crime shows among adolescents, : to find out how Pakistani adolescents learn crime method through television crime shows, : to investigate and describe the other negative (aggression) and positive (fear of bad consequences, hate of crime) effects of television crime shows on the behaviour of Pakistani adolescents, : to identify the role of socio economic factors that influence Pakistani adolescents’ crime learning behaviour. The finding of this paper found that, the most of the studies on juvenile delinquency with respect to the media, especially on TV affects are on aggression. The deviant peers contribute to serious offending by child delinquents during the period of their transition to adolescence.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.21 

No: 22
Title: Factors Influencing Political Belief of Flood Victims in Malaysia
Original Research Article
Pages 149-156
Author(s): Noor Hadzlida Ayob*, Mohd Fo’ad Sakdan
Open Access

Full Text 22
Abstract
This study attempted to explore the factors that determining the political beliefs among the flood victims in Malaysia. In disaster situation such as flood, political institutions play a significant role in supplying aid for the victims. However, even with the same relief that had been provided by the government, there are different appraisals such as criticizes and compliments regarding the way of the political institution handling aid are heard among the victims. These different perspectives represent the different ideological thought and belief system of the victims on ‘how the political institution should be performed’. Hence, regarding with the issue, it seems important to understand the prior factors that developing the political belief of the flood victims, before it comes to form a belief system in the community. In order to do so, survey towards 759 respondents among the flood victims had been executed in order to understand the factors that influenced the political beliefs. The resulted from exploratory factor analysis shown that political knowledge was the dominance factor that determined political belief of flood victims. The implication of this findings was discussed.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.22 

No: 23
Title: The Importance of Psychological Preparedness among Flood Victims
Original Research Article
Pages 157-162
Author(s): Amarul Waqi Suhaimi*, Najib Ahmad Marzuki
Open Access

Full Text 23
Abstract
This study examines the psychological preparedness among flood victims. When a disaster strikes, psychological preparedness is one of the most essential factors needed to oversee and adapt individual reactions before and during a disaster, with the objective to enhance the individual conduct and psychological reaction. Present study reveals that psychological preparedness is not the same as physical readiness since it is identified as an intra-individual and mental condition of mindfulness, expectation, and availability. The study also unravels the disaster impact on the individual, community and the nation. The undeniably recurrence and force of natural disaster everywhere in the world reveals that psychological preparedness for disaster management requires urgent attention. It is therefore, recommended that personality traits become a key component to comprehend, enhance versatility and individual readiness to confront and manage flood disaster. The study further recommends conceptual framework to explain the relationship between personality traits and the impact of the disaster based on previous studies.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.23 

No: 24
Title: Flood Disaster Management in Malaysia: A Review of Issues of Flood Disaster Relief during and Post-Disaster
Original Research Article
Pages 163-170
Author(s): Shazwani Shafiai*, Mohamad Sukeri Khalid
Open Access

Full Text 24
Abstract
This paper describes the issues and problem of disaster relief provided by the government to the victims in Malaysia, during and post-disaster caused by flooding. Presently, the delivery relief system in flood management was predominantly an official strategy based on Directive No. 20 by National Security Council (MKN). These instructions outline a policy on disaster management and has set the role and responsibilities of the agencies involved and also covers the action of monitoring the activities in disaster management. Therefore, the focus of this study is on flooding that occurred in Malaysia. This paper presents findings from a literature review on previous research in this topic. The result show that, in Malaysia, a study concerning the evaluation of the effectiveness of policy implementation at levels during and post-disaster that affect the flood victims were poorly implemented. Further to that, this paper will attempt to describe the issues of disaster relief system that has been criticized.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.24 

No: 25
Title: Source Credibility and Psychological Well-Being among Residents Lived at Flood Prone Areas
Original Research Article
Pages 171-176
Author(s): Che Su Mustaffa*, Nurlela Zakaria
Open Access

Full Text 25
Abstract
This paper is to examine the relationship of perceived source credibility with psychological well-being among residents lived at flood prone areas. Quantitative approach has been conducted towards 386 residents lived at flood prone areas in Kubang Pasu district at Kedah. Few literatures on source credibility and psychological well-being have been discussed in this paper. The findings of the this study is to fulfilled the gap from previous and applied it in flood disaster management. The findings in this paper also support for the relationships between source credibility and psychological well-being among resident lived at flood prone areas.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.25 

No: 26
Title: Gender Differences in the Psychological Well-being among Flood Victims in Malaysia
Original Research Article   
Pages 177-183
Author(s): Nurul ‘Aaina Salleh*, Che Su Mustaffa
Open Access

Full Text 26
Abstract
Flooding in Malaysia has various impacts on the affected population in terms of damage to property, destruction of property and loss of life. Flood victims will suffer severe psychological effects and probably will continue for a long time. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether male and female differ with regard to aspects of psychological well-being among flood victims. This study is based on a quantitative approach using cross-sectional survey.  Data were collected through the distribution of questionnaires randomly to respondents.  The sample consisted of 300 flood victims who were moved to shelters in the state of Kelantan. The results showed a no significance difference in score for males and females (t=1.194, p>0.05). The mean value between genders had 159.69 and the standard deviation is 17.25 for the male, while the mean for female is 157.29 and the standard deviation is 17.57. In addition, no gender differences were found in term of all the dimensions in psychological well-being among flood victims. It implies that there was no dissimilarity in term of perception toward psychological well-being for those male and female respondents.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.26 

No: 27
Title: Corporate Governance: Board Size, Managerial Ownership and Operations Performance
Original Research Article
Pages 184-188
Author(s): Santhirasegaran Nadarajan*, Sitraselvi Chandren, Ahmad Yusni Bahaudin, Ezanee Mohamed Elias, Mohd Kamarul Irwan Abdul Halim
Open Access

Full Text 27
Abstract
The purpose of this conceptual paper is to address the link between corporate governance mechanisms such as board size and managerial ownership have somehow influence the performance of the firm’s operations from the context of inventory performance. This paper highlight a total new approach whereby as for as concern to inventory decision will be solely handled by the low level management or the agent who act as manager. Best practices through effective corporate governance mechanism somehow tight up in deciding to minimize operational cost through the effort of reducing the asset called inventory that is accounted for almost 70 percent of total manufacturing cost. Therefore, this paper address the idea behind the scene of best practices reflects on corporate governance mechanisms will therefore have an impact on inventory performance.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.27 

No: 28
Title: Action Research on Enhancing Accounting Students’ Oral Presentation Skill
Original Research Article
Pages 189-197
Author(s): Sitraselvi Chandren*, Aizan Yaacob
Open Access

Full Text 28
Abstract
The purpose of this action research is to enhance the accounting students’ oral presentation skill as this soft skill is prominent for career opportunity and success in accounting profession. This action research employed spiral reflective cycles for the 37 participants of accounting students. A total of four cycles are carried out in this action research to enrich the students’ oral presentation skill. This study used rubric assessment and video stimulation interview techniques to improve students’ oral presentation skill. The results of this action research evidenced that these students have enriched their oral presentation skill from the four reflective spiral cycles. The video stimulation interview is a significant technique to enhance students’ oral presentation skill. The oral presentation skill is an essential soft skill that contributes to produce a work ready accounting graduate. Thus, this action research contributed in producing a work ready accounting graduate by enriching their oral presentation skill.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.28 

No: 29
Title: Initiatives to Prolong the Life Cycles of Aging Assets in the Royal Malaysian Navy
Original Research Article
Pages 198-203
Author(s): Halizahari Mohd*, Melan Mustakim
Open Access

Full Text 29
Abstract
High value assets were used extensively in many big organization especially in the military. Most of the assets are used more than its useful and economical life. Therefore the purpose of this paper is to discuss on initiatives that can be used in maintaining and prolong the life of aging assets in Royal Malaysian Navy (RMN). The asset life cycle stages were discussed and allows research of this area. A review of literature and experiences within the Royal Malaysian Navy was used to propose a new way in order to maintain the assets for longer period without replacement. It is proven that by applying these initiatives it has increased the performance of the aging assets and able be used extensively. Exploring the initiatives on how to remain the operational activities for the RMN ships, the best way is to manage the aging assets as suggested. These initiatives are suggested to be the guidelines in other sectors especially for logistics and transports industry in future.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.29 

No: 30
Title: Cross-cultural Communication Model in International Business
Original Research Article
Pages 204-211
Author(s): Pin Lick, Soo Hoo*
Open Access

Full Text 30
Abstract
The importance of cross-cultural communication in international business negotiations has been extensively investigated for many years due to global business environments. Many scholars believe the influence of culture on international business negotiation has contributed to negotiation outcome. This article offers critical insight into the theoretical link of cultural dimensions of culture for international business negotiators. The proposed model provided in this study helps international business practitioners to identify effective communicative behaviour in business negotiations.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.30 

No: 31
Title: Mapping the Market Success for Family Micro and Small Food Producers in Palestine: A Qualitative Study
Original Research Article
Pages 212-219
Author(s): Issa M. H. Smirat*, Mohd Noor Mohd Shariff
Open Access

Full Text 31
Abstract
The mapping market plan and analysis for food processing cooperatives, micro and small organizations in the West Bank is an essential homework for Palestinian institutions in the Palestine to develop the family firms’ performance. The main objective of this paper is to help the private sector development enterprises in contributing to the expansion of small-scale food processing organizations. The paper expectations are to provide the micro and small businesses (MS) with the necessary analysis in building their capacity in terms of organizational, product development promotion and market access. The targeted population was local family cooperatives and organizations that engage in food processing in the West Bank.  (MS) represents 14% of all the Palestinian firms, while the targeted sample was seven organizations were investigated empirically using the qualitative research method. The finding show that there are shortages in terms of strategies inventions and implementations, marketing systems fit with procedures, policies, and adaptations with internal weaknesses and external threats that effects the firms abilities to survive, sustain and improving the performance.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.31 

No: 32
Title: Conducting Pilot Test of Assistive Courseware for Low Vision (AC4LV) Learners: Initial Round
Original Research Article
Pages 220-225
Author(s): Nurulnadwan Aziz*, Ariffin Abdul Mutalib
Open Access

Full Text 32
Abstract
This is an ongoing study which related to the development of Assistive Courseware for Low Vision (ACLV) learners. As discussed in the previous study, low vision learners face difficulties in their learning activities particularly in terms of information accessibility, navigationability, and pleasurability. Due to that, AC4LV has been developed based on the Conceptual Design Model of AC4LV which was constructed by utilizing User Centred Design (UCD) approach. Expert review was conducted to validate the proposed model. Having developed the prototype it has to be tested to the intended subjects. Qualitative approach was found the most suitable technique to make test to the low vision learners as they are in children age. Prior to run the actual testing pilot test has to be conducted to ensure the actual testing could be run smoothly. Therefore, this study reports the initial round of conducting the pilot test of AC4LV learners. The test was segmented into four segments; (i) briefing, (ii) observation, (iii) focus group interview, and (iv) closing. The results indicates that there are problems in terms of the feasibility of the prototype and data collection method.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.32 

No: 33
Title: Transformation of Higher Education Status: Issues on Faculty Workload
Original Research Article
Pages 226-235
Author(s): Noor Ashikin Basarudin, Asmah Laili Yeon*, Nurli Yaacob, Rohana Abd Rahman
Open Access

Full Text 33
Abstract
The Malaysian Public Universities are undergoing the process of transformation which requires efforts from every components of the universities, especially the academic staffs, in order to achieve high rankings internationally and to fulfil their Key Performance Indicator (KPI) for the purpose of promotion and appraisal. These ambitions have increased the workload of academic staffs and extend their workloads from teaching to other myriad of responsibilities such as; research, consultation, administrative and community services. This paper examines the impact of transformation of university status and the workload of academic staff. Data was collected through interview with the top level management from four different categories of universities such as APEX, Research, Focus and Comprehensive University. Thematic content data analysis technique was used in analysing the data collected. This paper finds that the transformation of higher education status has intricated the workloads of academic staffs with less benefits. The workloads and job specifications of the academic staffs are different in accordance to the categories of the universities. Meanwhile, all public universities are bound to follow the dictated scheme provided by the Public Service Department of Malaysia. This study suggests that the contract of service of academic staffs to be revised and to include clear terms on the improvement of scheme and benefits for academic staffs in public universities.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.33 

No: 34
Title: Are Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) a Safe Haven to Multinational Companies (MNCs)?
Original Research Article
Pages 236-243
Author(s): Ashraf M. A. Elfakharani*, Rohana Abdulrahman
Open Access

Full Text 34
Abstract
One criticism of the most of bilateral trade agreements is that they focus more on the rights than the responsibilities of corporations. Limited liability was never intended to allow corporations to escape liability for any breach of conduct. The International Covenants on Human Rights and the Declaration on the Right to Development established that States are the primary duty bearers of human rights and that, as a consequence, each State needed to regulate foreign investment within its jurisdiction. It is imperative to search for methods of holding MNCs accountable and to regulate their operations so as to benefit local communities as well as the international economic system and that should not be abused. This article reviews the very question on whether BITs are a safe haven for encroachments of Multinational companies. It provides a review of the literature and various external cases that exhibit possible abuse of the BITs provision in the respective host country. This article is intended to provide an understanding as to why BITs are considered a safe haven for MNCs.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.34 

No: 35
Title: Exploratory Factor Analysis of a Self-Control Scale from an Islamic Perspective
Original Research Article
Pages 244-251
Author(s): Ahmed Hamdi Aissa*, Norwati Mansor
Open Access

Full Text 35
Abstract
Differences between cultures force some psychological variables to differ. Self-control has been found to be an important and significant factor in a person’s life, thus it needs to be enriched with plenty of research in order to put its usefulness and efficacy in motion. However it has been found that the Islamic concept of self-control is in some ways different from that of Western concept. This acted as a drive to come up with studies on the Islamic perspective of self-control. Just like any psychological variable, it needs to be measured in order to monitor it. The current study aims to conduct an exploratory factor analysis to a newly developed self-control scale from an Islamic perspective. After the authors distributed the preliminary item pool of the scale to a sample of 201 undergraduate and postgraduate students, and performed the pilot study, they ran the EFA process with the 55 original scale items, and resulted in 4 dimensions scale with 19 items. The rationalization of the new constructs and the implications of findings are discussed.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.35 

No: 36
Title:  Management of Missing Person’s (Al-Mafqud) Property in Islamic Perspectives: Issues and Challenges
Original Research Article
Pages 252-257
Author(s): M.A Sulaiman*, W.Z Wan Yusoff, & S.M.D al-Edrus
Open Access

Full Text 36
Abstract
Missing person’s property currently has been the hot issue in the world especially after MH370 tragedy. In Islam, the missing person is known as ‘al-Mafqud’. Missing person’s property is difference as compared to inheritance property. Uncertain status person a life or died has create the conflict and their property need to be frozen due to law constraints. This phenomenon raises many issues and problems that become increasingly critical and extremely difficult to resolve. Besides, if the Muslim’s assets do not develop, it will give detrimental effect to Muslim. Moreover, if the property is used wisely, it will give a positive impact to the society, economic and education. However, property management of Al-Mafqud is not a simple matter; it involves legal issues, inheritance rights, and various relevant issues. Those issues bring challenge to manage the property of al-Mafqud.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.36 

No: 37
Title:  Managerial Ownership, Horizontal Agency Costs and Monitoring Mechanisms
Original Research Article
Pages 258-266
Author(s): Rachael Oluyemisi Arowolo*, Ayoib B Che-Ahmad
Open Access

Full Text 37
Abstract
Company operations are characterized by information asymmetry between the agent (management and the board of directors) and the principal (shareholders).  The purpose of this study is to empirically examine the extent of monitoring mechanisms in Nigerian non-financial listed companies and the impact of managerial ownership and horizontal-agency-costs on the mechanisms.  The study adopted a quantitative approach and distributed 332 questionnaires to 166 non-financial listed companies to obtain a cross-sectional data for the internal auditing.  The findings give credible evidence that the horizontal-agency-cost is positively significant while managerial ownership is negatively significant.  The findings of this study suggest policy implications for the monitoring roles of the board of directors as well as the internal and external auditors.  Likewise, the findings are useful to the regulatory agencies and government for a further review of corporate governance guidelines.  This paper contributes to knowledge by combining the three dimensions of monitoring mechanisms (directorship, internal and external auditing) in Sub-Saharan Africa.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.37 

No: 38
Title: Critical Success Factors in IT ProjectManagementEffectiveness:A Study in Thai Firms
Original Research Article
Pages 267-274
Author(s): Vipakorn Vadhanasin*, Suthas Ratanakuakangwan, Kamales Santivejkul, Peerasit Patanakul
Open Access

Full Text 38
Abstract
Pragmatic approach to project management methodology can enhance success. Project managers must confront and overcome obstacles, and utilize methodology to maximize the chances of success. The lack of quality processes will impact on project schedules and budget. Project management practices follow common guidelines; however, these may be customized for different types of projects. This study reviewed the key elements pursuant to project success and achievement. Managers from 12 leading Thai firms were interviewed to discuss success factors for their IT project management. Results were illustrated by an innovation model of IT project management effectiveness framework. We found influencing factors of project manager skills, quality management, scope management, change management, and communication management. Practical implications were suggested, along with the potential for future research.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.38 

No: 39
Title: Forensic Linguistics and the Detecting of Deviant Teaching in Malaysia
Original Research Article
Pages 275-280
Author(s): Munif Zarirruddin Fikri Nordin*
Open Access

Full Text 39
Abstract
Recently, deviant teaching has become a religious crime because it has been associated with extremist groups promoting violence and killing people in the name of Islam. This paper discusses the importance of forensic linguistics in detecting religious deviant teaching in Malaysia, having the objectives of (1) identifying a text’s features that can be used as evidence when detecting deviant teaching, and (2) describing the interpretation of meanings given by the leader of the deviant group. The discussion of forensic linguistics is based on a religious discourse analysis approach proposed by Nordin (2015). The data used in the discussion are selected from two religious decisions, which are Ajaran Azhar bin Wahab in the state of Kedah and Ajaran Harun in the state of Pahang. The results show that the main features of a text that can be used as evidence in detecting deviant teaching are sacred words; for instance, karamah (extraordinary happenings) andTuhan (God). The results also show that the interpretation of meaning given by the leader of a deviant group is distorted from its actual meaning as determined by religious authorities, namely the Ahl Sunnah walJama’ah.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.39 

No: 40
Title: A Modernize Tax Administration Model for Revenue Generation
Original Research Article
Pages 281-288
Author(s): Abdurrahman Adamu Pantamee*, Muzainah Binti Mansor
Open Access

Full Text 40
Abstract
Capacity of a government to finance it expenditure depend on the ability of tax system to generate adequate revenue, and the ability of tax system to generate significant revenue depend on the tax administration efficiency and effectiveness, however in most of the developing economies, tax administration is characterized by inefficiency and ineffectiveness. The objective of this paper to develop a model which will guide developing countries to reform their tax administration toward tax revenue promising. To achieve this, several previous tax administration models as well as theory of governance and that of performance were review and analyze. Moreover, the modernize tax administration model developed in this study consists of four components namely inputs, transformation process, output, and outcome, the paper concludes that significant reform means working through the entire modernize tax administration model. The limitation of the paper is that the model is not been tested.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.40 

No: 41
Title: Democratic Transition in Nigeria: Towards Understanding the Disguise of International Dynamics Challenging the Fourth Republic Consolidation
Original Research Article
Pages 289-295
Author(s): Yusuf Isma’ila*, Abdulrazak Yuguda Madu
Open Access

Full Text 41
Abstract
Several scholars have contributed towards understanding the trends as well as the impact of Nigeria’s transition to democracy in 1999, their arguments for the fourth republic transition centred on internal and international dynamics. This paper uses phenomenal explanation to describe the role and challenges of international dynamics to the fourth republic. It is an attempt to critically examine the hidden objectives of the international promoters of democracy in Nigeria like in many third world or emerging democracies. Thus the paper calls for restructuring of disguising policies of international promoters of democracy which could translate to effective consolidation of democratic transition.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.41 

No: 42
Title: Electoral Malpractice and the Challenges of Democratic Consolidation in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic
Original Research Article
Pages 296-303
Author(s): Yusuf Isma’ila*,Zaheruddin Othman
Open Access

Full Text 42
Abstract
Like many other new democracies, Nigeria’s democratization has been embedded with electoral malpractices. Perhaps consolidating democracy in Nigeria appears to be in crisis as a result of the challenges of electoral malpractices which manifest in form of corruption, insecurity and weak democratic institutions. Thus the importance of consolidating democracy in Nigeria depends largely on the conduct of free, fair and credible election. The aim of this paper is not only examine how electoral malpractice threatened and undermines the quest for democratic governance in Nigeria’s fourth republic but use critical approach to transform the system.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.42 

No: 43
Title: How Does a Community Hold itself together? Insights from a Study on Community Social Capital in Malaysia
Original Research Article
Pages 304-310
Author(s): Ahmad Shukri Abdul Hamid*, Najib Ahmad Marzuki, Noor Azizah Ahmad, Mohd. Sobhi Ishak
Open Access

Full Text 43
Abstract
This paper discusses conceptually the mechanisms that underlie the existence of a community. The insights explicated in this essay came from a study on community social capital in Malaysia. The study utilized a combination of focus group discussions and a survey method of a total of 293 respondents covering six (6) communities from six (6) districts in the state of Kedah, Malaysia. The study managed to produce a community social capital measuring instrument comprising a total of 36 items covering six (6) different dimensions. The study reveals that within the conceptual corpus of social capital, there are several “social dimensions” that can be construed as the socio-psychological contexts where people within a community may converge and develop a sense of togetherness. What happens within these realms has been shown to indicate the level of cohesiveness that ultimately allow people to live and work together as a community.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.43 

No: 44
Title:  Entrepreneurial Orientation and Government Intervention to Support Small Businesses Performance in Jordan
Original Research Article
Pages 311-319
Author(s): Haitham Alhnity*, Armanurah Mohamad, Awanis ku ishak
Open Access

Full Text 44
Abstract
This study focused on examining entrepreneurial orientation (EO) around the globe in general and particularly in Jordan. It shed light on the small business performance in terms of government intervention and examined the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and the performance of small businesses in Jordan, and the moderating effect of government intervention on the relationship. A survey method was employed where questionnaires were distributed to a sample comprising 384 entrepreneurs at one of the top entrepreneurial programs in Jordan called ERADA. The paper proposed a conceptual framework to survey the way entrepreneurial orientation (EO) affects small business performance in Jordan. It suggested further examination of the Jordanian government’s intervention on the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and performance.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.44 

No: 45
Title: Designing Motivating mE-book For Polytechnic Language Classroom Using ARCS Model
Original Research Article
Pages 320-326
Author(s): Subashini Annamalai*
Open Access

Full Text 45
Abstract
This paper describes the design of multimedia E-book (mE-book) based on the Keller’s ARCS Model of Motivational Design (1987). This paper also presented the implementation of mE-book as a motivating learning aid to promote ESL language learning in Polytechnic classrooms. Sixty (60) Polytechnic students experienced mE-book in their language classroom and their perceived motivation towards the new learning material is determined using the Instructional Materials Motivation Survey (IMMS). This study adduced a scope for implementing multimedia in language learning in a motivating way for adult learners.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.45 

No: 46
Title: Profiles of health insurance policyholders and health care users: evidence from Malaysia
Original Research Article
Pages 327-332
Author(s): Arpah Abu-Bakar*, Shamzaeffa Samsudin, Mohd Taipor Suhadah
Open Access

Full Text 46
Abstract
This study attempts to examine the profiles of the individuals with health insurance ownership (insured) and those without (uninsured) and their health utilization behaviors. In terms of the profiles, the insured, compared to the uninsured, were younger, male and tended to seek health care treatment more often. It is rather interesting to record that the insured and the uninsured were not different in terms of their health status and smoking behavior. The health care users, compared to non-users, were older, female and had bad health status. The results seem to suggest that adverse selection and moral hazard may not exist in the Malaysian health insurance market.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.46 

No: 47
Title: Impact of Subsidies on the Economic and Environmental Conditions of Small Scale Fisheries in Malaysia
Original Research Article
Pages 333-339
Author(s): Gazi Md Nurul Islam*, Jamal Ali, Saifoul Zamhuri, K. Kuperan Viswanathan, Hussin Abdullah
Open Access

Full Text 47
Abstract
This paper examines the economic and environmental impacts of fisheries subsidies on the small scale fisheries in Malaysia. The data for this study was obtained from interviews with 246 fishers from Kedah, Terengganu and Selangor states using a structured questionnaire.  The study found that fishing effort and catch was significantly higher for commercial fishing boats operating in zone B and zone C compared to the artisanal fishing boats operating in zone A. The results suggest that fishing effort and catch was partly attributed to the fuel subsidy in fisheries. Furthermore, the larger engine boats (B and C) gained substantial fishing income that seems to reflect unequal distribution of benefits because larger vessels were able to gain maximum benefits compared to the smaller boats. However, the poor fishers (Boat A) were able to improve their livelihoods through various subsidies compared to the fishers with larger boats (B and C).  The results suggest that current fisheries subsidies may not lead to sustainable fisheries and income of small scale fishers.  Fisheries overexploitation cannot be reduced by elimination of subsidy, effective planning and designing of subsidy programmes may improve the wellbeing of fishers in Malaysia.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.47 

No: 48
Title: Assessing Communication Competence of Flood Relief Workers in Malaysia
Original Research Article
Pages 340-348
Author(s): Che Su Mustaffa*, Nur Haffiza Rahaman
Open Access

Full Text 48
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to explore communication competence among as perceived by disaster victim  underlying the recent interest on communication studies and disaster management, discusses the current issues and offers a future research perspective.  It offers to understand communication competence of relief workers in the areas of communication studies in Malaysian organizations. The cross-sectional data for this study were collected via a survey of 270 flood victims.  The study highlights the important of flood relief workers’ communication competence from different aspect as perceived by the flood victim.   These characteristics will improve the level of understanding and create a better relationship among them.  In sum, this study provides theoretical contributions to communication competence research and the literature on communication studies. The paper draws attention to the current issues of the disaster management on communication studies and highlights it for future directions..
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.48 

No: 49
Title: The Effects of GST (Goods and Services Tax) on Construction Capital Costs and Housing Property Prices
Original Research Article
Pages 349-354
Author(s): Rozlin Zainal*, Teoh Chai Teng, Yeo See Pin
Open Access

Full Text 49
Abstract
Following the implementation of GST in Malaysia on 1 April 2015, it was predicted that construction capital costs and housing property prices will increase accordingly. Examining the GST effects associated with construction capital costs and its influences towards the housing developers and housing property prices is this study’s primary objective. This study also aims to highlight the developers’ point of view regarding how GST impacts upon them as well as the housing prices of further future proposal of initiatives. The findings are obtained by surveying the opinion of 36 housing developers and an experienced property consultant under the employment of Henry Butcher (International Asset Consultant) in Penang, Malaysia. It was concluded that building materials and land acquisition are the major construction capital costs affected by the GST implementation while capital flow turnover is the post and significant consequence that developers now face which subsequently led to an increment of housing property prices. Ultimately, the end buyers are the ones who bear the brunt of the price increment where the government plays the central role within this scenario.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.49 

No: 50
Title: Examining Weaknesses in the Governance of Premarital Course for Muslims in Malaysia
Original Research Article
Pages 355-361
Author(s): Rafeah Saidon*, Amal Hayati Ishak, Baterah Alias, Fadhilah Adibah Ismail, Suliah Mohd. Aris
Open Access

Full Text 50
Abstract
A premarital course is a two-day course which is made compulsory to Muslims in Malaysia. This study attempts to examine significant weaknesses in the governance of such pre-marital course. Qualitative method is used in which the legal and administrative aspects are studied and analysed to investigate the loopholes of the existing system. This research also employed a semi structured interviews conducted on several respondents from the related institutions. Findings of this research show some significant weaknesses in the present governance of premarital course and propose important recommendations for the betterment of Muslim families in Malaysia. The findings provide on how the legal and administrative mechanism relating to premarital course can be improved and subsequently aid the relevant authorities or institutions involved in policy making pertaining to family matters and its implementation.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.50 

No: 51
Title: The Effect Of Health Insurance On Health Care Utilization: Evidence From Malaysia
Original Research Article  50
Pages 362-368
Author(s): Arpah Abu-Bakar* , Shamzaeffa Samsudin, Angappan Regupathi, Syed Mohamed Aljunid
Open Access

Full Text 51
Abstract
The link between health insurance ownership and over-utilization of health care services are highly debated. This paper examines the effect of insurance ownership on hospital utilization within the context of Malaysia. The study employs the data from Malaysia National Health and Morbidity Survey III and 14,223 respondents are selected for this purpose.  Malaysia provides new evidence from an emerging market where voluntary purchase of private health insurance co-exists with almost free public health care. Logit model is used to identify the effect of insurance ownership on the probability of utilizing health care while the zero truncated Poisson model are used to identify the role of insurance ownership on the intensity of utilization. From the analysis, it is found that insurance ownership determines access to health care but it does not influence frequency of use. The findings suggest moral hazard problem may not be prevalent in the Malaysian health insurance market. Thus, institutionalizing health insurance through initiative such as national health insurance may be a sustainable program and give better access to care for the public.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.51 

No: 52
Title: Mantra, Mufti and Healing In Perlis: An Analysis of Guideline for Incantations
Original Research Article
Pages 369-375
Author(s): Hazman Hassan*, Nurul Farhana Low Abdullah, A.S Hardy Shafii, Solehah Ishak, Mohamed Ghouse Nasaruddin, Mumtaz Begum P.V Aboo Backer, Mohd Kipli Abdul Rahman
Open Access

Full Text 52
Abstract
For generations, mantras or incantations have been an important form of local knowledge underpinning the craftsof traditional Malay healers in the state of Perlis, in Malaysia. However the scenario has since changed partly due to the flourishing of the al-Islah al-Islamiyyah or Islamic Reformism since a century ago. Islamic Reformism has since emerged as the religion of the state as well as the core of administration of Islamic affairs, including the Mufti Department of Perlis. With respect to mantras in healing practices, official state guideline based on the tenets of Islamic Reformism were issued by the Mufti Department of Perlis in 2014, titled Guideline for Incantations. In a nutshell, this guideline enjoins Muslims of the state to refrain from unislamic elements in practising mantras. This paper attempts to discuss the response of Mufti Department of Perlistowards the use of mantras in healing through itsGuideline for Incantations. Although this official guideline has been widely circulated, the Perlis Mufti Department is adopting an evolutionary approach, creatingpublic awareness mainly through education and gentle persuasion, whereas policing and law reinforcement is less preferred.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.52 

No: 53
Title: The Impact of Attitude and Perceived Service Quality on Zakah Compliance Behavior: The Mediating Effect of Trust
Original Research Article
Pages 376-381
Author(s): Azura Mohd. Noor*, Ram Al Jaffri Saad
Open Access

Full Text 53
Abstract
The obligation to pay zakah is one of the five pillars in Islamic faith. Its contribution to Muslims socio-economic development could not be denied by any parties. This development could be improved through incremental of zakah fund. However, the zakah collection including zakah on income is still found to be unsatisfactory due to a low level of zakah compliance. While a great deal of researches had been undertaken in the area of taxation, little is known about zakah compliance behavior and its determinants. The objective of the paper is to propose a research model for examining the influence of attitude and perceived service quality towards zakah compliance behavior, taking into consideration, trust as a mediator for those relationships. Four hypotheses were drawn for this paper to be tested regarding the influence of selected variables to zakah on income compliance behavior. Moreover, theoretical and practical implications of the study, as well as suggestions for future research were also discussed.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.53 

No: 54
Title: Bravery from the Perspective of a Mandailing Scholar: An Analysis of Perisai Bagi Sekalian Mukallaf
Original Research Article
Pages 382-390
Author(s): Hazman bin Hassan*,Muhammad Ihsan bin Idris
Open Access

Full Text 54
Abstract
Bravery is one of the most important virtues of Mandailing ethnic, manifested in the form of non-hesitant in making difficult long-distance journey and firm in upholding the truth. This quality are among the factors that gave birth to prominent Mandailings throughout history. One of the Mandailing descendants that had stamped his name on the international level of Islamic scholarship was SyeikhAbd. Al-Qadir Al-Mandili. Born in the year 1910 AD, Al-Mandili returned to his Creator in the year 1965 AD. Received his early religious education in Kedah, Al-Mandili then furthered his studies in Mecca, after which he was entrusted with a teaching position at the Al-Haram Grand Mosque. He had produced over 24 writings in various discipline of Islamic studies, including the divine creed, jurisprudence, hadeeth, politics, education, Islamic law and morals. Through one of his writing entitled Perisai Bagi Sekalian Mukallaf Atau Simpulan Iman Atas Mazhab Salaf (A Shield For Those Who Are Commissioned Or Faith Knot On The Salaf School Of Thought), this article strives to analyze forms of bravery displayed by Al-Mandili. The results indicated that Al-Mandili was an Islamic scholar firm in expressing new ideas, as well as beating the odds.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.54 

No: 55
Title: When Mortal Become Saints: Awliya’ Allah According To Syeikh Abd. Al-Qadir Al-Mandili
Original Research Article
Pages 391-398
Author(s): Hazman bin Hassan*,Muhammad Ihsan bin Idris
Open Access

Full Text 55
Abstract
As the plural of wali (saint), awliya’ comes from the root word al-Walayah (sainthood) which refers to a very exceptional rank given by Allah to His beloved servants. However, various misconceptions regarding awliya’ have occurred rampantly among Muslim societies, even ended as polytheism. This phenomenon attracted Syeikh Abd. Al-Qadir, a very committed scholar of Mandailing descent to purify this creed. Al-Mandili was born in 1910 and honoured with a teaching position in the al-Haram Grand Mosque of Mecca. He had written 24 books in variousdisciplineof Islamic studies such as Islamic creed, jurisprudence, hadeeth, politics, education, law and morals. Through three of his works, Perisai Bagi Sekalian Mukallaf Atau Simpulan Iman Atas Mazhab Salaf (A Shield For Those Who Are Commissioned Or Faith Knot According To The Salaf), Penawar Bagi Hati (A Cure For The Heart) and Anak Kunci Syurga (The Key To Heaven), this article analyzes the concept of awliya’ according to Al-Mandili’s perspective. He concluded that al-Walayah (sainthood) of Allah can only be achieved by mortals through a healthy mixture of iman (faith), taqwa (piety), mahabbah (love) and ittiba’ (following the tradition of the Prophet).
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.55 

No: 56
Title: A Corpus-Based Analysis Of Lexical Verbs In MUET Argumentative Essays Of Pre-University Students In Malaysia
Original Research Article
Pages 399-404
Author(s): Anita Kanestion*, Manvender Kaur Sarjit Singh, SarimahShamsudin, Hishamuddin Isam, Naginder Kaur, Gurmit Singh Pertap Singh
Open Access

Full Text 56
Abstract
Argumentative writing has been regarded as an essential form of written discourse in Malaysia, specifically in Malaysian University English Test (MUET). However, limited research has been conducted on the MUET argumentative essay writing component for pre-university students. The purpose of this preliminary study is to investigate a compiled representative learner corpus to conduct an analysis of the linguistic features; lexical verbs used in Band 3 and Band 5 argumentative essays produced by students of a pre-university college in Malaysia. Subsequently, the lexical verbs utilized in the respective essays were compared. As a descriptive analysis and corpus-based study, the use of lexical verb forms was examined, reflecting the learners’ knowledge of applying this linguistic constituent into their written essays. The method applied in the analysis is a computer-based learner corpus analysis. Results revealed that Band 5 essays contained more ‘–ing’ participle (VVG) form, whereas Band 3 essays revealed the use of more past participle (VVN) form. Surprisingly, both groups avoided the base form of lexical verb (VVO). The pedagogical implications based on the results of the study were proposed and the ideas for future research were discussed.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.56 

No: 57
Title: The Structural Linguistics Patterns of the Written Component of Malaysian University English Test (MUET)
Original Research Article
Pages 405-412
Author(s): Manvender Kaur Sarjit Singh*, Sarimah Shamsudin, Hishamuddin Isam, NaginderKaur, Gurmit Singh Pertap Singh, Anita Kanestion
Open Access

Full Text 57
Abstract
The need to focus future education according to the actual needs of the learners can be realized by conducting a well-placed research within the prospective requirements of its context. However, evaluating and accessing the actual linguistics needs of learners is undeniably a challenging undertaking. This paper presents steps taken to conduct a descriptive and a corpus-based study. It explored the written essays produced by ESL learners. The areas of investigation involved examining the strategies used by the language learners while preparing the essays, the frequency of part-of-speech (POS) used in the essays and sentence level syntactical analysis of the most frequently used POS. The methodology applied is fundamental as it tends to investigate the linguistic constituents in the compiled corpus. Computer-based syntactical studies are limited as it requires hard work, long hours and complex analytic method of describing the findings. In contrast, this article demonstrated an uncomplicated method of analysis and also encourages the use of existing part-of speech (POS) tagging software available online. The findings show that the students are using mainly the past participle form of the lexical verb (VVN) when preparing the written essays. As recommendations for future research, this paper proposes structural linguistics investigations such as frequency analyses, sentence level syntactical analyses (SLSA), examining the distributional patterns of sentence level linguistic structural patterns and subject-verb agreement analyses reflecting the writers’ knowledge of applying their grammatical linguistics knowledge into their written output be conducted within various contexts where language is used.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.57 

No: 58
Title: Factor Analysis of Islamic Financial Literacy and Its Determinants: A Pilot Study
Original Research Article
Pages 413-418
Author(s): Siti Hafizah Abd. Rahim*, Rosemaliza Ab. Rashid, Abu Bakar Hamed
Open Access

Full Text 58
Abstract
Islamic financial literacy has been recognised as an important tool to increase inclusiveness. To date however, the constructs for Islamic financial literacy has not been adequately examined even though they have been calls for such attempt in the literature. Thus, this paper aims to develop the constructs for Islamic financial literacy and its determinants. Structured questionnaires were distributed to 200 students of Universiti Utara Malaysia to determine the level of Islamic financial literacy. The data are quantitatively analyzed through an exploratory factor analysis using SPSS programme. The results show that 4 out of 11 measures failed to load reliably in Islamic financial literacy construct. Specifically, religiosity was found to exhibit the highest variance followed by hopelessness and financial satisfaction. This paper enables the community and researchers to expand the knowledge in the area of Islamic financial literacy by providing a validated constructs to assess the level of Islamic financial literacy.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.58 

No: 59
Title: The Innovation-Performance Linkage: Empirical Evidence ofMalaysian Manufacturing SMEs
Original Research Article
Pages 419-424
Author(s): Nazlina Zakaria*, Nor Azimah Chew Abdullah, Rushami Zien Yusoff
Open Access

Full Text 59
Abstract
It has long been acknowledged that SMEs contribute significantly to the overall economic performance in Malaysia. However, SMEs in Malaysia are yet to reach their full potential. To improve the performance of SMEs, understanding its drivers is crucial. Previous research found that organization which have a more innovative behavior are likely to initiate an organizational change that could affect organizational performance. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between organizational innovation and organizational performance of Malaysian SMEs. Therefore, this article discusses the concept of organizational innovation, organizational performance and end with the findings of the organizational innovation-organizational performance linkage. Data was collected from SMEs in manufacturing sectors. A total of 321 self-administered questionnaires were used for gathering data from the respondents. Smart PLS 2.0 was used to test the hypotheses. The result reveals a positive relationship between organizational innovation and organizational performance. This study is useful for future researchers, entrepreneurs and policy makers in realizing the importance of organizational innovation towards enhancing SMEs performance.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.59 

No: 60
Title: Challenges of Management Practices in Institutional Mutawalli to Achieve Utilisation of Waqf Property: An Exploratory Study
Original Research Article
Pages 425-430
Author(s): Hasyeilla Abd Mutalib*, Selamah Maamor
Open Access

Full Text 60
Abstract
Waqf is one of the benevolent charities that are highly encouraged in Islam. The utilization of waqf property is able to bring great contribution to the development of the community. However, most of the waqf institutions or institutional mutawalli are facing challenges in their management practices, hence these properties are not being utilised to achieve their full impact on the beneficiaries. Therefore the purpose of this study is to explore the challenges being faced by the institutional mutawalli to achieve the utilization of waqf property in their management practices. A qualitative method was employed to obtain the data. A purposive sampling with formal and semi-structured interview has been conducted to the representative of the institutional mutawalli. This study revealed that institutional mutawalli is facing problems with the management practices in the institution namely, personal experience in waqf area, training and development in understanding their functions and responsibilities in managing tasks associated with waqf property. These factors become major challenges in achieving the effective utilization of waqf properties in institutional mutawalli.  Thus, findings from this study would contribute to the understanding of challenges in utilization of waqf property. It will also contribute to the betterment of waqf property for the benefit of Ummah.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.60 

No: 61
Title: Equilibrium Price Application Modelling for Affordable Housing Market in Malaysia
Original Research Article
Pages 431-436
Author(s): Fazilah Ramli*, Rozlin Zainal, Maimunah Ali
Open Access

Full Text 61
Abstract
The main purpose of this study is to propose the equilibrium price modelling for affordable housing in Malaysia. This paper examines whether the equilibrium price of affordable housing is strongly related with any affordable housing demand factors (house price, housing physical state, monetary status, population changes, location, and infrastructure amenities provided) and affordable housing supply factors (house price, cost of construction, land availability, population changes, location, and government interventions). The empirical data of housing prices are collected from Valuation and Property Services Department of the Ministry of Finance Malaysia from 1995 to 2015. Regression analysis is conducted to see the strength of relationship between the affordable housing demand and supply factors with the affordable housing equilibrium price. The paper is useful for buyer and private developers to know which factors lead to equilibrium price of affordable housing. This paper can serve as a guide for the government in controlling and stabilizing the affordable housing price.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.61 

No: 62
Title: Determinants of Hibah Giving Behavior
Original Research Article
Pages 437-442
Author(s): Nadzirah Mohd Said*, Ram Al Jaffri Saad
Open Access

Full Text 62
Abstract
The frozen estate in Malaysia is increasing year to year and hibah has been seen as one of the solution to reduce the number of frozen estate in Malaysia. Nevertheless, the previous researches indicate that the hibah giving behavior among Muslim in Malaysia is still low. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to determine factors influencing hibah giving behavior. The proposed model was introduced to examine whether attitude, religious value and service quality are the determinants of hibah giving behavior. The review of past literatures conceptualized that attitude and religious value as the internal factors while service quality as the external factor that can influence the hibah giving behavior. Three hypotheses were proposed to see the relationship between variables and hibah giving behavior. Lastly, both theoretical and practical implications were also discussed in this study.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.62 

No: 63
Title: The Entrepreneurship Education Program in Malaysian Public University
Original Research Article
Pages 443-449
Author(s): Badariah Haji Din*, Abdul Rahim Anuar, Mariana Usman
Open Access

Full Text 63
Abstract
In many countries, there is a distinction between the appreciation of the role of entrepreneurship education program in fostering entrepreneurial spirit and its role in giving practical competencies that enable graduates to run their own businesses. Hence, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education program in Malaysian public universities. Our study involves of 320 final year students in Bachelor of Entrepreneurship program in six public universities in Malaysia (IPTA). The result from our study shows that the entrepreneurship education program which have been offered by this Malaysian public universities are very effective in enhancing the entrepreneurial skills of students.  Thus, our research findings  may give significant contributions to the Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education to improve the education policy in the future, and universities and other higher education institutions are ideally placed to expose students to environments which foster the entrepreneurial skills.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.63 

No: 64
Title: Events after Reporting Period, Misstatements and Earnings Deviation between Quarterly and Annual Accounts
Original Research Article
Pages 450-456
Author(s): Saidatunur Fauzi Saidin*, Mazrah Malek, Daing Nasir Ibrahim, Phua Lian Kee
Open Access

Full Text 64
Abstract
Reliability of quarterly accounts has been a concern by many. The occurrence of deviation between earnings reported in audited annual accounts and cumulative quarterly accounts has been posited as a signal of low reliability in quarterly earnings. This study examines whether the earnings deviation is more related to misstatements rather than the occurrence of events after reporting period. Data is based on Bursa Malaysia listed companies consisting of 731 observations for the period between 2000 until 2012. It is found that only a total of 14 percent of sample had declared events after reporting period, while 95 percent have declared misstatements as reasons for earnings deviation. At the same time, the mean magnitude of earnings deviation related to misstatements is RM15 million, while only less than RM4 million is related to events after reporting period. Results of the t-test show that the magnitude of earnings deviation related to misstatements is significantly higher than those related to events after reporting period. The results suggest that earnings deviation is more related to low quality of quarterly earnings, instead of mandatory accounting adjustments. Finding suggests the need for the company and regulators to take steps to resolve the occurrence of earnings deviation. Future studies should also explore the individual items involved in the earnings deviation.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.64 

No: 65
Title: Factors Influencing the Adoption of Mobile Marketing in Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia
Original Research Article
Pages 457-463
Author(s): Haslinda Musa*, Shirly Chung Hsian Li, Zuraida Abal Abas, Norhidayah Mohamad
Open Access

Full Text 65
Abstract
In this era of globalization, the demands and globalization lead to an intense competition in information technology especially for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). To help improve the SMEs, Malaysian government has strived to support the development of innovativeness, ruthless and also technology. Mobile marketing adoption becomes an important factor for firms to compete within the industry. Hence the main purpose of this research is to identify the element of entrepreneur’s attitude and knowledge, and which product fit and technical knowledge that adapted by the firm would contribute to the highest adoption level of mobile marketing in SMEs of Malaysia. A set of questionnaires survey has been carried out to study the entrepreneur’s attitude and knowledge, product fit and technical knowledge adaptability of the firm. The sample has been collected comprised of CEOs of SMEs in all over Malaysia, and analysed using descriptive analysis. The finding sees that there is a significant relationship between the adoptions of mobile marketing (dependant variable) and the branding strategy and technical knowledge availability of the firm (independent variables). However, there is one insignificant factor which is the entrepreneur’s attitude and knowledge that has no impact with the adoption of mobile marketing.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.65 

No: 66
Title: The Social Capital, Marketing Capability and Competitive Advantage: Evident from Indonesian SMEs
Original Research Article
Pages 464-469
Author(s): Aluisius Hery Pratono*, Ruswiati Surya Saputra, Jatie K. Pudjibudojo
Open Access

Full Text 66
Abstract
This study has intention to examine the direct impact of social capital and moderating impact of marketing capability on firms’ competitive advantage.  This study proposes a structural equation model and tests the hypothesis through generalized structured component analysis with random survey on small medium enterprises in Indonesia. The approach allows to analysis the ellement of social capital: network, trust and cognitive as well as the ellements of marketing capability: pricing capability, product development, and marketing communication.  The result indicates the effect both social capital and marketing capability provide complement to the firm performance. The result indicates that social capital is a unique resource, that enable organization to gain competitive advantage.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.66 

No: 67
Title: Self-disclosure In Enacting Friendship in Facebook
Original Research Article
Pages 470-476
Author(s): Lai Yuh Ying*, Yap Ngee Thai, Mohd Faiz Sathivellu
Open Access

Full Text 67
Abstract
People have always disclosed information about themselves to enact virtual friendship in social networking sites particularly in Facebook. The types of messages disclosed about themselves posted in Facebook wall have shown the initiative of Facebook users to share the happenings in their life with their Facebook friends. The case study aims to examine the ways in which Facebook users reveal themselves to others through their Facebook wall posts, in order to better understand self-disclosure as a resource for enacting friendship in Facebook. Facebook posted messages from the participants’ Facebook profiles were collected in one year’s time, then the messages were analysed and categorised into various types of self-disclosure. Content analysis was used to collect data. The majority of the posted messages are self story-telling through state and action statements and affective statement. The Facebook users act as story-tellers were noted as they story about their personal experience as a form of self-disclosure to enact friendship. The implications in term of self-disclosure and friendship are discussed.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.67  

No: 68
Title: The Relationship Between Accessibility, Communication and Motivation Towards Online Learning
Original Research Article
Pages 477-484
Author(s): Amariah Hanum Hussin, Hafisah Yaakob, Nur Fadhlina Zainal Abedin*
Open Access

Full Text 68
Abstract
There are higher education institutions in Malaysia, which are at the stage of transforming from teacher-centred teaching in the classroom to a more learner-centred teaching environment. A number of innovations in teaching styles including the use of technology such as online websites, games, e-learning applications and so on will be introduced to improve the understanding of students. With the assistance of technology, various learning tools or techniques were introduced and incorporated into teaching and learning process. This includes the online learning environment, which supports synchronous and asynchronous learning. Regardless of the advantages that online learning offers, a variety of factors should be identified as crucial to the success of online courses such as motivation. It is a key factor in learning and achievement in online learning environments. This paper examines the relationship between accessibility, communication and motivation towards online leaning. A case study was conducted on 331 students of Universiti Teknologi Mara, Negeri Sembilan Malaysia. The results show that accessibility and communication are positively significant influence on students’ motivation to learn online. Hence, online platforms for learning should be convenient for students to access with feedback support from instructors and peers.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.68 

No: 69
Title: A Preliminary Analysis on the Connections between Entrepreneurial Strategic Orientation on The Growth of Small and Medium Size Hotels in Peninsular Malaysia and the Moderating Effect of Firm Strategy
Original Research Article
Pages 485-491
Author(s): Azilah Kasim*
Open Access

Full Text 69
Abstract
This paper provides a preliminary result of an analysis on the interface between Entrepreneurial strategic orientation, Firm Strategy and Growth of small and medium size hotels in Peninsular Malaysia. To test the hypotheses, 254 completed questionnaires from hotel representatives at managerial level were analyzed using regression analysis. The findings could not empirically support the hypothesized effect of Entrepreneurial Orientation on the growth of small and medium size hotels. However, they confirmed the moderating effect of Firm strategy on the relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation and small and medium size hotels’ growth. This endorses previous literatures that suggest the notion that firms with strong EO would need to have strong FS to achieve growth. Implications of the findings are discussed at the end of the paper.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.69 

No: 70
Title: A Preliminary Analysis on the Connections between Technology Orientation, Organizational Learning, Market Conditions, and Growth of Small and Medium Size Hotels in Peninsular Malaysia
Original Research Article
Pages 492-500
Author(s): Azilah Kasim*
Open Access

Full Text 70
Abstract
This paper presents a preliminary analysis on the interface of Technology Orientation, Organizational Learning, Market Conditions, and Growth of small and medium size hotels in Peninsular Malaysia. To test the hypotheses, 254 completed questionnaires from hotel representatives at managerial level were analyzed using regression analysis. Regression analysis results indicate that Technology Orientation has significant relationship with growth / performance of small medium hotels while Market Conditions has an enhancing effect on Technology Orientation. The role of Organizational learning as mediator in the relationship between Technology orientation with Growth was also confirmed. Implications of the findings are discussed at the end of the paper.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.70 

No: 71
Title: Providers’ Perception on the Legal Framework of Malaysian Private Retirement Scheme Under CMSA 2007
Original Research Article
Pages 501-508
Author(s): Asmah Laili Yeon*, Mohammad Azam Hussain, Azlin Namili Ramli
Open Access

Full Text 71
Abstract
In 2010, the Government established the 1Malaysia Pension Scheme (SP1M), for the self-employed without fixed income to contribute voluntarily to the Employees Provident Fund (EPF). The Government recognizes the importance of savings from an early age to ensure sufficient savings after retirement. To further increase savings, the Government encourages youth to undertake long-term investment through the Private Retirement Scheme (PRS). After five years been introduced to the public, it is significant to evaluate the perception of PRS providers in relation to the existing scheme. The objective of the paper is to discuss the perception of PRS providers on the legal framework of the private retirement scheme under CMSA 2007.  This paper adopts a qualitative research method by conducting  interviews with the providers of PRS.  In analysing the data, thematic data analysis was employed to deduce findings from the respondents’ views. The thematic analysis is sorted out according to the legal framework of PRS in the CMSA 2007.  The finding of the research shows that majority of respondents agreed that the legal framework of PRS is adequate to protect investors and providers.  However, there are a few suggestions to improve the legal frameawork and governance of PRS i.e. internal guidelines, provider’s fee and etc.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.71  

No: 72
Title: A Preliminary Analysis on the Effects of Organisational Learning and Market Conditions on the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation and Growth of Small and Medium Size Hotels in Peninsular Malaysia
Original Research Article
Pages 509-516
Author(s): Azilah Kasim*
Open Access

Full Text 72
Abstract
The article considers the possibility of resource centers in the organization of network interaction in the This is a preliminary analysis on the influence of organisational learning and market conditions on the relationships between entrepreneurial orientation and growth of small and medium size hotels in Peninsular Malaysia. To test the hypotheses, 254 completed questionnaires from hotel representatives at managerial level were analyzed using regression analysis. The findings indicate that organisational learning fully mediates the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and SME growth. They also showed the moderating effect of market conditions in the relationship. Implications of the findings are discussed at the end of the paper.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.72 

No: 73
Title: Exploring the Influence of Macro-Environment on Small Medium Size Hotel Entrepreneurs' Predisposition to Adopt Strategic Orientation
Original Research Article
Pages 517-523
Author(s): Azilah Kasim*, Hisham Dzakiria
Open Access

Full Text 73
Abstract
This paper looks at the effect of macro-environment context on small and medium size hotels’ predisposition to adopt strategic orientation using a qualitative approach in its research methodology. Specifically it is based on in-depth interviews of fifteen informants representing the hospitality industry. Analysis from the themes surfaced suggests SME Hotels are operating within a political and financial business environment, which is found to be relatively unfriendly. However, the social and economic conditions for small and medium size hotels were encouraging. Against this background, SME Hotels operate by adopting some degree of entrepreneurial and/or market orientation. This paper offers meaningful findings to the study research questions which other methodology may not be able to provide.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.73 

No: 74
Title: The Role of Reputation, Satisfactions of Zakat Distribution, And Service Quality in Developing Stakeholder Trust In Zakat Institutions
Original Research Article
Pages 524-530
Author(s): Hafizah Zainal*, Azizi Abu Bakar, Ram Al Jaffri Saad
Open Access

Full Text 74
Abstract
Zakat is one of the five basic pillars in Islam and it is obligatory to all Muslims. Zakat is a system that can alleviate poverty in order to decrease the gap among rich and poor. If zakat can be managed effectively, the collection of zakat can be maximized compared to income tax collection. Thus, this article is an early study proposing a research model to examine the factors that influence stakeholder trust in zakat institutions. This is due to the lack of previous studies about stakeholder trust in zakat perspective. An extensive literature review method was utilized to identify and analyze the relevant literature in order to propose the model. This paper is discussing three factors which are reputation, satisfaction of zakat distribution, and service quality. Theoretical and practical of the paper as well as suggestions for future research were also discussed.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.74 

No: 75
Title: The Moderating Effect of Organisational Structure on Information Quality and Decision-Making Effectiveness Link
Original Research Article
Pages 531-536
Author(s): Mohanad S. S. Abumandil*, Shahizan Bin Hassan
Open Access

Full Text 75
Abstract
Banks in Palestine are an important source of businesses and organizations for financing and bank’s managers have to make effective decisions. The literature indicates the important role of information quality to facilitate managers to make effective decisions. Information quality dimensions of accuracy, accessibility, relevancy, completeness, accuracy, and timeliness are the factors that determine whether the information received by managers meet the quality. In this paper we argue that the effective decision making effectiveness depends on the structure of the organization. A formalized organizational structure, for example, is likely to affect the information quality, and, hence, the decision-making process. In essence, this paper proposes the moderating effect of organizational structure on the link between information quality and decision making effectiveness.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.75 

No: 76
Title: Character Development of Flood Victims through Understanding the Concept of Ibtila’ (Trials) To Overcome Flood Trauma: Case Studies in Temerloh, Pahang
Original Research Article
Pages 537-544
Author(s): M. Khairul Naim*, Syed M. Hilmi, Che Zarrina S., Khadijah M. Hambali, Wan Adli, Azmil Z. Abidin, M. Anuar Mamat, Joni T. Borhan, Nurul Salikin S, Faizuri A. Latif, Ali G. Saged, M. Hazim Azhar, Rohaida M. Dawam
Open Access

Full Text 76
Abstract
Trauma is an emotional response resulting from horrifying experience. Natural disasters are one of the events that can trigger trauma. In Malaysia, flood is considered as such natural disaster. The year 2014 has witnessed one of the worst floods in national history. The catastrophic flood does not only cause material losses, but also affect victims’ psyche. In Islam, the occurrence of disasters can be viewed as God plans and trials (ibtila’) for humankind. In theory, belief in ibtila’ strengthens human emotion in facing dreadful incidents. Based on this view, a study is carried out to discover the relationship between the understanding in the concept of ibtila’ with the development of good character to overcome the flood trauma among the victims. A structured interview has been carried out to two case study subjects in Temerloh, Pahang whom have faced huge losses in the great flood of 2014. This study finds that there is a relationship between understanding ibtila’ and developing good character. This then may be employed managing trauma and nurture social virtues such as teamwork, tolerance and helping others.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.76 

No: 77
Title: The Impact of Corporate Governance on Auditor Change Decision
Original Research Article
Pages 545-551
Author(s): Shamharir Abidin*, Ishaku Vandi Ishaya, Mohamad Naimi M-Nor
Open Access

Full Text 77
Abstract
Auditing plays a crucial role in corporate governance process and it has been shown to increase the reliability and quality of an organization’s financial statements.  Understanding the reasons why companies change their auditor is very important as it could inhibit the flow of capital in the securities markets and subsequently, increase the capital costs. The present study seeks to examine the impact of corporate governance on auditor change decision. Based on the analysis of 712 non-financial companies listed on Bursa Malaysia during the period from 31st December, 2009 to 2011, the results suggest that board independence, non-audit service, changes in management, company size and Big 4 are significant determinants of auditor change. The outcome of the study indicates the impact of sound governance on auditor change decision and might provide insightful knowledge which helps shareholders to realize the importance of having balance BODs.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.77 

No: 78
Title: Differentiation Workplace Relationships: One Nation-Three Culture Context
Original Research Article
Pages 552-558
Author(s): Haslina Halim*, Hassan Abu Bakar, Bahtiar Mohamad
Open Access

Full Text 78
Abstract
The research explored dialogue as the communication mode in understanding leader-member relationships in organizations. The main aim was to examine the factors that constitute relationship differentiation in leader-member exchange relationships, which would provide unique theoretical insights and pragmatic applications for communication in Malaysian workplace. Six-hundred questionnaires were distributed to employees of government, semi-government and private organizations. (N=479).  Results revealed that leader conceptual skills, communication openness and trust contributed towards organizational citizenship behavior. Apart from the results, the paper also discussed the implications, as well as the limitations and suggestions for future research.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.78 

No: 79
Title: The Relationship between Individual, Organizational and Non-Work Factors and Cross-Cultural Adjustment: The Mediating Role of Communication
Original Research Article
Pages 559-565
Author(s): Haslina Halim*, Hassan Abu Bakar, Che Su Mustaffa
Open Access

Full Text 79
Abstract
This study examines the mediating effects of communication and interaction on the relationships between individual, organizational and non-work variables and expatriate adjustment. We tested the model by using structural equation modeling with data obtained from 203 hotel expatriates in Malaysia. The analyses found that the link between previous international experience (individual), social support (organizational) and family adjustment (non-work) and expatriate adjustment was partially mediated by perceived communicative and interaction adaptability. These findings validated the proposed model and, in particular, the central role of communication in cross-cultural adjustment processes in workplace is empirically confirmed. Practical implications are also discussed in the paper.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.79 

No: 80
Title: Conceptualizing the Role of Leadership, Community Support, and Entrepreneurship Skill in the Performance of Community-Based Rural Homestay (CBRH) Programme in Malaysia
Original Research Article
Pages 566-570
Author(s): Kalsom Kayat*, Nur Farrah Ain Zainuddin, Razamin Ramli, Maznah Mat Kasim
Open Access

Full Text 80
Abstract
In Malaysia, CBRH is promoted by the government as a means to develop rural communities through their engagement in tourism small businesses. Both financial and non-financial supports have been provided by different government agencies to enable the program management and operators to serve quality services to the visitors and eventually to sustain their performance. This paper presents a conceptual analysis on variables that may influence CBRH’s performance. Specifically, it explores the influential roles that can be potentially played by the selected determinants namely leadership, community support, and entrepreneurship skill.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.80 

No: 81
Title: Organizational Conflicts: The Effects on Team Effectiveness in a Malaysian Statutory Body
Original Research Article 80
Pages 571-576
Author(s): Idaya Husna Mohd*, Muhammad Khalil Omar, Tengku Nural Tengku Asri
Open Access

Full Text 81
Abstract
Conflict has been suggested to be positive and useful for organizations. However, conflict provide negative effects, interferes with team performance and reduces satisfaction because it triggers stress and negativity that steer team members away from performing task effectively. Therefore, the aim of the study is to investigate the effects of these conflicts toward team effectiveness in a Malaysian statutory body. Three (3) types of organizational conflicts will be studied: task conflict, relationship conflict and process conflict. It is also to explore which of the three (3) conflicts have the most implication on the team effectiveness in the organization. A survey was conducted among the employees in the Malaysian Statutory Body to explore their response towards organizational conflict (task conflict, relationship conflict and process conflict) and team effectiveness. The findings of this study highlighted the understanding of the organizational conflict, team effectiveness from the employees’ perspective. Based on the findings of this research, both task conflict and process have a moderate positive relationship with team effectiveness while there are no relationship between relationship conflict and team effectiveness .The findings of this study offers recommendations that would help the organization to improve the situation.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.81 

No: 82
Title: The Safety Level of Gated and Guarded Community Scheme in Malaysia
Original Research Article
Pages 577-583
Author(s): Z. Shamsudin, E.Y. Ying*
Open Access

Full Text 82
Abstract
The gated and guarded community is a popular new modern housing concept in Malaysia. Although security has always been one of the most appealing features of gated and guarded communities, several studies showed that there is no significant difference of crime rates in between gated and guarded communities and non-gated neighborhoods. How safe are gated communities? How effective are the security measures of gated and guarded communities in preventing crime? This research aims to find out the understanding level of gated and guarded community scheme among property purchasers and to identify the safety level of the gated and guarded community scheme with the provided security measures. Thus, interview sessions were conducted with the developer companies and questionnaires were distributed to the residents in selected gated and guarded communities in order to achieve the objectives. This research discovered that gated and guarded community scheme in Malaysia is not effective enough in providing a safer living environment where crimes cases still occur. The condition of safety and security of gated and guarded communities as security was regarded as one of the most significant factors for staying in a gated and guarded community. Diverse effort and sophisticated security instruments must be added to improve the safety level of gated and guarded community scheme.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.82  

No: 83
Title: Strategic Fit and Supply Chain Performance (SCP): The Effect of Supply Chain Management (SCM) as The Mediator
Original Research Article
Pages 584-592
Author(s): Yuhainis Bt Mohd Yusoff*, Hasbullah Bin Ashari, Mohamed Najib Bin Salleh
Open Access

Full Text 83
Abstract
Based on previous research, strategic fit among behavioural orientations can generate the behavioural planned to ensure the viability and performance of the firm. It is also mentioned before that behavioural orientation can also support company in increasing the supply chain performance. However, although behavioural orientation gives positive impact to SCP, companies are still challenged with issues such as, distortion of information, collaborative behaviours and many more that need to be managed well. To handle such issues, several authors recognized supply chain management (SCM) as a way that can mediate the relationship to improve performance. SCM enables seeks synchronization of intrafirm and interfirm operational and strategic capabilities into a unified, compelling marketplace force, and focuses supply chain partners on creating customer value. The importance of SCM as mediator should be considered as an important element to increase performance. Therefore, this study tries to theoretically investigate the potential benefits of SCM as a mediator to SCP. Also, it further explores the relationship of strategic fit between market orientation (MO) and supply chain orientation (SCO) to SCP. To investigate this relationship, this study proposes the covariance approach. The relationship and the covariance approach can be empirically tested for future research.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.83 

No: 84
Title: Relationship Engagement in Mergers and Acquisition through Collegial Leadership
Original Research Article
Pages 593-598
Author(s): Mohd Haniff Jedin*, Norsafinas Md Saad
Open Access

Full Text 84
Abstract
Research on the relationship engagement in Mergers and Acquisitions (M&As) is still unclear although this phenomenon has been explored in the global multi-business environment. Existing researches did not clearly demonstrate the importance of the relationship among M&A players in the amalgamation processes between an acquirer and the acquired firm. Thus, this paper attempts to highlight the influence of collegial leadership in initiating relationship engagement in the post M&A integration. Result shows that collegial leadership significantly influence the relationship engagement in M&A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.84 

No: 85
Title: The Role of Human Resource Management Practices in Enhancing Internal Branding
Original Research Article
Pages 599-605
Author(s): Ahmad Said Ibrahim Alshuaibi*, Faridahwati Mohd. Shamsudin
Open Access

Full Text 85
Abstract
Employees are the ones who deliver the brand promise and experiences to the external stakeholders, i.e. customers. Whether or not the customers will have a favorable brand experience or not depends much on the way the employees deliver the brand value and promises. One of the ways the organization can achieve this is by aligning its external branding strategy with the internal one. In this paper, we discuss the role of human resource management (HRM) practices in the development, promotion, and enhancement of internal branding initiatives in the organization. Through hiring practices, training and development, performance appraisal, compensation, and internal communication and feedback, employees will be able to internalize, embrace, and deliver the brand value and promises to the external customers. In this sense, the HRM practices can be seen as an enabler for the employees to live the brand and become the brand. Living the brand is reflected in their personal values and brand-related attitudes and behavior. In essence, when it comes to branding strategy execution, the HR department needs to participate actively in the process.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.85  

No: 86
Title: Customer Perception of Emotional Labor of Airline Service Employees and Customer Loyalty Intention
Original Research Article
Pages 606-612
Author(s): Norzalita Abd. Aziz*, Bita Najafi, Faridahwati Mohd. Shamsudin, Ahmad Said Ibrahim Alshuaibi
Open Access

Full Text 86
Abstract
This study investigated the link between customer perception of emotional labor of airline service employees, perceived customer orientation, perceived service quality, and customer loyalty intention. A self-reported survey conducted among 300 participants, who were asked to respond to questions on perceived employee deep acting, perceived employee surface acting, perceived customer orientation, perceived service quality, and customer loyalty intention, was conducted. A series of regression of analysis were performed on the data collected. The findings showed that perceived employee deep acting was significantly and positively related to perceived customer orientation and perceived service quality while perceived surface acting was negatively associated with perceived customer orientation and perceived service quality. Perceived customer orientation and perceived service quality were also found to influence customer loyalty intention. The implications of the findings for practice are discussed.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.86 

No: 87
Title: Contextualizing Work Engagement and Innovative Work Behaviour: The Mediating Role of Learning Goal Orientation
Original Research Article
Pages 613-620
Author(s): Tan Fee Yean, Johanim Johari*, Khulida Kirana Yahya
Open Access

Full Text 87
Abstract
The main purpose of this study is to examine the mediating role of learning goal orientation in the work engagement and innovative work behaviour relationship among academicians in the Malaysian public universities. Underpinned by the Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions, this study posited that high level of work engagement will promote academicians’ innovative work behaviour through learning goal orientation. Data was gathered through questionnaire survey completed by 265 academic staffs from six public universities located in the northern and central regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM), the results indicated that academic staffs who are highly engaged at work would be more likely to report higher level of learning goal orientation, which ultimately tend to engage in innovative work behaviour. Discussions enlighten learning goal orientation as a significant mediator in explicating the work engagement and innovative work behaviour link, which provided full support to the underlying theory.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.87 

No: 88
Title: Performance among Youth Entrepreneur in Malaysia Micro SMEs
Original Research Article
Pages 621-627
Author(s): Shazida Jan Mohd Khan*, Nur Syamilah Md. Noor, Abdul Rahim Anuar
Open Access

Full Text 88
Abstract
Entrepreneurship development calls for support from various quarters and primarily the need exists to initiate a youth entrepreneurship culture and drive amongst the youth in the society. The Malaysian government launched several programs and schemes to boost SMEs activities. This study aims to study the determinants of youth entrepreneur’s business performance involved in micro SMEs in Malaysia. Specifically, the study analyses the relationship of infrastructure facility, business support facility and government policy with the performance of youth entrepreneurs. The study adopts a quantitative approach whereby a questionnaire survey was used to gather data. The questionnaires were distributed to sample selected using data by the Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Seemingly unrelated regression (SURE) was chosen as a method to allow for contemporaneous correlation among errors in these regression models. The results of this study is expected to give insight into the developing youth entrepreneur, thus, assisting the government in formulation policies for the development of youth entrepreneur specifically involved in micro SMEs.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.88  

No: 89
Title: Child Welfare Services in Malaya (1946-1957): Evidence from Archival Sources
Original Research Article
Pages 628-634
Author(s): Fuziah Shaffie*
Open Access

Full Text 89
Abstract
This paper discusses the essential welfare services provided by the Department of Social Welfare (DSW) during the period of 1946-1957 under the British Colonial Government. As the major agency authorised to provide child care and protection in Malaya, the DSW had to deal with, among others, post-war social issues that needed immediate attention. It focused on issues during the post-war period that triggered the government’s desire to provide services to ensure the well-being of children. The paper also explains the DSW programmes designed to meet the children’s needs. It highlights the involvement of voluntary associations and other governmental departments towards the well-being of children. Also, this paper highlights other services, namely, blind welfare, delinquent children, repatriation of detainees, vagrancy, and children of prisoners.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.89 

No: 90
Title: Industrialised Building System (IBS)/Off-Site Project Management Life Cycle
Original Research Article
Pages 635-642
Author(s): Mohd ReezaYusof*, Muhamad Faiz Musa, Noor Sahidah Samsudin, Mohammad Fadhil Mohammad, Mohd Nurfaisal Baharuddin
Open Access

Full Text 90
Abstract
Industrialised Building Systems (IBS) is a construction method that produced building components manufactured in a factory, transported and assembled into a structure using appropriate machinery and equipment with minimal workers on site. The project life cycle is a project independent series of activities from the starting point until the moment it was successfully delivered. Generally in a construction project, the phases or stages are initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling and closing stage. This paper is part of on-going research on the Industrialised Building System (IBS) project management life cycle through the IBS approach in the Malaysian construction industry. The data and information presented is the review of the available relevant literature on this research topic. This paper incorporates an analysis of the definitions and IBS best practice or project life cycle outside from Malaysia. The identification of the project life cycle from the analysis is essential so that people and industry players will provide the basis of a guideline for the industry players to support and enhance the Malaysian construction industry.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.90 

No: 91
Title: User’s Perception on Learner-Generated Comics: A Preliminary Study
Original Research Article
Pages 643-650
Author(s): Farah Nadia Azman*, Syamsul Bahrin Zaibon, Norshuhada Shiratuddin
Open Access

Full Text 91
Abstract
The adoption of comics in education has also been a subject of great interest among the scientific community where an abundance of research has been conducted on the cognitive and affective effects of comics. However, few of these studies aimed at extending our understanding towards learners’ perception, interest, and prior knowledge of educational comics. Therefore, this working paper discusses students’ motivation, obstacles, and requirements for the implementation and design of learner-generated comics. The findings of this study contribute to the literature by providing useful information for educators and instructional designers in formulating strategies for unlocking the potential of learner-generated comics within classroom environment.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.91 

No: 92
Title: Proposing Factors Influencing Trust towards Zakat Institutions amongst Moslem Business Owners
Original Research Article 91
Pages 651-658
Author(s): Mohamad Zulkurnai Ghazali*, Ram Al Jaffri Saad, Muhammad Syahir Abd. Wahab
Open Access

Full Text 92
Abstract
Zakat collection from Moslem business owners who pay their zakat through the zakat institutions are still very low and a huge potential is untapped from the business zakat payment that either goes directly to the recipients or simply unpaid. The objective of this paper is to propose a research conceptual framework for examining the trust towards zakat institution from the Moslem business owners’ point of view. Antecedents to trust namely shared value, communication, non-opportunistic behavior and perception on distribution of zakat, among Moslem business owners are hypothesized to provide grounds for discussion in future research.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.92 

No: 93
Title: Corporate Identity Management (CIM) Model in Malaysian Higher Education Sector: Literature Review and Hypothesis Development
Original Research Article
Pages 659-666
Author(s): Bahtiar Mohamad*, Hassan Abu Bakar, Ahmed Rageh Ismail, Haslina Halim, Rosmiza Bidin
Open Access

Full Text 93
Abstract
Corporate Identity Management (CIM) in universities has been acknowledged in marketing literature as an important area of research. Research within the current spectrum of CIM indicates some ambiguities surrounding corporate identity in higher education. However, very few studies are available in the field of corporate identity within universities. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to examine the relationships between university’s CIM and organizational performance, and also identify the relevant underlying mechanisms in Malaysian higher-education sector. Based on a review of the existing literature in a range of areas, this study proposes a conceptual model of the positive relationships between CIM activities in universities with internal brand, transformational leadership and organisational culture. The proposed conceptual model is developed based on three main theories--social identification theory, transformational leadership theory and social learning theory.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.93 

No: 94
Title: IT Adoption by Internal Auditors in Malaysian Public Sector: A Preliminary Finding
Original Research Article
Pages 667-673
Author(s): Aidi Ahmi*, Siti Zabedah Saidin, Akilah Abdullah, Ayoib Che Ahmad
Open Access

Full Text 94
Abstract
Information Technology (IT) offers various advantages in many fields including in the public sectors. However, it usages are varies not only among the government sectors but also among departments of the same organisation. With the remarkable growth of IT in public sectors specifically to support the National IT and transformation agenda, this paper aims to provide a better understanding of IT adoption within the internal audit department in public sector. This study focused on the factors that influence IT adoption among internal auditors. An online and mail survey has been conducted to gather perception from 98 respondents. Factor analysis was conducted to generate the validated components that influence IT adoption. Finding shows that there are eight factors that might influence IT adoption by internal auditors in Malaysian public sectors. Future research should also be done in private sector to enhance the richness about the knowledge of IT adoption among auditors in Malaysia.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.94 

No: 95
Title: Does Social Mobility Effect Poverty?
Original Research Article 94
Pages 674-680
Author(s): Siti Hadijah Che Mat*, Zalina Zainala, Mukaramah Harun
Open Access

Full Text 95
Abstract
This study attempts to investigate the intergenerational social mobility in Malaysia by focusing on the phenomenon of rural people getting out of the poverty circle. The analysis is based on a survey of the rural households in the northern region of Malaysia, comprising the states of Kedah, Perlis, Pulau Pinang and Perak. The impact of social mobility on poverty is analyzed using logit model where nine independent variables are used. The dependent variable which is the level of education of the son is used as a proxy to determine whether the person is poor or not. Those sons who achieved lower than a diploma is categorised as poor. Meanwhile, social mobility is categorised into four, namely no mobility, low mobility, medium mobility and high mobility. Our findings show that there are only four factors (mobility, asset ownership, the existence of a university in the near vicinity and the respondents’ house being near to town)that significantly affect poverty among the children. We found that the higher the social mobility, the lower the poverty.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.95  

No: 96
Title: Estimation of Farm Level Technical Efficiency in Small-scale Cocoa Production in Malaysia: A Data Envelopment Analysis Approach
Original Research Article
Pages 681-687
Author(s): Wan Roshidah Fadzim*, Mukhriz Izraf Azman Aziz, Siti Hadijah Che Mat, Selamah Maamor
Open Access

Full Text 96
Abstract
The continuous development of downstream cocoa activities in Malaysia has increased the demand for cocoa beans and provides opportunities for smallholder cocoa farmers to increase their income. However, declining output among smallholder cocoa farmers has resulted in the imbalance between the upstream and downstream cocoa activities in Malaysia. The decline in the production of cocoa beans is often associated with the reduction in the acreage of the crop. Although Malaysia's total cocoa hectarage has reduced since 1990s, the average production per hectare is also declining especially after 2001. Thus, this study investigates this issue by looking into the production efficiency among smallholder cocoa farmers in Malaysia. The technical efficiencies of cocoa farmers in Malaysia is estimated using data envelopment analysis. The study relies upon primary data gathered during the 2013 production season. Data are collected from a set of structured questionnaire administered on 375 smallholder cocoa farmers throughout Malaysia. Result of the analysis shows that the mean efficiency score is 0.526. In short, there existed inefficiency among the sampled farmers.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.96 

No: 97
Title: Determinants of Technical Efficiency among Smallholder Cocoa Farmers in Malaysia
Original Research Article
Pages 688-693
Author(s): Wan Roshidah Fadzim*, Mukhriz Izraf Azman Aziz, Siti Hadijah Che Mat, Selamah Maamor
Open Access

Full Text 97
Abstract
The determinants technical efficiency among smallholder cocoa farmers has been well studied in agricultural literature. Among the factors identified are the demographic characteristics that affect farmers’ decision-making process and the ability of farmers to execute the decision effectively. In Malaysia, cocoa production is characterized by several problems that lead to low productivity. First is the negligence of the agricultural sector by the past administration due to shift in policy favoring manufacturing sector that now accounts for the bulk of foreign exchange earnings. Second is the endemic problem in the cocoa industry. The low productivity has resulted in the continuous fall in percentage share of cocoa output since 2001. Therefore, increasing productivity would increase the percentage share of cocoa production. Accordingly, this study explores the determinants of technical efficiency among cocoa farmers in Malaysia. The study relies upon primary data gathered during the 2013 production season. Data are collected from a set of structured questionnaire administered on 375 smallholder cocoa farmers throughout Malaysia. Results of the analysis show that record keeping, level of knowledge and status of farmers (either part-time or full-time) affects efficiency. This finding suggests that policies that would directly affect these identified variables should be pursued.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.97 

No: 98
Title: Understandings and Conceptions of Soft Skills for Educators in Public Universities
Original Research Article
Pages 694-701
Author(s): Ruzlan Md-Ali*, Fuziah Shaffie, Fahainis Mohd Yusof
Open Access

Full Text 98
Abstract
The lack of soft skills competence among new university graduates is an issue and also a reason for unsuccessful job applications. University graduates who excel academically and have appropriate soft skills would stand a better chance of being employed. Students in public universities (PUs) need to be guided to acquire the relevant soft skills and need to have role models to be professionally and socially competent.  They can actually learn much from their lecturers or educators as role models. In a recent qualitative exploratory study, 18 educators who were purposively selected from five PUs were individually interviewed to capture their understandings and conceptions of soft skills as part of their professional contribution to support the urge to foster and ensure the acquisition of soft skills among university students in Malaysia. This paper discusses and provides a glimpse into three PUs educators’ understandings and conceptions of soft skills within their current professional context. Their thoughts on soft skills and their propositions of other possible skills that could be included as soft skills as well as soft skills that PUs’ educators ought to possess, could  provide early ideas and initiatives towards the construction of a ‘soft skills framework’ for PUs’ educators. This framework could serve as guideline for educators in PUs to develop, facilitate and enhance soft skills among their students.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.98 

No: 99
Title: Linking Person-Job Fit To Employees’ Retention: The Mediating Role of Work Engagement
Original Research Article
Pages 702-709
Author(s): Siti Norasyikin Abdul Hamid*, Khulida Kirana Yahya
Open Access

Full Text 99
Abstract
Retaining employees has become an important issue for the companies because retention helps the organizations to achieve their goals. This study intends to identify factors used to increase employees’ retention. Specifically, this study examines the relationship between person-job (PJ) fit, work engagement (WE), and employees' retention. The study also determines the role of WE as a plausible mediating variable between PJ fit and employees’ retention. The study was conducted among 268 engineers in semiconductor companies in Northern Region of Malaysia. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was utilized and it found that PJ fit has positive inclination towards employees’ retention and WE. The study also shows WE as positively affecting employees’ retention serving as a mediator in the relationship between PJ fit and employees’ retention.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.99 

No: 100
Title: The Relationship between Islamic Religiosity, Islamic Work Ethics and Job Performance
Original Research Article
Pages 710-716
Author(s): Novia Zahrah*, Siti Norasyikin Binti Abdul Hamid, Shamsul Huda Binti Abdul Rani, Bidayatul Akmal Binti Mustafa Kamil
Open Access

Full Text 100
Abstract
The efforts in sustaining the excellence level of job performance have been widely discussed, either by researchers or organizations itself. However, the practitioners still confronts difficulties in sustaining job performance, especially in Muslim countries. This due to human's complex behavior and many other factors such as job stress and dissatisfaction. Whereas, as a Muslim, the employee’s should be self-control, patient, resilience, tolerance, and make a complete resignation to Allah’s will. Furthermore, a Muslim should believe that Allah is All Wise, and that there is great wisdom behind everything that Allah does. Thus, along with these Islamic religiosity awareness, each individual will be compelled to behave ethically. Although there are numerous studies on ethics have been conducted, either in Islamic perspective or general perspective. There is a lack of study that investigate the impact Islamic religiosity awareness in workplace. Thus, in response to the impact of both Islamic religiosity and Islamic work ethics in enhancing as well as sustaining job performance, this paper presented, discussed, and investigated empirically for possible implications between Islamic religiosity, Islamic work ethics and job performance. Smart-PLS have been used as analysis tool. Future researchers are expected to expand the study on job performance from Islamic perspective.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.100 

No: 101
Title: Addressing Skills Gap in Small-sized Enterprises: Malaysian Case Study
Original Research Article 100
Pages 717-722
Author(s): Abdul Rahim Anuar*, Wan Nurmahfuzah Jannah Wan Mansor,  Badariah Haji Din, Mohd Najib Mansor, Ahmad Zubir Ibrahim, Abu Sufian Abu Bakar, Shazida Jan Mohd Khan
Open Access

Full Text 101
Abstract
Skill mismatch is one of the main challenges faced by small-sized enterprises (SSEs). Empirical evidence showed that, in far too many cases, workers are not well-matched with their current jobs. Some are over-skilled for their current jobs—they are capable of handling more complex tasks and their skills are underutilised—while others are under-skilled for their current jobs—they lack the skills normally needed for their job. Under-skilling is also likely to affect productivity and slow the rate at which more efficient technologies and approaches to work can be adopted. Skills policies should support employers in making better use of the talent available to them. Mechanisms that help managers, particularly in SSEs, to identify skill gaps should be emphasised. These include enhancing training delivery systems and practices that make the best use of the existing skills base.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.101 

No: 102
Title: Students’ Perception on Using Second Life Virtual Platform to Improve English Language Proficiency
Original Research Article
Pages 723-730
Author(s): Riad F. Hassan*, Hisham Dzakiria, Rozhan M. Idrus
Open Access

Full Text 102
Abstract
The advancement of educational and informational technology communication (ICT) has paved new alternatives for English language teaching and learning. The use of Virtual World has become increasingly popular compared to conventional methods. Second life is an example of a typical virtual phenomenon that has raised interest among educators around the world. Many educational institutions have turned to SL due to its immersive and interactive environment and offering classes to enhance their students’ proficiency skills. This research is intended to elicit Iraqi students’ perception on SL’s potential as a virtual platform to improve English language learning. A qualitative case study was conducted. Data was collected through interviews. The research findings show that the learners were in favour of SL’s potential on improving English language proficiency. SL is fun to use, and most important of all, the learners feel that it is a new alternative to English language learning and needs to be explored
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.102 

No: 103
Title: An Exploratory Study of Muslim Consumers’ Expectation of an Islamic–Based Retail Store and Their Patronage Motive
Original Research Article
Pages 731-736
Author(s): Waida Irani Mohd Fauzi*, Sany Sanuri Mohd Mokhtar, Rushami Zien Yusoff
Open Access

Full Text 103
Abstract
A recent trend in the Malaysian retail industry is the growing Malaysian Muslim consumers’ conservatism, and the need to adopt to the Islamic way of life. Stores are adjusting retail elements to suit Islamic cultures and values to win the heart of Muslim consumers. The phenomenon of religious customization of retail outlets has not been explored in marketing areas, and thus little is understood on consumers’ patronage motives and their expectations of retail Islamic stores. The aims of this study are twofold: to explore Malaysian Muslim consumers’ expectations of an Islamic-based retail store; and their motive to patronize an Islamic-based retail store. Interviews performed in the Northern region of Malaysia suggests unique religion-related motives to patronage of the stores. Findings show respondents have unique expectations on retail stores, besides the contemporary factors as reported in the mainstream retailing studies. This study shares some initial insight into criteria for Islamic retail-based segmentation for Muslim consumers. Implications and limitations of the study are also discussed.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.103 

No: 104
Title: Teachers’ Challenges in the Implementation of School Based Assessment in Physical Education
Original Research Article
Pages 737-743
Author(s): Arsaythamby Veloo*, Ruzlan Md Ali
Open Access

Full Text 104
Abstract
This paper discusses the concept of assessment and the move to School-Based Assessment (SBA) within Malaysian current schooling system, which was very much examination-oriented. SBA was previously partially implemented in Malaysia. Nevertheless beginning 2011, SBA was made as an educational policy that needs to be implemented in primary as well as lower secondary schools. It presents the understanding, preparation and experience of Physical Education (PE) teachers with regards to the change in the schools assessment approach and how they had implemented SBA in this subject, namely Health and Physical Education (HPE) for lower secondary school. This paper discusses the case of SBA in Physical Education because this subject covers the theoretical as well as the physical implementation aspects. This qualitative study was recently carried out to explore the challenges faced by the teachers when implementing SBA in PE. The paper highlights the challenges faced by the teachers and how they overcome these challenges. The findings show that PE teachers faced three major challenges, namely core knowledge of the subject, assessment facilities and equipment, and PE classroom management. The study contributes towards the knowledge about PE teachers’ orchestration and design of classroom instructions within the context of SBA.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.104 

No: 105
Title: Identification of Critical Factors for IBS Plastic Formwork Adoption in Malaysian Construction Industry – A Literature Mapping
Original Research Article
Pages 744-752
Author(s): Muhammad Azuan Anif Ghazali, Nur Fadhilah Bahardin*, Mohd Azian Zaidi, Mohd Nurfaisal Baharuddin
Open Access

Full Text 105
Abstract
Industrialised Building System (IBS) in Malaysia has been practiced for decades. The development of its formal practice parallels the improvement of the built environment in the nation. One of the applications is on formwork. IBS plastic formwork has been promoted by Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia (CIDB) as an alternative to replace the conventional formwork system but the involvement of the public and private sectors in applying the IBS plastic formwork is seen reluctant. The aim of this study is to review the gaps that exist especially on awareness and readiness in application of IBS plastic formwork. Very relying on literature, this paper discovered a gap that is considered as critical factors in the successful of IBS plastic formwork adoption in construction industry. The issues related to the High Initial Investment Capital, Familiarity on Conventional Method, Uncompetitive Industry, Lose in Tendered Bidding, Unreadiness of Globalization Era, Lack of Awareness on Training and Short Courses, Lack of Awareness on Product Marketability, Readiness on Financially Capabilitywere highlight as a key dimension for the uses of IBS plastic formwork system to success. This paper aims to give new bits of knowledge in IBS formwork to upgrade the application of IBS plastic formwork adoption as well as an alternative solution to enhancing the uses of IBS in Malaysia.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.105 

No: 106
Title: Audit Committee Characteristics and Financial Reporting Quality: Nigerian Non-Financial Listed Firms
Original Research Article
Pages 753-760
Author(s): Muhammad Umar Kibiya*, Ayoib Che Ahmad, Noor Afza Amran
Open Access

Full Text 106
Abstract
This study aims to investigate the effect of audit committee characteristics on the quality of financial reporting of Nigerian listed firms. We employed multivariate regression analysis with a sample size of 101 and firms-year longitudinal panels of 505 observations of non-financial listed companies on Nigerian Stock Exchange for the period 2010 to 2014. We adopt McNicholas (2002) model to examine the monitoring mechanisms on the quality of financial reporting. The results show that control variables; company age and company size are statistically significant. Audit committee share ownership, and financial expertise are positive and statistically significant, indicating that audit committee monitoring mechanisms influence the financial reporting quality of listed non-financial firms in Nigeria. Regulatory bodies in Nigeria should mandate all the three board representatives on AC to be non-executive directors, while making a combination of financial and industrial expertise replace financial literacy to further improve the quality of the financial reporting.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.106 

No: 107
Title: The Impact of Corporate Governance Regulations on Board Independence and Quality of Financial Information Reporting: A Proposed Study
Original Research Article
Pages 761-768
Author(s): Mohd.Yussoff Ibrahim*, Ayoib Che Ahmad, Satirenjit Kaur Johl, Haseeb Ur Rahman
Open Access

Full Text 107
Abstract
The recent corporate scandals revealed misreporting and poor quality of financial information reporting. The misreporting evidenced that board of directors couldn’t ensure its role of effective monitoring to minimize management’s conflicts, frauds and misrepresentations of information. These in turn, diverted the attention of regulators and policy makers towards independence of the board among others. Malaysia, like other countries, also advised independence of the board in its third code of corporate governance (MCCG 2012) introduced in March, 2012. The code recommended independence of the board to ensure effective monitoring of management. Agency theory and many CG regulations around the world posit that strengthening independence of the board improves firms’ reporting quality of financial information. Therefore, this paper proposes to investigate how some specific attributes of the new regulation regarding independence of the board impacted quality of financial information reporting in Malaysian listed companies. The paper proposes a pre and post analysis of the code by comparing 2 years pre (2010-11) and 2 years post (2013-14) context of the code. The proposed study will contribute to the limited literature with inconclusive results. Moreover, it will also provide insights for shareholders, banks, financial institution, security commission and Bursa Malaysia.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.107 

No: 108
Title: Political Connection, Board Characteristics and Firm Performance in Nigeria
Original Research Article
Pages 769-774
Author(s): Nosakhare Peter Osazuwa*, Ayoib Che-Ahmad, Noriah Che-Adam
Open Access

Full Text 108
Abstract
This study examines the relationship between political connection, board characteristics and firm performance in Nigerian quoted firms. The model of the study is built based on the agency theory. It utilises a cross-sectional data of 116 firms for the year 2013, obtained from the annual reports of the firms. The robust corrected standard error regression was used in estimating the model. The study provides partial support for the proposition of the agency theory. The study finds board gender positively related to firm performance, while political connections and CEO incentives were negatively related with firm performance. The findings of this study should interest organisational stakeholders. Particularly, the negative association of political connection with firm performance has implication for auditors, shareholders and management. Furthermore, the study recommends more females to be considered into directorship positions, since they play a significant role in shaping the transparency of the board for better performance.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.108 

No: 109
Title: Determinants of Qardhul Hassan Financing Acceptance in Nigeria
Original Research Article
Pages 775-781
Author(s): Nurudeen Abubakar Zauro*, Ram Al Jaffri Saad, Norfaiezah Sawandi
Open Access

Full Text 109
Abstract
This paper, which is conceptual in nature, discusses the relationship between several factors that may affect the acceptance of Qardhul Hassan financing in Nigeria. The proposed variables under examination are attitude towards Qardhul Hassan financing, knowledge of Qardhul Hassan financing, perceived benefits, perceived government support and religious obligations. If validated, the work would serve as a proposed financing model to the government, policy makers, regulators, practitioners and other stakeholders vis-à-vis cubing the negative effect of financial exclusion in various jurisdictions of the emerging markets.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.109 

No: 110
Title: Newpapers’ Coverage During the Permatang Pauh By-Election
Original Research Article
Pages 782-787
Author(s): Mohd Azizuddin Mohd Sani*
Open Access

Full Text 110
Abstract
This paper is based on a research about newspapers’ coverage during the Permatang Pauh By-Election which was held on 7 May 2015. Five newspapers were selected are the Utusan Malaysia, Berita Harian, Sinar Harian, New Straits Times and the Star. This research will determine the coverage of the press in term of biasness tendency toward political parties contested in the by-election. The Permatang Pauh by-election was contested by four candidates, consisting of former opposition leader Wan Azizah Wan Ismail from People’s Justice Party (PKR), Barisan Nasional (BN)’s Suhaimi Sabudin, Malaysia’s People’s Party (PRM)’s Azman Shah Othman and independent candidate Salleh Isahak. This by-election was won by Wan Azizah Wan Ismail. However, this research has been able to find the link between ownership with the biasness of print media toward political parties empirically. The finding is that all newspapers were bias toward the ruling BN, except for the Sinar Harian which was balance in its coverage.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.110 

No: 111
Title: Optimizing Moving-Average Trading Strategy: Evidence in Malaysia Equity Market
Original Research Article
Pages 788-794
Author(s): Afiruddin Tapa*, Soh Chuen Yean, Shahrul Nizam Ahmad
Open Access

Full Text 111
Abstract
Technical analysis practitioners believe that data on past price and volume provide important and useful information in forecasting future price movements in the financial market. This paper study Optimizing Moving-Average Trading Strategy. We find that the original classical moving average crossover strategies have generated higher risk-adjusted portfolio return as compared to the simple buy-and-hold strategy. The modified MA crossover strategy shows inconsistency in its strategy return as some periods of crossover show higher return as compared to the original strategy, while some shows lower strategy return. This may be due to the stricter additional trading rule that reduces trading signals, and thus lower number of trades.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.111 

No: 112
Title: Public Complaint Behaviour and Satisfaction with Complaint Handling in the Malaysian Mobile Phone Services Industry
Original Research Article
Pages 795-800
Author(s): Mohd. Khirzanbadzli A Rahman*, Sharifah Azizah Haron, Laily Paim, Syuhaily Osman, Noorlaila Yunus, Hassnah Wee
Open Access

Full Text 112
Abstract
The number of mobile phone services subscribers in Malaysia has been increasing tremendously. Ironically the number of complaints received with regard to mobile phone services is insignificant although complaining provides significant impact to organizations as well as to complainers or consumers.  This study aims to investigate the relationship between public complaint and satisfaction with complaint handling. A total of 285 complainers of mobile phone user were selected as respondents. The values for GOF, AVE, CR and convergent validity confirmed the measurement model prior proceeding to structural model. The structural model revealed mixed results which provide the indicator of consumer satisfaction with complaint handling.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.112 

No: 113
Title: Corporate Governance Research in Emerging Economies: The Need for Alternative Perspectives
Original Research Article
Pages 801-809
Author(s): Nor Zalina Mohamad Yusof*
Open Access

Full Text 113
Abstract
This paper argues that corporate governance research in emerging economies is dominated by agency theory perspective. While agency theory is important in explaining corporate governance in these economies, this paper argues that it is not sufficient. Alternative perspectives are needed in explaining the practice of corporate governance in emerging economies more holistically as emerging economies have different institutional context and non-economic factors as compared to more advanced economies. In doing so, this paper reviews corporate governance literature, focusing on those studies conducted in emerging economies, with the purpose to provide a detailed commentary on the nature of existing research on corporate governance in these economies and identify gaps in this literature. This paper proceeds by explaining on why Agency Theory is not sufficient and suggests for future work.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.113 

No: 114
Title: Effects of Board Size, Board Committees Characteristics and Audit Quality on Audit Report Lags
Original Research Article
Pages 810-818
Author(s): Mohammed Ishaq Ahmed, Ayoib Che-Ahmad*
Open Access

Full Text 114
Abstract
The paper examines the effects of board size, audit committee characteristics and audit quality on audit report lag (ARL) of listed banks in Nigeria. Using a sample of 14 banks, the study covers a five year period from 2008 to 2012. The findings of the study based on robust OLS model reveals that audit quality represented by the Big 4 firms has a significant impact on ARL. Board size, board meetings, total assets as well as board gender also have significant positive associations with ARL. However, the study is not able to find a significant relationship between audit committee size, risk management committee size and board expertise on ARL. Generally, shareholders should maintain the use of big 4 so that report is presented at the right time to enhance confidence of the stakeholders as well as regulators. The current study is limited to few corporate governance characteristics of the listed banks. Other potentials variables such as Company complexity, ethnicity, leverage and IFRS complexity is not included and beyond the scope of this study. Their inclusions could have given clearer picture of the determinants of Audit Report Lag in Nigerian listed banks.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.114 

No: 115
Title: Succession Planning at HEIs: Leadership Style, Career Development and Knowledge Management Practices as Its Predictors
Original Research Article
Pages 819-828
Author(s): Awanis Ku Ishak*, Bidayatul Akmal Mustafa Kamil
Open Access

Full Text 115
Abstract
Succession planning has spelt many affirmative returns to organizations, several reviews have indicated that this corporate initiative lacks in its planning, implementing and managing. It happens at HEIs in Malaysia that have been slow to embrace corporate formal succession planning approach. Perhaps the appropriate leadership style, perception of career development opportunities as well as knowledge management practices may enhance the succession planning of public universities in Malaysia. Therefore this study specifically intends to examine the significant relationships between succession planning and its predictors which are leadership style, career development and knowledge management practices. The sampling frame in this study contained a list of all administrative officers grade (N41-N54) at 19 public universities staff. According to the results, there is significant influence of two independent variables which are leadership style and knowledge management on successive planning effectiveness. Nevertheless, career management does not influence successive planning effectiveness although both are significantly related.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.115 

No: 116
Title: Attaining Aquaculture Contract Farming Business Performance in Malaysia: The Call for Supply Chain Integration and Technological Innovation Materialization
Original Research Article
Pages 829-834
Author(s): Mohd Azwan Zainol*, Zakaria Abas, Ahmad Shabudin Ariffin
Open Access

Full Text 116
Abstract
Attaining aquaculture contract farming business performance continued relevance remain demanding in the eleventh Malaysia Plan. Anchored on the supply chain management philosophy, this paper highlights on the technological innovation and the three interrelated elements of supply chain integration, namely: external integration with suppliers, external integration with customers and supply chain risks; and the composite relation amongst these variables that could perhaps produce the possible outcome of promising business performance. Hence, in order to attain for the betterment of the aquaculture contract farming business performance, this paper provides a foresight to the prospective aquaculture contract farmers to conceptualise, visualise and materialise the outcome of supply chain integration and technological innovation engagement.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.116 

No: 117
Title: Parenting Stress in Families of LD Children: A Demographical Analysis
Original Research Article
Pages 835-841
Author(s): Kamarulzaman Kamaruddin*, Che Anuar Che Abdullah, Mohd Noor Idris
Open Access

Full Text 117
Abstract
The main objective of this study was to identify the level of stress among the parents of LD children. The data was obtained from the Perceived Stress Scale, which is a self-report scale that involved 120 parents. The findings indicated that a total of 37 (33.6%) parents experiencing stress at low level (M=1.00-2.33) and they are in the state of normal. Whilst 52 (47.3%) of the parents were suffering moderate level of stress (M= 2.34-3.66) which is considered as mild. Furthermore, the analysis indicated that only 21 (19.1%) of them experienced high level of stress (M=3.67-5.00) which is classified as severe. The findings also shown that mothers of LD children was associated with higher stress. Parents of high SES experienced more stress than parents of low SES. The results also indicated that there seem to be no significant differences in the level of stress between the ethnic groups such as Malay, Chinese, Indian and religious groups that those who were Muslim, Christians, Buddhist and Hindus.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.117 

No: 118
Title: Academic Programme Internationalisation: The Setting up of Guidelines for International Students Admission Requirements to Universiti Utara Malaysia
Original Research Article
Pages 842-848
Author(s): Abdul Malek Abdul Karim, Che Su Mustaffa, Khaliza-Saidin*, Awanis Ku Ishak, Mohd Azri Md Nazir, Abdul Rahman Mohd Isa
Open Access

Full Text 118
Abstract
Globalisation has caused an influx of international student admissions to local universities in Malaysia. Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM) has opened its degree and post degree programmes to students around the world as one of its internationalisation strategies. Differences in the education system and grading system in different countries have caused the issue of many applications from international applicants not being given proper consideration. This study aims to find out the various academic systems adopted by other countries and to develop standardised admission requirements for international students aspiring to further their studies at UUM. To gather its data, this study used three data collection methods which are document analysis, face-to-face interview and focus group interview among international students studying in UUM and Embassy officials of countries which have students studying in UUM. The study found that most universities adopt three systems: British, French and the US system. In terms of grading system, it was found that three assessment systems were used, namely average grade point, percentage and cumulative grade point average. These three grading systems were key factors in the setting up of standardised admission requirements for international students to UUM to ensure each application receives proper consideration by the university. It was also hoped that the grading system created based on this study would make it possible for international applicants to make an online check whether they meet the requirement of the university before submitting their applications.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.118 

No: 119
Title: Development of Akhlaq and Values in Students: What is the Suitable Application Technique?
Original Research Article
Pages 849-855
Author(s): Mohamad Khairi Haji Othman*, Rozalina Khalid, Alis Puteh Fauziah Abd Rahim, Mohd. Zailani Mohd Yusoff, Muhamad Dzahir Kasa, Nurfaizah Baharuddin
Open Access

Full Text 119
Abstract
The aim of this study was to identify the application technique of instilling akhlaq and values in the secondary school students during classroom instructions.  This descriptive survey study approach was conducted in the schools in the district of Kuala Muda/Yan in Kedah.  A total number of Forms 4 and 2 students were selected as the respondents to complete the questionnaire.  The study findings found that based on students’ perception, there were five techniques that gained overall moderately high mean value, namely modelling, lecture, discussion, positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement.  Meanwhile, other techniques were at medium low level. In summary, this study has shown that certain application techniques in instilling akhlaq and values should be practiced by teachers towards developing balanced human talent.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.119 

No: 120
Title: Safety Management Practices and Safety Compliance: A Model for SMEs in Malaysia
Original Research Article
Pages 856-862
Author(s): Chandrakantan Subramaniam*, Faridahwati Mohd. Shamsudin, Md. Lazim Mohd. Zin, Subramaniam Sri Ramalu, Zuraida Hassan
Open Access

Full Text 120
Abstract
Safety at work is one of the key issues in many organizations. This is because accidents and injuries in the workplace can cost the organization financially and non-financially. Although workplace safety has been widely investigated, less attention is given to the small and medium enterprises. Such neglect is unfortunate because many accidents and injuries around the world, including Malaysia, happen in this organizational milieu. This paper argues that despite having limited resources to install an integrated system of occupational safety and health (OSH), concern about workplace safety should not be ignored. Against this backdrop, this paper proposes a model that hypothesizes the role of safety management practices in promoting safety compliance.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.120 

No: 121
Title: The Impact of Social Well-being on Sustainability Practice among Malaysian Manufacturing Firms
Original Research Article
Pages 863-870
Author(s): Mohamad Ghozali Hassan*, Norani Nordin, Hasbullah Ashari
Open Access

Full Text 121
Abstract
Manufacturing social well-being depicts the extent and degree to which society members within and around manufacturing firms is functioning well within the industrial space. It reflects the impact of manufacturing firms’ activities on community members’ social lives. This study investigated Malaysia manufacturing firms’ social well-being by selecting 104 manufacturing firms were selected for data collection. This study made use of survey research based on quantitative approach using three basic dimensions of social well-being indicator: employees, customers and the immediate community. The study result pointed out 10 important factors that should be taken into consideration by Malaysia manufacturing firms in order to enhance their sustainable practice.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.121 

No: 122
Title: Work Motivation among Muslim Public Health Employees in Pattani Province, Thailand
Original Research Article
Pages 871-876
Author(s): Emeela Wae-esor, Azizi Abu Bakar*, Hoe Chee Hee
Open Access

Full Text 122
Abstract
This paper is based on research conducted on Public Health sector in Pattani Province, Thailand. Public Health is a basic principle of the health care system to reduce the causes of disease and injury. Public Health Center in Pattani is governed under the Thai Public Health Ministry to promote a healthier lifestyle among the population in Pattani province. The study examines the factors influencing work motivation among Muslim Public Health Employees. Specifically,itwillexaminetheimportanceofthe factor of Islamic Workplace Accommodation and Nature of Work toward Work Motivation. Based on a questionnaire survey of 242 employees, this study applies the correlation approach to investigate the research model. The results showed that that the relationship between the Islamic Workplace Accommodation and Nature of Work are positive toward Work Motivation.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.122 

No: 123
Title: Factors that Influence Social-Economic Mobility in the Northern Region of Malaysia
Original Research Article
Pages 877-883
Author(s): Siti Hadijah Che Mat*, Zalina Zainal, Mukaramah Harun
Open Access

Full Text 123
Abstract
Colleting the data through a survey in the Northern region of Malaysia; Kedah, Perlis, Penang and Perak, this study investigates intergenerational social mobility in Malaysia.  We measure and analysed the factors that influence social-economic mobility in Malaysia. In estimating the factors that influence social-economic mobility, we employ a binary choice model based on the maximum likelihood method. The social mobility variable is measured using the difference between the educational achievement between a father and his son. If there is a change of at least of two educational levels between a father and his son, then this study will assign the value one (1) which means that social mobility has occurred. We found that besides father’s education, father’s attitude and the establishment of a university in the area have also contributed to social mobility of the rural communities.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.123