Volume XI, Pages 1- 509 (June 2016)
The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences EpSBS
e-ISSN: 2357-1330
©2016 Published by the Future Academy
Edited by: Vasilica Grigore, Monica Stanescu and Mihaela Paunescu
Articles: 1-70
Conference: ICPESK 2015 -5th International Congress on Physical Education, Sport and Kinetotherapy
Dates: 10 - 13 June 2015
Location: Bucharest - Romania
Conference Chair(s): Prof. Ph.D.H.C. Viorel Cojocaru, Universitatea Națională de Educație Fizica si Sport Bucuresti
Cover Page here

Title: Contents
Open Access


No: 1
Title: Message from the Guest Editors
Pages 1-2
Author(s): Vasilica Grigore, Monica Stănescu*, Mihaela Păunescu
Open Access

Full Text 1

No: 2
Title:  Overweight and Obesity in Slovak High School Students
Pages 3-12
Author(s): Martin Zvonar*, Bibiana Vadasova, Viera Smerecka, Pavol Cech, Pavel Ruzbarsky
Open Access

Full Text 2
Childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity are important public health concerns. Common defınitions of paediatric overweight and obesity are based on BMI (Going et al., 2011). Slovakia is one of the few countries with national BMI standards that take into consideration dietary habits and local genotypes. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents of Prešov region in Slovakia. A non-randomized cross-sectional study was used to determine incidence of obesity in adolescents living in the region of Prešov. Research sample consisted of 1,015 participants (550 girls; 465 boys) aged between 15 and 18 years. BMI values in particular age groups of both genders were assessed according to Slovak National Reference Standards. Results: For both genders, mean values of body height and body weight and mean BMI values across all age categories fell between 50th and 75th percentile. In total, 6.4% of boys and 6.8% of girls were overweight, and 9.4% of boys and 8.2% of girls were obese. The highest prevalence of overweight was found for 18-year-old boys and for 17-year-old girls, and the highest prevalence of obesity was found for both 15-year-old boys and girls. The comparison of our findings with available data from National Anthropometric Survey on physical development of Slovak youth in 2001 showed lower prevalence of overweight, but higher percent prevalence of obesity in girls and boys.

No: 3 
Title: Study about the Perception and Practice of Nordic Walking as a Component of Active Tourism in Romania
Pages 13-21
Author(s): Corina Ivan, Lavinia Popescu*
Open Access

Full Text 3
The paper addresses some general issues related to Nordic walking, a leisure sports activity with many positive influences on the body and mind, but unfortunately almost unknown in our country. The study has started from the hypothesis that if Nordic walking is systematically practiced, it will have multiple beneficial effects on the individual’s health and social relations. But to prove it, we need theoretical arguments and concrete evidence coming to support this assumption. To this purpose, we used bibliographical documentation and we conducted a research in Campina, between 8 and 29 December 2013, on a group affiliated to the Association for Health and Performance, made up of practitioners of weekend tourism in Breaza-Nistoresti region. The participants in Nordic walking, 21 subjects aged 22 to 64 years, responded to an 18-item questionnaire designed to identify, among others, their perception about the natural conditions and those created for the practice of leisure sports activities, the dimension and use of their free time, about Nordic walking in general, they also being asked to give their reasons for practicing this sport. The collected data were processed and interpreted, our findings underlying some relevant aspects related to Nordic walking, which might be both necessary and interesting, as we have to do with a sports discipline at its beginning in our country.

No: 4
Title: Contemporary Trends in Choreography – Potential for Enhancing the Artistic Preparation in Rhythmic and Aerobic Gymnastics
Pages 22-29
Author(s): Aura Bota*, Cristina Lautaru
Open Access

Full Text 4
This paper intends to bring new insights for optimizing the training process by conceptualizing and building an argument on the need to analyse the significant trends in modern and postmodern dance, in order to pick relevant statements, visions and means to be applied in different gymnic sports preparation types. Coaches and choreographers working in rhythmic or aerobic gymnastics need to have a deeper understanding of dance as a fundamental form of human expression, which, in different formulae, can be transferred into the sport arena. Taking into consideration the current literature, as well as the practical experience of some Romanian experienced coaches, we can assume that ballet is an indispensable form of training for the gymnasts, while modern and postmodern dance is a precious source of inspiration for choreographers, specifically due to the fusing styles, visions, cultures and genres of dances discussed in this paper. The iconic works of choreography defy or utilize gravity, balance energy and power, design perfect lines and volumes integrating the music, all these elements being equally important in artistic sports. Empowering the gymnasts to reach a higher understanding and control of their bodies derived through ballet and dance experiences is a task that coaches should undertake, so that every limb or muscle to be vibrantly present and able to express a wide range of emotions. The paper designs a structured model to explore the contemporary dance, obviously suitable for further developments, so that artistic preparation follows new approaches and emphasizes a new, fresh stylization of movements.

No: 5
Title: Principles, Methods and Tools of the Sustainable Approach in the Contents of Karate-Do Teaching
Pages 30-38
Author(s): Sergejs Capulis*, Valerijs Dombrovskis, Svetlana Gusev
Open Access

Full Text 5
Currently the emphasis in physical education is on sport achievements, leaving the effect of physical education on the development of adolescents’ personality to drift along. In Latvia, the implementation of the humanistic approach in physical education is topical. We believe that today’s organisation of physical education requires significant changes in the usage of principles, methods and tools in the frame of the sustainable approach. Karate-do, as a kind of martial arts in the framework of humanistic approach, stimulates self-development of adolescents’ personality. In addition, the teaching process content of the sustainable approach includes adolescents’ health culture education and upbringing, as well as the integrity of the body and mental development. Implementation of the sustainable approach of physical education in teaching Karate-do is vital, as it ensures development of the uniqueness of adolescent’s personality and intrinsic potential. During the course of theoretical work, organisation and management methodology of the Karate-do teaching process in the context of the sustainable approach was designed. Within this methodology, a system of principles, methods and tools that allows implementing the sustainable approach in Karate-do was developed. It is suggested to use a system of methods in the sustainably-oriented Karate-do teaching process – words, demonstrations, exercises and games. The designed thematic conversation is proposed as one of the most important work techniques and relevant tools in the sustainably-oriented Karate-do teaching process. Doing Karate-do in the framework of the sustainable approach provides adolescents with satisfaction, positive perspective and self-confidence.

No: 6
Title: Theoretical Background and Practical Applications of the Physiological Mechanism of Post-Activation Potentiation
Pages 39-45
Author(s): Dimitrios Patikas*, Anthi Xenofondos, Christos Kotzamanidis
Open Access

Full Text 6
Post-activation potentiation (PAP) is a mechanism that has gained interest in research during the past years. This is due to the fact that several studies use this physiological mechanism as a tool to improve athletic performance. This review will describe the basic principles of PAP and how exercise can influence the existence and magnitude of PAP. As definition, PAP is the phenomenon of increased force or twitch output that occurs after a high-intensity voluntary or evoked contraction. Although PAP is assumed to occur within the muscle due to the increased phosphorylation of the myosin light chains, several other factors can influence its appearance. The fact that fatigue counteracts the level of PAP, muscular as well as neural properties of the neuromuscular system contribute to the final outcome, despite the fact that PAP is mainly a mechanism that is attributed to changes in muscular level. During the past 5 years, our research group has examined in depth central and peripheral mechanisms that influence performance under the co-existence of PAP and fatigue. Numerous techniques combining the application of electromyography, electrical stimulation and force recording are briefly presented and discussed with emphasis on the practical aspect of interpretation on athletic performance. Using such techniques, some of the recent findings of our research group are presented, giving an insight in the PAP effect immediately after a contraction or after series of contractions and the effectiveness of long-term combined training programs.

No: 7
Title: Tactical Action Rules for Nearly Marking and for Closing the Penetration of the Direct Opponent in Possession of the Ball
Pages 46-53
Author(s): Ioan Rudi Prisacaru*
Open Access

Full Text 7
This study examines the trends in the use of action rules for nearly marking and for closing the penetration of the opponent in possession of the ball, by the players of the finalist teams (France and Qatar) at the World Championship held in Qatar. Our goal is to provide a training process for the young players in line with the development of high performance handball. The results indicate a trend in nearly marking and in closing the game space in outer barrage, used by the defenders of the French team. The tactical action rules for nearly marking/ closing in frontal linear form as well as internal (throwing arm positioning) are frequently used behaviours with the players of the Qatar team. The process of training young players should consider the development of the nearly marking action and that of closing the game space specific to the outer barrage (in addition to the “classical” throwing arm positioning or frontal linear closures). Depending on the placement of the pivot located inside the defence, players should know specific behaviours of this rule.

No: 8
Title: Study about the Evolution of Joint Mobility in Pupils at the Primary School Level
Pages 54-60
Author(s): Alexandru-Florin Ciocioi*, Sabina Macovei
Open Access

Full Text 8
The role of physical education is to act in order to increase the manifestation of motor ability indices among pupils. For this reason, the development of joint mobility in young pupils has a particular importance, by its limiting effects on the adjustments and designation of the movement easiness characterizing the ability of an element to move. The purpose of this paper was to make a diagnosis of the range of motion for the main joints, which included measurements of mobility in the scapular-humeral, coxofemoral and talocrural joints, in primary school pupils from Middle School No. 192. To achieve the intended purpose, it was initiated a comparative study conducted between December 2014 and January 2015, during 14 lessons (according to school schedule and curriculum). The subjects were 80 pupils from 1st to 4th grades, participants in the physical education and sports lesson. It was created a group of schoolboys and also a group of schoolgirls for each grade of the primary education, in total 4 groups of 10 schoolboys each and 4 groups of 10 schoolgirls each. Results were obtained using tests for the mobility or flexibility assessment, according to Brian Mackenzie, and through the statistical method, we calculated the arithmetic mean. Analysis of the results provides objective information about the level of mobility development in the subjects tested throughout their evolution.

No: 9
Title:  Motor Landmarks of the UNEFS Bucharest Students, Practitioners of Football Game
Pages 61-65
Author(s): Palade Tudor*, Grigore Gheorghe, Ciolca Sorin
Open Access

Full Text 9
Current requirements of professional football game involve that the players have high speed in the implementation of actions carried out in attack and defence, optimal exercise capacity, the ability to effectively solve duels that they have with the opponent, taking into account the lack of space and time, and the high stakes of the games they are playing. This study aims to highlight the correlation between the motor profile of UNEFS students practicing football game (the future teachers-coaches) and the current international trend linked with the possibility to demonstrate, with a raised index of speed, strength, endurance and coordination, the content of this sports game. To this purpose, we applied to our students a series of trials and tests to determine the expression level of their conditional and coordination capacities. Thus, we believe that the data obtained, illustrated by specific graphs, will help strengthen the relationship of the future graduate with the young football coach.

No: 10
Title: Innovation in the Context of World Sports Development
Pages 66-73
Author(s): Mariana Monica Bucur*, Sabina Macovei, Ingrid Istrate
Open Access

Full Text 10
The imminent development of competition system has determined over time a shift from amateur sport, practiced by passion and for health reasons, to the promotion of its professional component. But throughout the centuries, changes have been essential. Innovation is one of the actions that have marked the development and transformation of world sports in general and Olympic Games in particular. The types of innovation found in the organization, equipment, technology during more than 100 years are: product innovation, process innovation, market innovation, organizational innovation. As regards sports at a global level, innovations in the timekeeping system in different disciplines (athletics, swimming, horse riding, skiing, biathlon, cross-country skiing, bobsleigh, luge, skeleton) have determined the ranking order to be decided by thousandths of a second, and the cases of ties among many competitors to become very rare. Research conducted in great laboratories of the world to change materials used on the competition grounds (from the athletics track, the floor and the vaulting table in gymnastics to the system of freezing the tracks of bobsleigh, luge, skeleton) has led to achievement of performances thought to be impossible one century ago. Studies have been made about the effect of modern equipment on sports performances, and research in the field has become even more important than the talent of an athlete. In this study based on bibliographical research, we are trying to demonstrate that innovation in the TV broadcasting field has provided global population access to information, having a direct contribution to promoting sports.

No: 11
Title: Correlative Aspects between Heart Rate, Lactic Acid and Exercise Intensity in the Training of Water Polo Players – Junior III
Pages 74-81
Author(s): Gheorghe Marinescu, Laurențiu Daniel Ticala*, Ana Maria Mujea, Simona Nicoleta Bidiugan
Open Access

Full Text 11
In water polo game, acyclic movements are prevailing, and the dominant energy systems are distributed as follows: 10% alactacid, 30% lactacid and 60% aerobic. The performance-limiting factors are represented by acceleration power, throwing power, etc., all of them relying on a solid aerobic basis. Training monitoring through cardiovascular functional tests (heart rate) at rest and during specific effort or in the recovery period, correlated to biochemical testing of effort/ its hardness (lactic acid) and intensity, allows us to assess the functional and metabolic harmony/disharmony of athletes’ body, depending on the dominant energy systems in the game of water polo. Purpose: through this ascertaining pedagogical experiment, we want to present the relationship between different external and internal effort parameters, in order to meet the metabolic standards imposed by the game of water polo. Methods: bibliographic study, metabolic and functional tests, statistical and mathematical method, graphical representation. Results: application of a standard trial designed for the higher aerobic exercise capacity (VO2max) and assessed through the following parameters: heart rate, lactic acid and exercise intensity reveals the anticipation/ prediction of metabolic cost. Referring to the heart rate, the athlete G.S., with an average value of 205±5 beats/min., falls within the Lactate tolerance effort zone, while work intensity (92%) is situated in the VO2max effort zone. The amount of accumulated lactic acid (10.2 mmol) frames the athlete’s effort in the metabolic VO2max zone.

No: 12
Title: Analysis of Nonverbal Communication Ability in Relation to Cohesion of the Representative Women’s Basketball Team – U16
Pages 82-89
Author(s): Gheorghe Marinescu, Alina Daniela Moanța, Marian Victor Zamfir, Laurențiu Daniel Ticala*
Open Access

Full Text 12
Basketball game involves, beyond physical preparation, the individual technical-tactical knowledge essential for the good development of the game, a proactive attitude towards the goal of the action or a “team spirit”. It consists in the interaction of players and is based on mutual knowledge, acceptance and understanding, on cooperation for reaching the common goal. The athletes’ ability to communicate and create relationships can be analysed in connection with the individual ability to shift attention, with the sociometric and preferential statuses, consequently with the team cohesion level. Sociometric analysis will be achieved periodically, according to the team structure, composition and evolution in order to ensure an optimal integration of athletes into the team, to increase its cohesion and eventually its performance. Sociometric analysis correlated to nonverbal communication ability, while knowing the preferential status indices (Psi), is the purpose of our research. The 20 subjects are members of the representative women’s basketball team, juniors U16. Nonverbal communication ability positively correlates with the preferential status index of the team player. Research methods: bibliographic study, PONS (Profile of Nonverbal Sensitivity) test, Moreno’s psycho-sociometric analysis, statistical and mathematical method, graphical representation. Average score obtained by calculating the Psi has a negative value, very close to zero, namely -0.000006. Regarding the minimal (-0.15) and maximal (0.26) values, it can be noted a balanced distribution of scores, as compared to central tendency. The value of Pearson’s correlation coefficient for PONS and Psi variables is rf = 0.833, which indicates a very close positive correlation between variables.

No: 13
Title: Aerobic or Resistance Exercise Training to Improve Cognitive Function? Short Review  
Pages 90-95
Author(s): Abderrahman Ouattas*, Monoem Haddad, Mohamed Aziz Riahi, Mihaela Paunescu, Ruben Goebel
Open Access

Full Text 13
Decline in cognitive function leads to several diseases and impairments. Findings from literature explain that exercise training may reduce the negative effects and enhance cognition. The review aims to present aerobic and resistance exercise training programs with the most beneficial outcomes regarding enhancement of cognitive function and related diseases. Electronic literature of SPORTDiscus, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases in English language between 2003 and 2015 was used to search for cognitive function in relation to exercise training. A total of 99 abstracts were examined; 43 abstracts were excluded for using animal subjects, derivative data, and languages other than English. A total of 56 articles were fully read; 11 of those were excluded due to lack of evidence, to reach a narrowed outcome. Outcomes indicate that aerobic exercise has more benefits on cognitive function rather than resistance training (e.g. enhancing memory, learning, cognitive speed). On the other hand, combined resistance and aerobic training has better results than aerobic training alone. In addition, exercise training is not only beneficial on cognitive function, but also reduces and prevents related cognitive diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and Cushing’s syndrome. Several studies have indicated that aerobic exercise training improves cognitive function as well as reduces related cognitive diseases. Further studies are necessary in order to attain sufficient evidence and neglect the conflict regarding the effect of resistance exercise training on cognitive function.

No: 14
Title: Study Regarding the Education of Motor Expressivity and Musicality within the Gymnastic and Body Expression Activities
Pages 96-105
Author(s): Manos Mihaela*
Open Access

Full Text 14
Those who understand the multilateral value of physical education must admit the necessity to educate the expressive aspects of motricity as well. Expression exercises represent a strong motivation for the psychomotor development of children, facilitating expression, creativity and originality in choosing and performing motor actions with expressive qualities. Rhythmic, artistic, aerobic gymnastics, dance sport are sports activities that aim to educate the special body expressivity at a superior level characterized by a high degree of the communication function, through means having an artistic value. Assuming that gymnastic and body expression activities have an influence on the aesthetic side of pupils’ personality and leave their mark on children’s psychomotor education, our study was focused on the education and development of motor expressivity and musicality at various qualitative levels, from the spontaneous, natural manifestations to the mentally elaborated ones, expressed through meaningful body movement constructed with a well-determined purpose. During the experiment, our attention was oriented towards the motor gesture expression, the way of interpreting musical accompaniment, but also towards some personality traits able to facilitate the expressivity manifestation. We tried to stimulate the creative fantasy of subjects, who had to compose diverse motor structures, according to musical accompaniment. In the construction of trials, we had in view the display of transposition and expressivity availabilities; the combination of expression forms; a sufficient number of themes, stimuli and response situations. Without laying the stress on a particular body technique, we demonstrate within our experiment that certain artistic, aesthetic aspects can be educated.

No: 15
Title: Consideration Regarding the Guidance of the Sportive Shape from a Weekly Cycle to Another Using Analysis Software in High Performance Football 
Pages 106-112
Author(s): Marius Stoica*, Cornel Blejan
Open Access

Full Text 15
The content of the research content is trying to prove that physical training can be optimized from a weekly cycle to another, in quantitative and qualitative terms. One of the requirements is to always check the training level of the team with various stimuli and, in this context, the sportive shape from one game to another. This can be monitored using the “INSTAT” System of analysis after each competition. The statistic obtained gives us physical data that we can compare from one game to another, both within the team, but especially individually, such as the distance travelled by team/ player, the total distance broken down by intensities, the number of accelerations and sprints. These issues confirm or disprove that the guidance of the effort from a competition to another is within optimal standards. As a result of the interpretation of the data offered by the analysis system, it can be found a pattern to achieve and maintain optimum sportive shape to ensure the superiority, on the physical plane, over the opponent. The permanent individualization of the training process is crucial in a weekly cycle, because not all the athletes react the same way to the training stimuli, reaching unwanted areas of effort for that training, and thus disturbing the preparation process in the next weekly cycles of the competitive period.

No: 16
Title: Professional Level and Life Quality of Physical Culture and Basics of Health Teachers of Primary School
Pages 113-120
Author(s): Iuliia Pavlova*, Mykhailo Stefankiv, Bogdan Vynogradskyi
Open Access

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Problem Statement: Due to unsatisfactory medical and demographic situation in Ukraine, more attention should be paid to all educational disciplines related to child’s health. Purpose of Study: To assess the Physical Culture and Basics of Health teachers’ qualification level. Methods. The pedagogues (322 teachers of Physical Culture and 406 teachers of Basics of Health) who teach in primary school of Ivano-Frankivsk region (Ukraine) were surveyed. The peculiarities of in-service teacher training, using of innovative technologies, the methodical and material support etc. were evaluated. Life quality was assessed by MOS SF 36 questionnaire. Findings and Results: Most respondents (75%) have been involved in the teaching of Physical Culture and Basics of Health in the primary school for over 10 years. However, only 41.0% have appropriate education in the field of Physical Education, Sport and Health and specialization of Physical Culture teacher. The necessary education and specialization of Basics of Health teacher did not have any respondent. It was found effective studying method skills could be applied by 15.8% of respondents. In-service teacher training in preventive and life skills education had 53.2% teachers of Basics of Health. The Basics of Health teachers have low life quality according to scales related to mental and physical health. Conclusions: Insufficient qualification level, the inability to implement innovative technology and interactive teaching methods, low health preserving competence are the main obstacles in the implementation of subjects of health profile in primary school.

No: 17
Title: The Influence of Specific Training on Explosive Power in Top Athletes
Pages 121-127
Author(s): Adela Caramoci*, Anca Mirela Ionescu, Adriana Sarah Nica, Virgil Mazilu
Open Access

Full Text 17
Explosive power is an important aspect in sports events such jumping and throwing as well as in other sports like tennis, boxing, wrestling and most sports games. To clarify whether explosive muscle power depends only on the macroergic phosphate compounds or other factors, which can be influenced through specific training, are also involved, this study used a Wingate testing protocol to follow the evolution of anaerobic performance parameters in 450 top athletes trained for aerobic (70 athletes), anaerobic (224 athletes) and mixed events (156 athletes). Parameters studied were the Peak Power (PP), Time at Peak Power (TPP), correlations between them and Average Powers recorded on each 5-second interval of maximal effort. The results showed that TPP was shorter than 5 sec only for the alactacid anaerobic groups (3.630 sec for men and 3.960 sec for women), the other athletes reaching maximum power after 5 sec. Most athletes registered the highest average power in the second 5-second interval (5-10 sec) and not in the first one (0-5 sec), as expected, except for the alactacid anaerobic group. The anaerobic alactacid and mixed energogenesis groups achieved a significant negative correlation between PP and TPP (p< 0.05), these groups being composed of athletes whose specific training aimed to improve their neuro-motor skills and movement pattern. The results of this research show that explosive power depends on the muscle composition, but also confirms the importance of motor skills in improving the recruitment velocity of fast muscle fibres and muscle power generation.

No: 18
Title: The Recovery of the Effort Capacity during Training Camps
Pages 128-135
Author(s): Dan Badea*
Open Access

Full Text 18
This research intends to design a pattern for the recovery of exercise capacity in centralized training sessions.  Recovery is a complex process aimed at restoring and overcoming the initial values of homeostasis, pursued in all planning structures, starting from the training lesson (breaks between exercise sessions), continuing with post effort recovery, stage and weekly recovery, and even post-Olympic cycle recovery. Recovery after effort is an increasingly significant component that conditions the athletic performance, being considered a performance reserve. The research is one of practical nature and was conducted over a period of one year. The subjects participating in the research are CSO Pantelimon rugby players, who are also in the National Division of Rugby. The findings of the research resulted from weight control and heart rate measurement.    The research methods used were scientific documentation, observation, experiment, measurement, statistical and mathematical method, graphical method. The research results were reflected by developing a recovery pattern for the exercise capacity, able to substantiate accumulations from the centralized training session. The research findings confirm the working hypothesis in the light of the results obtained.

No: 19
Title: The Trial-Performance Relationship in Javelin and Discus Throwing Events
Pages 136-142
Author(s): Corina Ivan*, Margareta Anton
Open Access

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In high level sports, trials are essential for the performance planning and monitoring, for establishing the threshold reached and estimating performance. Controls must allow evaluating the adaptation level of major functions to the event-specific demands, the development stage of motor qualities and the technicality level. That is why they are in conformity with the effort specificity in the respective event, with the individual particularities related to age and gender, as well as with the motor structures characteristic to technical gesture. Starting from the hypothesis that, under certain conditions, the results obtained in the trials have relevant prediction power, there have been tested 18 male and female athletes, discus and javelin throwers. For all trials, the coefficients of correlation with the athletic discipline were calculated, the measurands were labelled and the graphs were interpreted. The research has revealed a divided sample of athletes, the fact that some trials correlate with one another, while others correlate with the competitive results, and that the progress rate is relatively constant for the changes in labelling. The final conclusion is that a small part of the trials imposed by the Romanian Athletics Federation are significant and provide information which argues an acceptable prediction of the results in the oncoming competition. In an antithesis, most of the trials have a very weak power of predicting the competitive results immediately after their application.

No: 20
Title: Analysis of the Romanian Basketball Sports Club Performance
Pages 143-150
Author(s): Alina Daniela Moanța*, Iulian Gabriel Ghițescu
Open Access

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The current stage of sports development, at the organizational level, seeks to create or maintain a significant number of special training units for children and juniors: school sports clubs, junior sections of the sports clubs, classes with physical education program in middle schools and high schools, national Olympic centres for junior training and, not least, private clubs. Presently, in Romania, it can be noted an increase in the number of sports clubs with basketball activity, which actually does not mean an increase in performance. In this study, there are analysed, in a quantitative perspective, the contributions of sports clubs with basketball activity to the national teams’ performances achieved in the last five years, following their participation in European competitions. There are examined official data regarding the number of sports clubs affiliated to FRB (Romanian Basketball Federation), the number of counties where the teams ranked on the first four places at the final tournaments in the 2011-2014 period and the number of athletes selected from each county to participate in the European Basketball Championships between 2010 and 2014.The collected information provides a diagram illustrating the spread of sports clubs and their performances at junior level in Romania.

No: 21
Title: Effect of Aerobic Training on Ventilatory Thresholds, Aerobic and Anaerobic Thresholds in Recreational Endurance Athletes
Pages 151-157
Author(s): Valeriu Tomescu*, Constanța Urzeala, Silvia Teodorescu
Open Access

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The study purpose is to determine if aerobic training affects aerobic capacity, as well as anaerobic threshold, minute ventilation (VE), ratio of expired carbon dioxide to oxygen utilization (VCO2, VO2). The research methods used were: bibliographical study, observation, Bruce protocol with the computerized assessment of expired gases. Three recreational athletes were tested for basal VO2max and data were used to determine their first (VT1) and second (VT2) ventilatory thresholds, VE (L/min), VCO2/VO2 (%). The intervention consisted in a 2-month period of aerobic training focused on building volume at 65% VO2. Exercise volume was controlled across the 2-month period by varying duration and frequency. Intensity during exercise was controlled by monitoring the subjects’ heart rate (HR) to stay within targeted HR zones. In the first 4 weeks, it was used a volume of around 300km (65% VO2max), and for the second 4 weeks, the volume increased to around 380km (65% VO2max). After two months of training VO2max, VT1 and VT2, we found significant improvements in both ventilatory thresholds, and also in VE, VCO2 and VO2. VO2max did not improve significantly, but there were improvements in all three subjects in their VT1, VT2, VCO2/VO2 and VE. When exercise volume is controlled and individualized based on VT, adaptation to training improves both VT1 and VT2, the subject performing no anaerobic activity over a period of 2 months.

No: 22
Title: Children’s Obesity Treatment by Physical Activity 
Pages 158-166
Author(s): Jana Jurikova*, Jarmila Prudilova
Open Access

Full Text 22
The goal of this study was to find out whether the obese and overweight children reduced their body weight after a 4-week stay in the Children’s Treatment Centre of Kretin. Physical activity plays the crucial role in obesity prevention. Particularly in children, physical activity also helps to develop other qualities - confidence, independence, self-control, emotional stability and overall well-being and satisfaction. It reduces stress, anxiety or aggression. The lack of movement has a negative impact to incidence of overweight and obesity and consequent diseases. Obesity causes a strain to skeletal and joint system in a growing body. Orthopaedic problems further occur in difficult and painful locomotion. The treatment of children’s obesity depends on its level and the age of the child. The complete change of lifestyle often represents the foundation stone of the therapy. This study brings results concerning weight loss in children after a 4-week treatment at the Children’s Treatment Centre of Kretin, Czech Republic. Due to overweight or obesity, the children have a daily programme which includes 2 hours of active physical activity, either indoor or outdoor. At the beginning of the 4-week therapy, the children are measured for their body weight, body height, BMI and fat amount. At the end of the curative stay, the same parameters are measured again to verify a weight loss. After completion of the 4-week curative stay, all children have lost some weight but remained in the same percentile of BMI category, i.e. their initial category of overweight or obesity remained unchanged.

No: 23
Title: Rating of Perceived Exertion and Serum Leptin Responses to Maximal Exercise in Obese Female Adolescents: Effects of Exercise Training Intensity
Pages 167-170
Author(s): Ghazi Racil, Ruben Tobias Goebel, Monoem Haddad*, Jeremy Coquart, Karim Chamari, Mohamed Amri
Open Access

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Intensive exercise is one of the rarely used solutions to avoid obesity. This study aimed to examine the intensity effect [high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs. moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT)] in severely obese female adolescents. Twenty one participants (age = 15.7 ± 0.9 years, percentage body fat (%BF) = 40.0 ± 1.5%) were assigned to HIIT: 100%; MIIT: 80% of Maximal Aerobic Speed (MAS) or control group (CG). Training program lasted 12 weeks, with sessions performed 3 times/week on the track. Running distances lasted 15 sec, interspaced with 15 sec active recovery. Body composition was assessed by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis; blood pressure and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. Blood samples were collected at fast, and peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak) was measured breath-by-breath using a calibrated portable telemetric system. All values were taken before starting and after the last training session in the intervention. Both exercise training programs enhanced positively; body composition (body mass, BMI-Z-score, %BF), cardiovascular fitness (blood pressures, resting heart rate, V̇O2peak). Both exercise groups decreased plasma glucose (p< 0.05), insulin (p< 0.01 and p< 0.05; HIIT and MIIT) and leptin (p< 0.01). HIIT-group noted greater values in RPE score to maximal exercise (-29.0%, p< 0.001) compared to MIIT-group (-14.9%, p< 0.05). Overall, HIIT and MIIT induced beneficial changes in leptin sensitivity independently of exercise intensity. However, HIIT can be considered an efficient approach in decreasing the RPE score compared to MIIT, which may reduce the effort hardness and the drop-out from exercise in severely obese female adolescents.

No: 24
Title: Optimal Ranking of the Preparation Means in High Performance Athletic Training. The Experimental Research 
Pages 171-178
Author(s): Delia Bădescu*
Open Access

Full Text 24
The paper presents the second part of preparing the athletic training using the Taguchi technique, namely the experimental research. For the athlete C.D., the main training means and their limit values were set. The experiment consisted in the athlete’s training for 25 days with the same value of factors, as training means. The paper presents the development of the training as experiments, and the calculated values, the average, the variation, and the consistency of the results achieved in the trials, calculated in MS Excel, the effect of the training methods over the measured value (performance) and over the result consistency ratio. The training methods that have the largest influence over the athlete’s training are pointed out. An improvement in the athlete’s performance in the experimental year is obvious. The experiment defines the optimization of the athlete’s training that has been the object of the study. The results are only relevant for her and can represent a foundation for her future training. In the case of the athlete that was the subject for this study, it has been determined the order of importance of the training means (factors) which influence the results of the trials.

No: 25
Title: Study about the Improvement of Motor and Functional Potential in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years Using the Means of Athletics
Pages 179-184
Author(s): Camelia Braneț*
Open Access

Full Text 25
We are being witnesses of a phenomenon involving a decrease in the average age of Olympic and World champions and implicitly a new trend of sports debut at an early age, because achieving performance at the world level requires at least 8 years of training. Globally, there is a trend to start selection at younger ages in most sports branches, which has determined a new perspective in athletics too, as regards the debut of selection and instruction. Because the athletic performance involves a long period of preparation and a high volume and intensity of exercise, the age of initial selection is recommended to decrease up to 6-7 years, so that to insure a gradual, progressive development of the systems and thus the biological factors required for performance can be raised to a superior level. Obviously, there have been enough controversies related to decreasing the age of debut in athletics. In this regard, the present study aims to investigate the possibilities of improving the motor and functional potential of children aged 6 to 9 years using the emulative-playful athletic means. The study was conducted in the school year 2012-2013 at the Elementary School no. 190 of Bucharest, on classrooms with an athletics sports profile. To assess the children’s motor and functional potential, functional measurements and motricity trials were performed during initial, intermediate and final testing. Analysis of the processed results has revealed an improvement in the motor parameters of children aged 6 to 9 years, but not in the functional parameters.

No: 26
Title: Research Regarding Optimization of an Athlete’s Motivation Level in Athletics Jumping Events
Pages 185-191
Author(s): Alina Ionela Cucui*
Open Access

Full Text 26
This research provides a model for the operationalization of psychological training for an athlete in athletics jumping events, obtained by means of a case study realized within a 3-year experiment. Optimization of an athlete’s level of motivation through the operationalization of the psychological training aims at maximizing the level of performance achieved by the athlete. The research was carried out using specific techniques, based on quantifying motivational levels in order to identify global motivational force (GMF), determining the general motivation instrumentality (GMI) and the motivation instrumentality (MI) by motivational factors, which reflect the independent variables of motivation, these generating objectives in the optimization of psychological training. Quantifying the motivational level of an athlete revealed to us the sensitive differences between the values of the athlete (7.35) and those of his coach (6.85), in his perception of the athlete’s motivational structures. Based on the values identified regarding the general motivation instrumentality (GMI) for the athlete O.M. and taking into consideration the evaluation of the athlete by his coach and the ranking of each motivational factor, we were able to create objectives for psychological training. The results recorded throughout the research show an ascending curve in the GMF values of the athlete, from 7.35 to 8.57, values which signify a motivational profile with increased tendencies towards a higher level. Applying this strategy with regards to optimizing the motivational level of the athlete (O.M.) through operationalizing his psychological training leads to an improvement in both GMI and GMF values.

No: 27
Title: The Measurement of Albanian Children’s Physical Activity during Their Leisure Time and Physical Education Class
Pages 192-201
Author(s): Marsela Shehu*, Najada Quka
Open Access

Full Text 27
Regular leisure time P.A plays a significant role in increasing children’s overall P.A, regardless of whether this takes place at sports clubs or with family, friends. P.E at school provides skills, knowledge and experiences based on which it is possible to adopt a physically active lifestyle. The aim of this study is to present the level of involvement of children in P.A over the last 7 days in school and their leisure time. The method used in this study is “Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C)”, by Crocker, Bailey, Faulkner, Kowalski, & McGrath, (1997), made up 9 questions. The sample of the study includes 463 children aged 9-14 (235 Male and 228 Female). The statistical data processing was performed by SPPS statistical program, version 20. Cronbach’s Alpha .851 was used to assess the reliability of the instrument. The results show that football and athletics sports are among the most favoured by children in their leisure time. 57% of children claim that they are always intensely involved in the P.E class and 38.4% of them claim that after lesson they prefer to stay sitting talking or doing homework. In extracurricular activities, 40.2% of children claim that they are not included ever, and 25.5% of them state that they are included 2-3 times a week. During the weekends, they are involved in P.A 2-3 times (59.6%). The discussion and conclusion of the study prove that the subjects are more engaged to get involved in P.A at school than during their leisure time.

No: 28
Title: Comparative Study on the Efficiency of Women Tennis Players’ First Serve at Australian Open 2014 and 2015
Pages 202-209
Author(s): Rareș Stănescu*
Open Access

Full Text 28
Women’s tennis is focused now on increasing the fixed phase. The fixed phase is regarding the serve and the return of serve. Therefore, tennis coaches are working on finding new methods to increase the efficiency of this phase. The alternative phase, meaning every stroke after the return, is well developed for the majority of women tennis players. Thus, the fixed phase might be the clue of the next level in performance tennis. Several specialists described in literature the efficiency of tennis serve. The risk assumed by the player during these shots was placed at the heart of this strategy. In this paper, we intend to compare the efficiency of the first serve and winners after the first serve of women tennis players at the Australian Open 2014 and 2015. We want to underline if the efficiency of the first serve is on a high level at the beginning of a competition year and if this aspect was developed from 2014 to 2015. This study used specialized documents and the method of statistical analysis of the data. The data were provided by the Australian Open statistics. Variables taken into consideration were the effectiveness of the first serve (the ratio between the number of successful service in total effectuated services) in 45 games in the 2014 and 2015 Australian Open Tournament, and the efficiency of winning a point after the serve (the ratio of points won in total returns after the first serve).

No: 29
Title: Analysis of Body Mass Index in Romania’s School Population
Pages 210-217
Author(s): Monica Stanescu*, Corina Ciolca, Alin Paunescu, Virgil Tudor
Open Access

Full Text 29
Nowadays, childhood obesity is a negative phenomenon recognized worldwide. A consequence of a sedentary lifestyle doubled by unhealthy eating habits, obesity can affect deeply the personality of a child. The numerous warning signals of the experts have generated educational measures in many countries, either by national projects or regional and local initiatives. As the BMI is one of the relevant indicators for the health of the younger generation, this paper tackles the BMI level of the Romanian school population in the 1st, 5th, 9th and 12th grades. For the purpose of this study, we analyzed data collected from measuring the somatic indicators (height and weight) of 124,000 students from all regions of the country, in rural and urban areas. The BMI values were analyzed and compared based on the grade and gender, according to the above-mentioned variables. The results of this study highlighted a number of trends in the evolution of this index from one age to another, and its relationship with the environment of children. Coupled with the results of other research in the field, the study aims to bring forth and to the attention of the authorities the importance of exercise in children’s lives and the need for an appropriate educational setting.

No: 30
Title: Study Regarding Balance in 9-10 Years Old Gymnasts
Pages 218-225
Author(s): Ana-Maria Gavojdea*
Open Access

Full Text 30
This paper aims to determine the initial level of static and dynamic balance, with a major contribution to achieving the athletic performance. The main objective is to assess balance in 9-10 years old gymnasts. Dynamic balance determines the performance in the flight phase and is specific to women’s artistic gymnastics at balance beam. Static balance is used to maintain the landing. For the dynamic balance, to determine its expression level, there were used the Bass and Matorin tests, and for the static balance, the Flamingo test and the test of maintaining the landing position on the balance board, with the eyes closed. The study was conducted in September-October 2014, during training in the following sports club gyms: CSS3 Steaua Bucharest, CSS2 Bucharest and Dinamo Bucharest. The study subjects were 21 junior III gymnasts aged 9-10 years old, registered at the three sports clubs from Bucharest. The research methods used were: bibliographical study, observation, statistical and mathematical method, graphical representation. The obtained results are the following: Matorin Test - for the right-turning jump, the mean was 315 degrees, and for the left-turning, 305 degrees; Flamingo test - the mean was 11.43 imbalances; the mean for the Bass Test was 60.24 points; at the test of maintaining the landing position, the mean was 26.05 seconds. After calculating the coefficient of variation, there is highlighted that the homogeneity of the group is moderate at the Matorin, Flamingo and Bass tests. At the test of maintaining the landing position, the group is not homogeneous.

No: 31
Title: Study Regarding the Relationship between Coordination and Performance Capacity in Badminton
Pages 226-234
Author(s): Daniela Timofte*, Anamaria Titu
Open Access

Full Text 31
First appeared at the Olympic Games in Munich 1972 as a demonstration sport, badminton has the ability to attract a large number of practitioners because of the ease with which a beginner can perform ball exchanges with his/her partner. The role of the coach is to use motivation to make the beginners progress. Designing effective training programs for junior badminton practitioners aims to provide individual evolution opportunities regarding the sport- specific techniques and tactics. The purpose of our research is to identify means of personalized intervention that will increase the performance capacity in badminton. Evaluation of techniques used by athletes showed an increase in the number of excellent executions between the two tests and a decrease in the total number of executions. This is nothing but an increase in the quality of the techniques used. The results achieved by the 26 athletes highlight that applying an optimized training program through means aimed to develop the coordination capacity has led to an increased capacity of performance in juniors, ranking them among the top athletes in the national championship for under 15 and 17 years of age.

No: 32
Title: Positive Effects in Competitive Baton Twirling – Terms of Reference for Training and Monitoring
Pages 235-242
Author(s): Eugen Gabriel Popescu*
Open Access

Full Text 32
Competitive Baton Twirling is a new discipline in Romania. It has been developed through two organizations: MBTA (Majorettes Baton Twirling Association) and AMR (Romanian Majorettes Association), which gather every year more and more clubs, both private and state organizations. Baton Twirling is one of the disciplines of this system. There is a wide range of effects on cadets or junior women: motor, artistic and aesthetic. The study of choreography performed by the “Euritmic” group from Children’s Club in district 6, Bucharest, trained by coach Adela Popescu, formed by 12 students aged between 12-15 years, including 9 coordination, speed and safety tests and 10 tests for control of technical execution, has revealed a part of the complex positive effects of practicing this sport and some terms of reference which can be used in the training and monitoring process. Intermediate results supported their importance and strategic value. General results confirmed the efficiency of the tests performed using different methods, such as the number of spins in 30 sec for reaching higher speed and execution velocity, as well as the efficiency of the tests “3 out of 3”, “5 out of 5” or “10 out of 10” spins to achieve stability, safety and precision of execution. All these assure the base structure in monitoring and the qualitative support in choreographing routines for competition.

No: 33
Title: Special Olympics - Artistic Gymnastics Terms of Reference in Training Gymnasts with Down Syndrome on Parallel Bars – Level 1
Pages 243-251
Author(s): Eugen Gabriel Popescu*
Open Access

Full Text 33
The training of gymnasts with Down syndrome must be scientifically based, at a national and international level, in order to make them benefit from the complex positive effects of competitive artistic gymnastics for a longer period of time and to ensure them motor progress. Teachers, volunteers, specialists and athletes involved in this activity need constant guidance, encouragement and practical terms of reference in the methodical, technical steps that must be followed. This study was carried out in the first and second semester of the university year 2013-2014 and the first semester of the university year 2014-2015 (with a minimum work level - 1 training per week), on a group of 12 adult gymnasts with Down Syndrome, aged between 18-32 years. Methodical, strategic and operational elements for training control, evaluation and adjustment to gymnasts with Down syndrome on the parallel bars routines – level 1 were checked and confirmed. The experiment and statistical analysis confirmed actual values of correlative parameters needed in training by means of 4 tests of general physical preparation, 3 tests of specific training and 9 tests of technical preparation, which measure the quality of execution. The research data represents a valuable reference model by offering scientific training on the parallel bars – level 1 for gymnasts with Down syndrome.

No: 34
Title: Learning the Snatch Sports Technique Based on Biomechanical Criteria in Weightlifting 
Pages 252-257
Author(s): Marius Viorel Ulareanu*, Vladimir Potop, Olivia Carmen Timnea
Open Access

Full Text 34
This paper is meant to highlight the didactic technology of learning the sports technique of snatch procedure in weightlifting based on biomechanical criteria. This scientific approach led to a study conducted in “Rapid” Sports Club of Bucharest, Weightlifting Department. A number of 5 athletes aged 12 to 16 years participated in this study. The following methods of research were used: specialized bibliographic study; method of pedagogical observation; computerized video method, using Physics Toolkit biomechanical analysis program; statistical method of research data processing by means of KyPlot program. The study monitored the performances of junior weightlifters during training sessions in terms of learning and improving the sports technique of snatch lift. In the biomechanical analysis, there were identified, measured and evaluated the phases of snatch lift sports technique, there were highlighted the execution faults and the influence of the kinematic and dynamic characteristics on the technical execution. On the basis of the results obtained, there were developed algorithmic programs for the linear-branched learning of snatch lift, using the most efficient preparatory exercises for specific physical and technical training. The use of the video method of biomechanical analysis of snatch procedure in weightlifting contributed to the more efficient learning of sports technique and to the achievement of better performances in competition.

No: 35
Title: Postural Control in Down Syndrome Subjects
Pages 258-265
Author(s): Mădălina Georgescu, Magdalena Cernea*, Valeria Balan
Open Access

Full Text 35
Objective - The Down’s syndrome children present important motor problems which affect static and dynamic balance. Equilibrium represents the capacity of keeping the body steady in standing position as well as the ability to perform usual dynamic tasks (walking, jumping and running) without falling. The objective of this paper is to present by comparison the postural control in Down syndrome subjects and non-disabled persons. Method - Five young Down syndrome subjects, aged 8 to 15 years old, and five normal age-matched subjects were included in the study. Static equilibrium was evaluated on a posturograph (Smart Balance from NEUROCOM) which has a force-plate. Equipment allows time and frequency domain analysis of the centre of pressure of the subjects. Subjects have to maintain upright position as steady as they can for 20 seconds, on the stabilised force-plate in two conditions – eyes closed and eyes open. Results - Analysis of the postural control revealed lower performance in maintaining the upright position from time domain point of view in Down syndrome group. Conclusion - Motor control problems are present in Down syndrome children since birth (hypotonia, low joint stability and joint hypermobility) and impede upon the development of motor control if early rehabilitation is not provided. This characteristic lasts for the whole life of the Down syndrome person.

No: 36
Title: Assessment of Anthropometric Indicators among Rural Students in the West of Moldavia
Pages 266-272
Author(s): Ionuţ Onose, Raluca Hodorca*, Adriana Albu
Open Access

Full Text 36
This paper aims to identify the anthropometric characteristics of students from rural areas in two counties of Moldavia, 0-200m altitude floor. The study was conducted on a sample of 329 children in the 5th grade, from counties near Iasi (175 students) and Vrancea (154 students). The measurements included height and weight assessment and comparison of the values obtained with the national reference standards for a certain age, gender and family of origin (rural). Values are presented by comparing the two counties studied. Statistical processing of the results is performed using Pearson’s test. Results show that the dominant values of height are average (48.02%), the differences being statistically insignificant calculated by counties (p> 0.05, Gl = 3, χ² = 0.851). It draws attention the 2.12% young people with pathological values for height (above the average +3 sigma). Body weight has average values in 56.83% of the cases presented for both counties, and the calculated differences are statistically insignificant (p> 0.05, Gl = 3, χ² = 5.757). The incidence of pathological situations reaches 8.2%, which is a problem. Diagnosis of physical development allows emphasizing only 59.57% children with harmonious development, which is very little. The differences between the two counties are statistically insignificant (p> 0.05, Gl = 3, χ² = 2.957). In conclusion, results are similar for the two counties, so it is necessary to use other selection criterion for young people, which will be prepared for different sports. The criterion of geographical conditions offers few advantages in terms of anthropological indicators.

No: 37
Title: Correlation between Physical Development Diagnostic and Exercise in a Group of Teens from Garabet Ibraileanu High School of Iasi
Pages 273-279
Author(s): Adriana Albu, Ionuţ Onose*, Magda Negrea, Irina Cracana, Raluca Mihaela Hodorca
Open Access

Full Text 37
At present, the ideal of beauty in adolescents undergoes significant changes. The idea of fat and beautiful has disappeared, being replaced by the concept of flexible person. Sometimes this concept is exaggerated, so it is necessary to monitor the physical development of young people. Purpose: Assessing the relationship that exists between physical development of young people and the time granted to exercise. Material and methods: The study was conducted on a sample of 133 adolescents (37 boys and 96 girls) from Garabet Ibraileanu High School of Iasi. The diagnosis of physical development was established by evaluating the correlation between height and weight. Time for physical activity was obtained using a questionnaire. The results were processed using Pearson test. Results and discussion: Time for physical activity is in most cases up to 30 minutes (56.4%), which is very little. Student height has mean values in 60.9% of cases, as body weight (68.4%). Correlation between physical development and time for physical activity is not statistically significant (p> 0.05, Gl = 6, χ² = 6.146). Harmonious development is present in 58.6% of students. If we correlate diagnostic development with time used in physical exercise, we find statistically insignificant differences (p> 0.05, Gl = 6, χ² = 5.355), indicating the existence of poor information concerning the role of exercise in maintaining the health of young people. Conclusions: Students have little information about how to maintain a healthy body weight. They do not use the balanced diet-exercise association to keep fit.

No: 38
Title: The Moderating Effect of Physical Exercise in Anxiety Disorder: A review
Pages 280-285
Author(s): Mohamed Aziz Riahi*, Monoem Haddad, Abderrahman Ouattas, Ruben Goebel
Open Access

Full Text 38
Along with drug interventions, physical activity (PA) was found to be beneficial to treat a wide range of mental pathology (e.g., depression, mood disorders). However, in the case of anxiety disorder (AD) treatment, studies reported inconsistent findings depending on the exercise type (e.g., acute or chronic exercise, aerobic or anaerobic exercise) among clinical and non-clinical population. The purpose of this article is to present a systematic review about the moderating role of exercise type in AD among clinical and non-clinical population. Searches included SPORTDiscus, PubMed, Google Scholar databases. Eighteen full text articles were retained for the review, because they were written in English and published within the last five years. The review reported the moderating effect of PA on AD, in the sense that chronic (endurance) exercise appeared to be more beneficial for reducing AD than acute bouts of exercise, and that moderate aerobic exercise reduced AD effectively. Also, relaxation and mediation exercise (e.g., yoga) appeared to reduce AD. According to the scientific literature, PA appears of interest to treat AD. Further studies are necessary to examine in depth the relationship between PA and AD.

No: 39
Title: Creativity, Resistance to Mental Fatigue and Coping Strategies in Junior Women Handball Players 
Pages 286-292
Author(s): Marina Igorov, Radu Predoiu, Alexandra Predoiu*, Andrei Igorov
Open Access

Full Text 39
The purpose of this study was to examine the existing correlations between creativity, which is expressed through fluency (wealth of ideas generated in a certain timeframe) and mental flexibility (in contrast with the rigidity of thinking), the resistance to mental fatigue and the coping modalities. To investigate the research issues, the following methods were used: observation, conversation and tests - Imagination and Creativity test, Resistance to Mental Fatigue (RNE) test and the COPE Survey (Coping strategies). The study comprised 11 junior female handball players, aged between 16-17 years. In our study, we used the Spearman correlation, which revealed important relations between the results obtained by the female athletes for creativity - expressed through fluency, as well as for the resistance to disruptive factors, the performance coefficient and the scores obtained by the female players for: planning, looking for instrumental support, looking for emotional support, positive reinterpretation and emotional discharge. The result analysis indicates a positively significant correlation between creativity - fluency and the scores obtained for positive reinterpretation, as a coping strategy, also a positively significant correlation between the performance coefficient and planning, as a coping modality, and negatively significant correlations between the resistance to disruptive factors and the following coping strategies: looking for instrumental support, looking for emotional support and emotional discharge. The results underline that the improvement of the resistance to disruptive factors, of the performance coefficient and of the fluency may have a positive impact on the coping strategies used by the athletes to overcome stressful situations.

No: 40
Title: The Utilization of Metabolic Training Zones in Pubertal Swimmers
Pages 293-300
Author(s): Gheorghe Marinescu, Adrian Radulescua, Laurentiu Ticala*
Open Access

Full Text 40
Starting to train swimmers at an early age, as well as continuous training during the growth stages should target the achievement of the best results at both junior and senior levels. Considering the functional and somatic characteristics of pubertal swimmers, the training plan involved the use of workouts structured on metabolic training zones similar to those used at the senior level swimmers. The experiment aimed to highlight the effects of training methods based on the model for senior swimmers on the aerobic capacity of pubertal swimmers. Through advanced methods of monitoring the effort made by pubertal swimmers during training, we collected data which were then processed using statistical and mathematical methods. The analysis of the results from T-2000 Test before and after the observation period showed an average improvement of 40 seconds, indicating that the training plan based on training zones similar to the senior level swimmers produced a development in the aerobic capacity of the pubertal swimmers.

No: 41
Title: Study Regarding the Impact of the Bologna Process on Physical Education and Sport Higher Education in Romania 
Pages 301-305
Author(s): Viorel Cojocaru, Vasilica  Grigore*, Alina Moanța, Mariana Cordun
Open Access

Full Text 41
The Bologna process, as a result of numerous studies regarding the organization of university programs, has led to the development of several activities, measures and actions aimed at implementing certain resolutions given by the decision makers of European countries. We believe that our study is an interesting synthesis of the impact caused by the implementation of decisions related to the Bologna process 10 years after its initiation. The aim of this study is to highlight directions, opportunities, transformations and trends for the future, determined by the implementation of the Bologna process in the Physical Education and Sports domain. For this study, the SWOT method was used as a main method of research. The analysis of our data led us to believe that the goal has been achieved. Thus, we found that several documents pertaining to the legislative package regarding the systematization of education on three cycles of study programs at university level (Bachelor, Master, PhD studies) have been developed and approved, and new standards for Bachelor and Master, as well as the code for PhD studies, were also developed and implemented, etc. The instructional-educational process has been updated to a student-centred approach. We appreciate the results to be particularly beneficial in terms of the internationalization of studies, students and teacher mobility, the emergence of community programs, the development of cooperation areas between universities and research institutes from Europe, the European Economic Community and the Swiss Confederation.

No: 42
Title: Considerations on the Growth and Development of Children with Visual Impairments
Pages 306-312
Author(s): N Mariana Cordun, Oana-Cristiana Ionescu*, Alexandra-Ștefania Ghezea
Open Access

Full Text 42
This paper aims to reveal whether there are significant differences between the weight and height growth rate of children with visual impairments and that of children without sensory disorders. The aim of the study is to assess some parameters of growth, physiological markers of the quantitative accumulation process by which the body increases its weight and height. We used the following research methods: bibliographic study, case study, observation, weighing, height measurement and questionnaire. The subjects were selected among pupils with visual impairments, with particular comorbidities, from Special Secondary School for Visually Impaired of Bucharest, being enrolled in the 3rd grade. Inclusion criteria for the subjects of our study were the presence of vision impairment, and exclusion criteria were related to pupils with visual blindness. The findings and results highlight that the visually impaired are malnourished, which, on the long term, influences height, and on the short term, weight. Due to the dynamic data analysis, it has been found that the height, weight and body mass index of children with visual impairments is below the average child of the same age without sensory disturbances.

No: 43
Title: Optimal Ranking of the Preparation Means in High Performance Athletic Training. Preparatory Elements 
Pages 313-319
Author(s): Delia Badescu*
Open Access

Full Text 43
This study presents a ranking scheme of the preparation means of the high performance athletic training, of optimizing the work scheme by applying the Taguchi technique and checking the optimal conditions to apply it. Experiment method is used with a single subject, C.D., a member of the national race walking team of Romania. The purpose of the study was to determine the preparation characteristics for this athlete, under the circumstances of applying a model designed according to the Taguchi technique and through assessing the benefits of this technique, which should allow its application to the other members of the team as well. The issue of this study is a vast one, so it has been structured in two parts that are presented in two papers separately. Thus, the first paper reveals the reasons for choosing this technique and the way it is used within the athletic training. The athletic training is regarded as a system upon which more disturbing factors activate. The Taguchi technique is the only approach that allows the optimization of the system within the real context, when the factors activate, the technique being appropriate for the athletic activity when these factors cannot be eliminated. The custom training schemes for C.D. were designed and then these schemes were graphically transposed explicitly and unitarily in order to implement the technique. The experimental training model was constructed and the training sessions were conducted according to the requirements.

No: 44
Title: Improving the Pupils’ Balance Through Rhythmic and Movement Games
Original Research Article
Pages 320-325
Author(s): Germina Cosma*, Ligia Rusu, Ilona Ilinca, Costin Nanu
Open Access

Full Text 44
The increasingly sedentary children’s activities (laptop, computer, tablet, video games) have led lately to an alarming number of overweight children. This can affect their posture and balance, which may lead to some gait problems or low success in motor activities. Purpose: The aim of this research was to determine the balance level of elementary school children and provide some physical exercises to improve their coordination. Methods: 60 elementary school children aged 6 to 7 years were selected to participate in this study. The conducted research used the Y Balance Test Kit. The subjects were tested before and after our intervention. To assess the balance, we used 4 methods for lower limb balance (right and left anterior and posterior) and we observed some difficulty in the execution of the first test for most subjects. For 12 weeks (two times per week), the subjects were included in a program of physical exercises designed to intervene particularly in improving their balance. Results: The conclusion of the research was that the recorded values were better than the initial ones, and the average differences were statistically significant at p< 0.05 level of significance.

No: 45
Title: Systemic Vision – Its Necessity in the Management of Sports Organizations
Pages 326-333
Author(s): Gheorghe Gabriel Cucui*
Open Access

Full Text 45
Diagnosing the activities of a sports organization requires, without doubt, the use of the methodological advantages of a systemic approach. Purpose: This diagnosis was aimed at making an intricate analysis of the sports club in order to detect any deficiencies/problems which might appear in the management process. Methods: The evaluation of the management system was carried out by means of a questionnaire survey, in which the sample, made up of subjects from the Management Department and Technical Department, was invited to assess 10 items, each on a scale from 1 to 5. Also, a PEST analysis and MFSOA matrix were carried out, based on a SWOT analysis. Results: This endeavour leads to the evaluation of their system of management and, at the same time, to actions which can improve the management system of the sports club. Conclusions: Management without solid theoretical foundations and without a systemic vision can lead to syncope within the management system. The organization must have the ability to maintain itself and evolve under the demands of the external environment, as well as the ability to adapt/ readapt to the changes in the internal environment.

No: 46
Title: Development of Specific Resistance in Junior Volleyball Players  
Pages 334-340
Author(s): Adin-Marian Cojocaru*, Marilena Cojocaru
Open Access
Full Text 46
Problem: Puberty age is considered the age of the first performances. Due to the mobility of cortical nerve processes and their functional ability, the rapid alternation of excitation and inhibition occurs in the motor areas of the cortex, which ensures synchronised contraction and relaxation of the muscle groups with contradicting actions, the right responses to excitations. So, physical training must be adapted to different age categories applying methods and means proper for these categories. Purpose: The research purpose is to optimise the training process of volleyball players in order to improve specific and general resistance. Premises: By using methods, techniques and specific means adapted to particularities of junior II players, the intended goals will be accomplished and consequently the quality of motor resistance specific to volleyball game will be improved. Research methods: bibliographic documentation; observation; motor testing; statistical and mathematical method; graphical method. Discussion and conclusions: By the end of this period, after the age of 15, special attention can be paid to the development of general resistance and specific speed resistance, based on the individualised training for setters - speed resistance, and for spikers - jump resistance. Specific training is done relying on general training. In the volleyball game, for each training period, complex methods have also to be set. Their percentage depends on the training period, players’ particularities, main goals, etc. The selected ways for accomplishing the goals have been efficient, well dosed, which is highlighted by the progress obtained and the quality of executing the technical procedures.

No: 47
Title: Modalities of Using the Information Provided by the Statistical Program Click and Scout for Improving the Outside Hitters’ Service Efficiency in Volleyball Game
Pages 341-347
Author(s): Dan Alexandru Szabo*
Open Access

Full Text 47
The research aims to create and structure the sports training schedule, depending on the information provided by the program Click & Scout, in order to improve the learning process in volleyball. The research purpose is to use the statistical information from the software Click and Scout during a volleyball game or over a longer period, which may facilitate the provision of technical and tactical information about the outside hitters’ service efficiency. The research was conducted over a 4-month period (December 2013 - April 2014), along the second phase of the National Volleyball Championship. The two complexes of exercises were used on all players of the team, but we monitored only the player T.R., and they took place in the two morning workouts designed for service-receive, with a view to improve the statistical parameters of service between the first and the second phase of the championship. Findings and results for service/percentage: -Efficiency: in the first phase, average efficiency was 33%, and in the second phase, 45%; -Errors: in the first phase, the percentage of errors was 3%, and 6% in the second phase; -Positive: the percentage of positive points in the first phase was 26%, and in the second phase, 18%; -Perfect: in the first phase 3%, and 8% in the second phase. In conclusion, the results achieved for efficiency in the first phase (33%) compared to the second phase (45%) confirm our research hypothesis, and the two complexes of exercises bring something new from this point of view.

No: 48
Title: An Experimental Study Regarding the Influences of Sport Disciplines on the Psychomotricity of the Students from the University of Bucharest
Pages 348-356
Author(s): Monica Gulap*
Open Access

Full Text 48
Being a result of the connection between the psychic and motor factors, psychomotricity represents a fundamental psycho-behavioural component with an extremely high influence on the ontogenetic development of the individual. The present work wants to highlight the influence of sports disciplines (aerobics, table tennis) on some aspects of the psychomotricity of students from the University of Bucharest, materialized through statistically significant differences at the level of running speed and agility and strength tests within the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2). The experimental method: We used, for the first time in Romania in young students, the improved version of Bruininks-Oseretsky Test (BOT-2), which aims at evaluating a wide range of motor skills in subjects between the ages of 4 and 21. For this study, from the total of eight subtests specific to motor areas, we opted for the running speed and agility and strength subtests. It is known that strength, speed and agility are important components involved in motor performance of daily activities, not only in sports activities. Based on the information provided by the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test (BOT-2), we could do an analysis of the relationship between motor proficiency age and chronological age in young students. Methods used: Statistical and mathematical method, graphical method. Psychomotricity is of major importance for the physical education field and not only, and it offers the youth, through a systematic and correct approach to its inner components, a favourable climate for an efficient adjustment to the requirements of the social and academic environments.

No: 49
Title: Current Aspects Regarding the Development of Choreographic Routine in High Performance Aerobic Gymnastics
Pages 357-363
Author(s): Mariana Mezei*
Open Access

Full Text 49
Having in perspective a general matrix of conceiving a piece of choreography, this paper explains a personal vision in composing the design of routines for the Romanian Aerobic Gymnastics Senior Team, starting with 2012 until today. This exploration process involves a logical sequence of phases, where several factors complement and reinforce one other: the FIG Code of Points, gymnast evaluation, competition characteristics, structure of choreographic composition, staging choreography and potential changes/improvements in the choreographic design. Staging choreography applies after the inventory of all these factors, here being included: choosing the music theme, selecting the technical difficulty elements, distribution of elements in the competition area, placing elements to the music, building interaction of step sequences and transitions with difficulty elements, and finally, developing and selecting constructions (Pairs, Trio, Group). The existence of the six competition events requires a various choreographic mapping, whose quality is perceived at both visual and kinaesthetic levels, in a particular manner for each of them. The effect of this vision in designing the gymnastics routines has led to a continuous enhancement of the artistic value, and also a new, refreshing choreographic style for the Romanian team, who was positively noticed and appreciated by specialists and judges at the world class competitions in the last four years.

No: 50
Title: Study in Connection with the Development of One’s Body Schema through the Specific
Pages 364-370
Author(s): Valeria Balan*, Georgeta Mitrache
Open Access

Full Text 50
The body schema represents one of the person’s fundamental psychic structures. It has an important role in the drawing of one’s own image. It is based on the reflection of the parts of one’s own body (when it is static or dynamic). It is made up step by step over time with the help of the multiple sensorial mechanics. At the same time, it is based on the association of several visual, tactile, hearing and other information and each person’s experience. One of the most useful instruments for evaluation of one’s own body scheme is Goodenough-Harris test. We applied initial testing in July 2014 to a Down’s syndrome child, aged 13. We asked him to draw a man, a woman and himself respecting all the requests of the test. The second evaluation was in January 2015 (intermediary testing), when the subject had the same drawing to make. Between the two evaluations, our subject attended the swimming lessons. They had as objectives accommodation with the water, learning of the specific aquatic breathing and floating, learning of the arm and kick movements from the freestyle and integral technique too. At the same time, all these skills started being consolidated. These objectives were achieved using the specific means of swimming, which requested simultaneous and successive movements of the different parts of the body. These had straight effects towards the construction of the body schema.

No: 51
Title: Biomechanical Analysis of “Free (Aerial) Forward Walkover, Landing on One Foot”
Pages 371-378
Author(s): Silvia Alexandra Stroescu*
Open Access

Full Text 51
Acrobatics is the oldest gymnastic activity and the balance beam apparatus, with its structure, is part of it. For a very high level of preparation in women’s balance beam, it is compulsory for them to have morphofunctional integrity of the musculoskeletal system, good joint mobility and muscle elasticity, and very good neuromuscular coordination. The element “Free (aerial) forward walkover, landing on one foot” (Forward Danilova) on balance beam is a dynamic acrobatic element classified in salto group, which is found in most integral exercises to the balance beam and/or floor exercise and can be presented in many forms. The biomechanical reason is that the gymnast can perform the elements in easier conditions. Thorough analysis of the biomechanical data allows outlining more detailed conclusions, such as those related to the kinematic and dynamic errors which lead to and cause other errors. Through these examples, we want to highlight the usefulness of kinematic biomechanical analysis, which covers both analytical interpretation for finding the errors and analytical mode to direct the gymnast, what to do to do it right.

No: 52
Title: The Influence of Motor Activities on the Development of Emotional Intelligence
Pages 379-384
Author(s): Cristian Ristea, Sabina Macovei, Nicoleta Leonte*
Open Access

Full Text 52
Specialists in education are becoming more and more aware of the importance of providing educational opportunities that enhance the development of emotional and social competence of teenagers. Practicing motor activities can be a significant factor in the development of emotional intelligence of young people. We believe that through the formative function of physical education and sport, being aware of the motor act specific to sport disciplines, students will be able to develop areas of emotional intelligence (recognition of their own emotions, intelligent handling of them, empathy, interpersonal relationships) in order to preserve the required psycho-physical on a rhythm and volume of work increasingly higher, specific to contemporary society. This work aims, by applying motor programs, to identify the role of corporal activities in structuring the emotional-affective system of young people, getting positive effects on psycho-motor development and personality. The experimental sample consists of students from the Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest. The research methods used are: bibliographic documentation, pedagogical observation, investigation procedure, psychological tests, experimental method, statistical and mathematical method, graphical representation method. As a result of applying the motor programs and processing the data obtained, we can say that there is a significant correlation between the interest in motor activities and the level of emotional intelligence (p = 0.017). Experimental groups proved a higher level of emotional intelligence compared to the control group. We believe that the formative function of physical education and sport is important for the development of emotional and social competence of young people.

No: 53
Title: Study on Using the Processes of Freestyle Skiing and Biathlon by Their Efficiency
Pages 385-390
Author(s): Pelin Florin*, Cristea Orlando, Pelin Gheorghe
Open Access

Full Text 53
Nowadays, there is an increased, even urgent need for scientific education and training by increasing the theoretical and methodological preparation of all professionals in the cross-country skiing and biathlon field, all the more that we are approaching a new Olympic confrontation. Eliminating the obsolete conceptual means and introducing new ones meet the demands of current cross-country skiing and biathlon competitions. The main goals of this research are the following: to investigate coaches of all the teams participating in World Cup competitions with regard to the free style in cross-country skiing - biathlon and the use of technical procedures in training and competition during the year; to validate the landmarks (coordinates) for the energy consumption and time required to cover the route using the most effective methods for the free technique. One of the ways of access to high performance competitions at the international level for an athlete is also represented by the concern of cross-country skiing and biathlon skiers to find the technical procedure able to expose them to less stress and to ensure the levelling of their heart rate values.

No: 54
Title: Mathematical Modelling of the Biomechanical Characteristics of the Dismounts off Uneven Bars in Women’s Artistic Gymnastics
Pages 391-397
Author(s): Vladimir Potop*, Janina-Mihaela Mihaila, Adrian Urichianu
Open Access

Full Text 54
The purpose of this paper is to develop a mathematical model based on the use of video biomechanical analysis of dismounts off uneven bars. This scientific approach led to the organization of an experimental study using the following research methods: Analysis of specialized literature; Computerized video method, by using “Pinnacle Studio” program of video capture and processing and “Kinovea” and ”Physics ToolKit” programs for biomechanical video analysis of sports technique; Method of mathematical modelling; Method of movement postural orientation for analysis of sports technique key elements; Statistical method, through ”KyPlot” computerized program. The research was conducted between 2012 and 2014, and was attended by 16athletes aged 12 to 15, members of the Romanian national junior team. In this respect, 51 dismounts performed in three national competitions were analysed biomechanically; results of the kinematic and dynamic characteristics and performances achieved in competitions were statistically correlated. It was highlighted the correlative linear significance of the indicators of the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the rotary motion around a fixed point on the apparatus – preparatory movement and around the transversal axis of GCG in the flight phase of dismounts consistent with the anthropometric, biomechanical and performance parameters of gymnasts for developing the mathematical model of dismounts off uneven bars in women’s artistic gymnastics. The effective use of the linear statistical method in the mathematical modelling of the biomechanical characteristics and sports performances created the possibility to deepen the phasic preparation of sports training and to process more efficiently the modern didactic learning programs.

No: 55
Title: The Effects of the Complementary Training on Coaching the Non-Dominant Side in Karate Shotokan
Pages 398-404
Author(s): Luminita Patru*, Ioan Negulescu, Cristina Ciurea, Liviu Angelescu
Open Access

Full Text 55
Karate is a Japanese martial art, a fight with empty hands. Etymologically, kara means empty and te means hand. Karate is composed of two parts: kata (form) and kumite (fight). Both of them have individual and team competitions. Regardless of their nature, each of the competitions has techniques and basic rules according to which the referees analyse the level of the athlete and, in concordance with this, they give the point. The qualities that define the level of sports performance are: technique, strength, speed, balance, coordination. These qualities, from our point of view, should be developed at the same level on both left and right sides for improving the efficiency. This paper proposes an objective demonstration that the non-dominant side can be trained using exercises that are specific to karate, within complementary training. During this scientific work, there were achieved measurements at the muscular and neuromuscular level too, using the Electromyography (EMG), Tensiomyography (TMG) and the Conditions Simulator. The complementary training sessions were based on neuromuscular control exercises, which were performed on the left and right sides. The initial and final tests were performed on the straight punch (choku zuki) from the natural position (shizentai). The results showed an important improvement in the non-dominant side on both of the measured levels.

No: 56
Title: Study Regarding the Relation between Chronological Age, Mental Age and Weight of the Premature Included in a Physical Therapy Program 
Pages 405-409
Author(s): Raluca Mihaela Hodorca*, Cristina Elena Moraru, Ionuţ Onose, Adriana Albu
Open Access

Full Text 56
A premature is a newborn whose birth weight is equal to or less than 2500 grams. Early identification of these children who may have delays or difficulties through motor assessment and intervention is important in the future. Purpose: To assess the implemented recovery programs by correlating the results of premature infants: mental age, chronological age and weight. Hypothesis: We assume that a customized and adapted physical recovery program leads to favourable neuromotor development of the premature, suitable to chronological age. Material and methods: The study included 10 children born prematurely. They were subjected to Portage Test (calculation of mental age) and weight test. The applied therapeutic program included: exercise, massage, neuromotor rehabilitation methods, hydrotherapy and music therapy. Results and discussion: For Portage Test, we calculated mental age, which was further correlated to children’s weight. A complete development of the two ages is assumed to be equal. In our study, the ratio shows values between 0.625-0.923, with an overall average of 0.791 for the 3-step test. Mean values by stage range from 0.729 in the initial stage to 0.803 in the intermediate stage and 0.839 in the final stage. Conclusions: Regression models show that mental age of the premature can be well estimated by their weight, in which case the degree of explanation of variance is 93.6%. Following statistical interpretation, we can confirm the effectiveness of the recovery program implemented to the patients and suggest the parents and professionals in the field to compile and apply recovery programs for the premature.

No: 57
Title: Analysis of the Romanian National Handball Team Game at the Hungary/Croatia EHF Euro 2014
Pages 410-415
Author(s): Cristina Georgiana Varzaru*, Viorel Cojocaru
Open Access

Full Text 57
In the last month of 2014, Hungary and Croatia were the hosts for the 11th Women’s European Handball Championship. Except for the year 2006, Romania participated in all the other editions organised by the European Handball Federation, with the best performance achieved in 2010, when the national team won the bronze medal. In this last edition, Romania finished 9th out of the 16 participating teams, just one point away from the semi-finals, and the overall impression was that Romania was very close to another notable result. The aim of this research is to show if Romania’s ranking at the end of the tournament is the deserved one and if the handball played during the above-mentioned championship lines up with modern handball trends, based on the statistical analysis provided by the European Handball Federation website, but also based on more analyses personally made by us after watching again the played games.

No: 58
Title: Experimental Study for Improving the Physical Condition of Women Handball Players in the Preparatory Phase 
Pages 416-422
Author(s): Cristina Georgiana Vărzaru*
Open Access

Full Text 58
The aim of thisresearch was to highlight the effective implementation of a training program, suitable for the preparatory phase of a Romanian women’s handball team, CSM Bucharest. The physical tests applied to the players were chosen so that they could provide a wide range of information about the most important and necessary physical qualities of a handball player: acceleration speed, coordination, agility and endurance. The tests chosen for this research are: 10-yard acceleration test, Illinois test, Shark Skill Coordination test and 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (IFT). Based on the results obtained in these tests and also taking into consideration the preparatory phase specificity, we applied a 7-week physical and technical-tactical training program. At the end of this period, the tests were performed again. The differences recorded have shown considerable improvements in the effort capacity of the players, which confirms the effectiveness of planning and programming the training for this period.

No: 59
Title: Study Regarding Coordination at Landings Performed in Women’s Artistic Gymnastics
Pages 423-430
Author(s): Vasilica Grigore, Ana-Maria Gavojdea*, Alexandra Predoiu, Radu Predoiu
Open Access

Full Text 59
The purpose of this study was to investigate the existing correlations between intersegmental coordination and the scores obtained by the athletes for the technical element – landing in artistic gymnastics. The subjects who took part in this study were 21 female athletes aged between 9-10 years, practicing artistic gymnastics. The RCMV test included in the PSISELTEVA battery, developed by RQ Plus, was used to assess intersegmental coordination expressed by certain psychomotor parameters (perceptual-motor learning ability, performance coefficient, personal optimum rhythm, resistance to disruptive factors and resistance to time pressure). Using the Spearman correlation, there were highlighted important relations between the results obtained in RCMV test by the female athletes practicing artistic gymnastics and the scores for the technical element – landing (in the case of vault and uneven bars). The analysis of the results indicates that there is a positively significant correlation between the following psychomotor parameters: perceptual-motor learning ability, performance coefficient, resistance to time pressure and the scores obtained by the female athletes for landing (in the case of vault). Also, there is a negatively significant correlation between the personal optimum rhythm coefficient and the results for landing (vault). Consequently, the results indicate that the development of intersegmental coordination can positively influence the technical element – landing of the female athletes practicing artistic gymnastics.

No: 60
Title: Reflecting the Coaching Process in Junior Handball Players’ Actional Attitude 
Pages 431-437
Author(s): Dumitru Niculae Cristea*
Open Access

Full Text 60
The attributes of the athletes’ behaviour occur if the teacher has conducted an activity according to the coaching principles. The purpose of the research is to investigate how students perceive their own behaviour, athletes and coaches, and the method used is the questionnaire consisting of 9 items, the last being a construct suggestively called “the wheel of life”. The investigation of the athletes’ motivation level, preferences and autonomy during lessons is a way to highlight the direct effects of coaching mastery in valuing their skills. The athletes’ responses to the applied questionnaire items are feedback reactions to the teacher’s approach of the coaching style. It is difficult to know the motivation of the athletes because, in many cases, the real reasons of some hidden behaviour are not easily revealed. This restraint of the athletes is caused by a wide range of affective processes, especially emotions. This is why the teacher should use indirect means of investigation or other ways which will allow knowing the athlete (insight) and his/her capacity as a person. The last item was conceived as a construct – “the wheel of life” – resulted from sharing the satisfaction level by domain: health, sports career, personal development, fun, physical environment, relationships and more. These come to complete the picture on the level of study (student awareness and accountability in the academic and sports support). It shares a visualization of areas of life. The analysed results show a high degree of assimilation of the interventions through coaching.

No: 61
Title: Study on the Importance of Physical Education and Sports among the Students from Non-Profile Faculties within the University of Bucharest
Pages 438-446
Author(s): Florin Litoi*
Open Access

Full Text 61
The purpose of this paper is to highlight that in higher education the physical education and sports activity represents a step forward compared to pre-university education, occupying an important place within the process of developing the student’s personality, fully contributing to the improvement of physical and moral qualities, the proper use of leisure time, the achievement of harmony in the student’s development. The organization of the activity on sports branches in non-profile higher education is the basis of students’ option for this discipline. The need for movement and the wish to improve their physical condition represent the motivation to participate in physical education classes. The study was conducted in the second week of the first semester of the university year 2014-2015 on 68 students in their first year, from almost all faculties of the University of Bucharest. We used direct interrogation, applied based on a standard questionnaire made up of 15 questions. The collected data were processed using the statistical and mathematical method, and the graphical method. Following the study regarding the importance of physical education for students from non-profile faculties, we have found that students believe that physical education is an important activity in their life, and even so, there is a very small number of students that practice sports outside their physical education class. The most frequently invoked reasons for the lack of interest as regards physical education are represented by the lack of time, indolence, material conditions, work spaces, the economic and financial factors. 

No: 62
Title: Comparative Study of Kinematic Parameters of Circular Punch Applied in Semi-Contact and Full-Contact System 
Pages 447-454
Author(s): Irina Baitel*, Dan Deliu, Mariana Cordun, Liviu Angelescu
Open Access

Full Text 62
Using inertial navigation technology built into MOVEN motion capture equipment, we calculated, based on the position of a kickboxer’s body segments, several kinematic parameters of circular punch features. These are the length of fist trajectory from the beginning of the movement to its contact with the target, the length of fist path measured from the beginning of the elbow extension to the contact with the target, the variation in time of the elbow extension angle, the variation in time of shoulder and hip lines and the difference between them during impact with the target, the average speed on certain segment motions, maximum speed of the fist before impact with the target, acceleration of the fist at the impact with the target. Measurements were made at “Ciprian Sora” Sports Club in Bucharest, on 28 August 2014, and the subject was the national champion of the year in full-contact kickboxing and kickboxing world vice-champion in 2014, in 63kg weight class. After fitting the MOVEN equipment and its calibration was performed, the subject applied ten circular punch strokes in semi-contact system and then ten circular punch strokes in full-contact system. Data acquisition was performed with a frequency of 100 Hz (the acquisition rate of 10 ms). Data were converted using the equipment-related software in .mvnx format, and then were imported into Excel 2010 and processed. The mentioned kinematic parameters were calculated to analyse the strike features and the comparison of each fight system.

No: 63
Title: Study Regarding the Development of Spatial-Temporal Orientation Capacity and Kinaesthetic Sensitivity of Visually Impaired Pupils Using Differentiated Instruction  
Pages 455-461
Author(s): Virgil Tudora, Ana-Maria Mujea*, Cristina-Georgiana Vărzaru
Open Access

Full Text 63
This paper analyses the relevance of using differentiated instruction in the physical education lesson from a special school for visually impaired pupils. For this purpose, we applied an initial testing to establish the status of each pupil’s motricity regarding spatial-temporal orientation capacity and kinaesthetic sensitivity. The tests used for the assessment were: distance estimation test, ‘trilogy of sounds’ test and weight estimation test. In the research, there were included four samples, pupils in the 7th A and 8th A grades, as experimental groups, and the 7th B and 8th B grades, as control groups. Subsequent to initial testing, within the experimental groups, closed (not open) value groups were established. The differentiated activity was conducted according to motor ability and ophthalmic disease of each pupil involved in the research. In this regard, operational modules were developed, targeting the value groups A and B for both the 7th and 8th grades. At the end of the instructional program, the experimental groups and control groups were tested again. This new assessment identified a development of spatial-temporal orientation and kinaesthetic sensitivity indicators for the two experimental groups.

No: 64
Title: Study Regarding Speed Development in Visually Impaired Pupils Using Differentiated Instruction  
Pages 462-468
Author(s): Gheorghe Marinescu, Cosmina Irina Cazan, Nicolae Linca, Gabriela Ianculescu, Ana-Maria Mujea*
Open Access

Full Text 64
In this study, we used the method of differentiated instruction. By using the differentiated instruction in physical education lessons for pupils with visual impairments, we intend to determine if progress can be made in terms of speed development. The study addresses to subjects with visual impairments enrolled in special schools, among which we find both blind and visually impaired pupils. The grades to which we refer are part of lower secondary school, one fifth grade and two sixth grades. An initial testing was conducted, which targeted the assessment of reaction speed, arm repetition speed and running speed. For speed, we used the Stopwatch test, for repetition speed, we used Plate Tapping from Eurofit Test Battery, and for running speed, we used 5x5 Shuttle Run from the National School Assessment System for Physical Education and Sports. After applying the tests, the value I and II groups were established for each grade involved in the experiment. After completing the instruction program, the pupils were assessed again using the tests from the initial testing. The analysis of the results showed an improvement in terms of speed for the visually impaired pupils due to the use of differentiated instruction.

No: 65
Title: Using Motor Skills Tests in the Selection of Women Gymnasts for Learning the “Forward Danilova” on Beam
Pages 469-476
Author(s): Silvia Alexandra Stroescu*
Open Access

Full Text 65
Artistic gymnastics is such a spectacular sport due to the strength and elegance of women gymnasts, as well as to the difficulty of exercises they perform. Gymnastics has seen a considerable rise over the years. We can appreciate that technical level has reached now its upper limit, for example the execution correctness and the complexity of artistic level are the most important methods that may difference between two gymnasts equal in terms of technical performance. The learning of any element, in our case the “Free (aerial) forward walkover, landing on one foot”, Forward Danilova on beam, must be preceded by verification of the motor skills that condition the execution. Any aimed improvement will gradually lead to independent and creative execution of the element and whole exercises. In this research, motor skills tests were used to evaluate certain components of coordination ability, considered fundamental in the learning of any element, and results were applied to select the 6 gymnasts who accomplished the program for learning the “Free (aerial) walkover forward, landing on one foot”. Also, results of the following motor skills tests: Balance rail, Bass test, Fukuda test, Miron Georgescu test demonstrated that the different levels of motor skills of women gymnasts put their mark on learning of the technical element studied.

No: 66
Title: Study Regarding the Manifestation of Motor Qualities Related to Specific Speed in Beginner Fencers
Pages 477-482
Author(s): Gabriela Dintica*
Open Access

Full Text 66
The objective of this study is to determine the initial level of motor qualities related to general and specific speed of children for the three weapons used in fencing: epee, sabre and foil. Research subjects: The study was performed on a sample of 36 children (6 boys and 6 girls for each weapon: foil, epee and sabre) aged between 8 and 10 years and having an experience of 2-3 years in fencing. During the investigations, the following 6 tasks and tests were used to measure motor qualities related to general and specific speed: 30m run with start in a standing position, the ruler drop test, foot tapping, 28m movement with forward and backward steps, mannequin’s glove catching and mannequin lunge kicks. For the movement speed test, 30m run with standing start, the central tendency for foil is 6.6 seconds, for sabre the median is 7.11 seconds and for epee the median is 6.69 seconds. For the 28m movement (specific movement speed), the median was 17.56 seconds for sabre, 21 seconds for most epee fencers, while the foil children obtained an average of 22 seconds. Conclusions: There are significant differences regarding the speed-related motor qualities between the three fencing weapons (foil, epee and sabre).

No: 67
Title: The Importance of Physiological Adaptations in the Competitive Success of High Performance Romanian Judoka Athletes
Pages 483-489
Author(s): Laurentiu Bocioaca*
Open Access

Full Text 67
The strong link between the physiological adaptations of Romanian judo athletes who are preparing for high performance and the technical skills of the athletes is often difficult to determine and assess. Judo is a sport in which strategy and technique are dominant in obtaining performance, while the physiological characteristics and their parameters form the basis on which the judoka athlete builds the technical performance and individual tactics. The research subjects are components of judo Olympic teams from Romania, male and female. Methods of assessing anaerobic and aerobic exercise capacity are used. The research results on the effects of adaptive anaerobic effort capacity allow emphasizing the short, intensive but maximal capacity to express the muscle strength in this type of sport. The paper conclusions demonstrate the importance of adaptive effects that have occurred in the investigated athletes regarding the anaerobic and aerobic effort capacity, as an effect of intense training specific to competitive strain during a judo match, but especially during extra time periods, in those cases where the final decision has not been made in the regular time frame of five minutes. Top Romanian judoka athletes are characterized by high values of muscular strength and power, particularly in the upper parts of the body. Ideally, the judoka athletes should maintain an optimal ratio between physical preparation and technique through an optimal combination of technical and physical shape. Maintaining the optimal ratio between the training components and physical preparation ensures the most effective outcomes for obtaining high performance.

No: 68
Title: Intellectual Abilities in Top Male Junior Tennis Players
Pages 490-495
Author(s): Radu Predoiu*, Paula Ramsey, Florian Arsenescu
Open Access

Full Text 68
Topographical memory, analogical reasoning capacity and attention represent intelectual abilities. Analogical transfer refers to those mental structures which allow us to solve problems based on similarity to already solved problems. Attention does not have an inherent reflective content, being present in all mental functions (perception, representation, thinking etc.). Topographical memory represents a mental blueprint or a spatial map which enable us to appreciate from memory where an object/ a location exists relative to those around it. The scope of our research was to investigate some intellectual dimensions and the sports performance of elite Romanian male tennis players. 12 male athletes have participated in our study aged between 15 and 17 years, ranked in top 15 players in Romania. To solve the research issues, we used: test – the computerized ANALOGIE, TAC and MT tests, within PSISELTEVA tests, developed by RQ Plus, SPSS 20 (for data interpreting) and observation. Using the Spearman correlation, there were highlighted important relations between the analogical reasoning coefficient, performance coefficient (in the case of ANALOGIE test), learning capacity (concentration of attention test - TAC) and sports performance. The results state that improving learning ability (the ability to quickly adapt attention to new visual conditions) and the analogical transfer capacity can positively influence the evolution of tennis players on the court.

No: 69
Title: Analysis of Technical Level of Romanian Squash Players
Pages 496-502
Author(s): Alexandru Rosca*, Cosmin Horobeanu, Vasilica Grigore
Open Access

Full Text 69
Squash is a popular sport practiced around the world by millions of people . In the last few years, this sport started being played more and more in Romania. Squash is perceived as a very dynamic sport activity challenging at the same time the physical capacities and the technical skills of the players. In racquet sports, technical skills are revealed by the ability to hit a shot accurately toward a targeted area. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current technical level of the Romanian players using the Hunt Squash Accuracy Test (HSAT). Eleven male and female squash players, from 2 clubs, performed HSAT which consists of 375 shots across 13 different types of squash strokes on both the forehand (FH) and backhand (BH) side. The Romanian players (32.4 ±12.5 yo; 76.4 ±18.6 kg; 172.8 ±10.5 cm) have an experience of 9.6 (± 8.3) months and practice on average 2 times per week for about 90 (± 30) min, with a “friend”. The HSAT score for Romanian players was 29.3% overall with 29.5% for FH and 24.0% for BH. The relative high percentage of shot errors (70%) indicates that Squash players in Romania are not doing specific and structured training with a specialized coach. These findings strengthen the belief that Squash is played in Romania just at amateur/leisure level.

No: 70
Title: Long-Term Programs for Learning the Acrobatic Exercises on Floor in Women’s Artistic Gymnastics
Pages 503-509
Author(s): Vladimir Potop*, Victor Boloban
Open Access

Full Text 70
The purpose of this paper is the development of both a long-term program for learning the acrobatic exercises and a logical-structural scheme for performing these floor exercises based on the interaction of algorithms of the main and concrete goals of sports training for junior gymnasts of 12 to 15 years old. The following methods have been used in this research: study of specialized literature; pedagogical observation method; video-computerized method of biomechanical analysis; pedagogical experiment; metoda statistical-mathematical method of data processing and interpretation. The results of the research highlight the content of the long-term program for learning the acrobatic exercises in the case of junior gymnasts aged 12 to 15. There are also given examples of active periods of acrobatic exercise performing and the entire logical and structural operational scheme of the macro-methods of acrobatic exercise learning consistent with the requirements of sports training classification program. The long-term programs, the examples of active periods for their achievement and also the processing of the logical-structural functioning scheme ensure the effectiveness of acrobatic exercise learning within the women’s polyathlon of sports training in artistic gymnastics.