Volume XXXIII, Pages 1- 481 (12 December 2017)
The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences EpSBS
©2017 Published by the Future Academy
Edited by: Sergey B. Malykh, PhD, Prof., Head of Department of Psychology and Developmental Physiology Russian Academy of Education & Evgeny V. Nikulchev, PhD, Prof., Vice-Rector Moscow Technological Institute,
Conference: ICPE 2017 International Conference on Psychology and Education
Dates: 08-09 June 2017
Location: Russian Academy of Education, Psychological Institute of Russian Academy of Education
Conference Chair(s): Sergey B. Malykh, PhD, Prof., Head of Department of Psychology and Developmental Physiology Russian Academy of Education
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Title: Intellectual Differentiation In The Structure Of Students’ Civil Identity
Author(s): M.K. Akimova*, E.I. Gorbacheva, S.V. Persiyantseva, S.V. Yaroshevskaya
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In this article we present the results of the study of the level of civil identity in relation to the indicators of intellectual development and their variability among students in different socio-cultural environments: in Moscow, which is the capital and the largest city in Russia, and in much smaller Kaluga. We’ve found that the number and nature of the interrelations between the adoption of civil values and intellectual development has its own peculiarities among students in Moscow and provincial universities. In the capital the intelligence promotes adoption of liberal values and acknowledgement of need for democratic reforms in Russia. In the provincial society we can see a slightly different picture: the level of recognition of the rights of ethnic and sexual minorities increases alongside intelligence levels. Overall, there are some general trends. First of all, higher intelligence levels are associated with stronger civil identity. At the same time, there are certain conflicts and inconsistencies in the structure of the latter: some civic values are persistant (e.g. freedom of information), while others are underrepresented (such as freedom of expression, freedom of peaceful assembly etc.). These results suggest that intelligence and the socio-cultural conditions of its development are critical to the formation of civil identity of modern youth.
Title: Development Features Of Preschool Children With Different Anxiety Levels
Author(s):O.V. Almazova,A.N. Veraksa, D.A. Bukhalenkova, A.I. Dontsov*, O.Yu. Zotova, E.B. Perelygina
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This article examines the relationship between anxiety level and cognitive and emotional development in older preschool children. The study involved 207 children aged 5-6 years (Me = 5.6 years) attending a senior group in a Moscow kindergarten (108 boys and 99 girls). As a result of the cluster analysis, three groups of children were identified: with the low (20.3%), medium (61.8%) and high (17.9%) anxiety levels. We paid special attention to the analysis of the performance on the methods diagnosing executive functions (switching, inhibition and working memory) by children with different anxiety levels. The data obtained testify to the negative effect high anxiety has on the performance of tasks dealing with cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control whereas no connection was established between anxiety and working memory (both auditory and visual). Besides, the data we have obtained indicate a nonlinear connection between the anxiety level, theory of mind development and the understanding of emotions in the preschool age. Thus, this research have shown that the preschooler’s anxiety level is a significant internal factor associated with the development of both executive functions and emotional intelligence. In this regard, it is possible to assume that working with anxiety can help harmonize the development of the child and prepare for school.
Title: The Software System For The Study The Morphology Of The Kazakh Language
Author(s): Vladimir B. Barakhnin*, Anatoliy M. Fedotov, Aigerim М. Bakiyeva, Murat N. Bakiyev, Saule Zh. Tazhibayeva, Tatiana V. Batura, Olga Yu. Kozhemyakina, Dzhamalbek A. Tussupov, Madina A. Sambetbaiyeva, Lyazzat Kh. Lukpanova
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In the system of language teaching, one of the most important aspects is the study of the grammatical categories of lexical items. This process applies to the teaching of foreign languages, and to the learning the native language, both on basic and deeper level. The article describes the software system for studying the morphology of the Kazakh language. In the research process, 14 flexional classes were allocated for nouns and adjectives, 17 - for verbs. The dictionaries, including more than 5500 affixes and their combinations (taking into account the repetitions of combinations for different grammatical forms) were created. The quantitative volume of created dictionaries is sufficient to analyze the texts of any thematic affiliation. The system is supplemented by a dictionary of exceptions, including 18 nouns and 352 verbs, in which the basis is changing when the word is changing. During testing on words belonging to different parts of speech, there were no errors, that allows to judge about the correctness of the proposed algorithms. The system is equipped with a user-friendly web interface, allowing the learner to test his skills of word formation and of stemming of words of the Kazakh language.
Title: The Role Of Feedback Type In Self-Regulation Of Learning Goals Achievement
Author(s): Irina Bondarenko*, Varvara Morosanova
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In the present article, we investigate how students with high and low conscious self-regulation and different preferred strategies of goal achieving use intentionally organized feedback to gain maximum points in experimental tasks. Consistent with previous research our results revealed that feedback played an important role in achieving learning goals. Based on the proposition that feedback can be attributed to one of the two types (discrepancy and velocity), we compared the dynamics of results in the groups with different goal achievement strategies and different levels of self-regulation. We hypothesize that discrepancy feedback will significantly increase experimental test results for students with high level of self-regulation and discrepancy strategy preference. Students with preference of velocity strategy will not improve their test results significantly. We used software application for diagnosis and experimental study of individual self-regulation actions «Diagnosis of situational specificity of self-regulation - DSSSR» (Morosanova, Bondarenko, 2015). DSSSR includes Self-Regulation Profile Questionnaire (SRPLQM, Morosanova, 2011) to diagnose students’ self-regulation stylistic features. The obtained results (N=103) allow us to state that we revealed differences in the dynamics of students’ results enhancement when they carried out the same experimental tasks in testing with intentionally organized feedback. The results of the students who preferred discrepancy strategy (regardless their self-regulation levels) increased significantly. The students with the strategy of velocity increased their results slightly. This trend is especially noticeable for students with low self-regulation. The role of velocity feedback in self-regulation of learning goals achievement for students with strategy of velocity was discussed.
Title: Preschoolers' Competence In Phonetic And Syntactic Aspects Of Native And Foreign Language
Author(s): Elena Bozhovich*
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This article examines correlation of Russian and English language competence levels among preschoolers. The competence level of children was determined by their success in completing relatively simple phonetic and syntactic tasks. The tests were conducted on an individual basis using methods, developed in Russian pedagogical psychology by N.I. Gutkina and A.R. Luria (both methods were modified by E.D. Bozhovich). In addition, a paired comparison matrix was made based on correctness of the way children pronounced familiar English words, clichés, and short sentences. The statistical analysis was performed using Spearman's rank correlation. The study involved two age groups of children attending kindergarten where English was taught (N= 71; 35 children aged 5.7-6.3 and 36 children aged 6.4-7). The results included the number of correct solutions provided by children doing the tasks, and types of mistakes made by them, while the qualitative analysis aimed to determine the mechanisms used by a child in doing those tasks. The study has shown a significant connection to exist between competence levels in the Russian and foreign language in terms of phonetics and syntax. However, the mechanisms of intellectual activity shown by children belonging to different age groups are different when working with linguistic materials in Russian and in English. These differences are driven by the two key factors: a) communicative experience of children obtained in their native language environment; and b) certain characteristics of English-teaching methods as prescribed by preschool training programmes. The suggested testing methods can be used both for preschool and primary school.
Title: Genetic Literacy And Attitudes Survey (Iglas): International Population-Wide Assessment Instrument
Author(s): Robert Chapman*, Maxim Likhanov, Fatos Selita, Ilya Zakharov*, Emily Smith-Woolley, & Yulia Kovas
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Genetics represents the fastest developing discipline in the history of scientific enquiry. Genetic advances have implications for individuals and society, including matters related to law, ethics, education, medicine and philosophy. As such, it will be important for all people to be able to engage with genetic research, not just at the point that it becomes personally applicable, such as in medical treatment, but also more generally across many social domains. Given the ever-increasing impact of genetics on daily life, it is important to have a tool to evaluate what people know, think and feel about genetics and for this tool to be applicable across society. Previous studies have mainly focused on genetic literacy in medical domains with less attention paid to other applications. They have also largely focused on well-defined populations, such as undergraduate students and young adults. To overcome these limitations of previous research in this area, a consortium of psychologists, geneticists, lawyers, educationalists and ethicists have developed the International Genetic Literacy and Attitudes Survey (iGLAS). This paper presents the development, piloting and validation of this instrument. The resulting iGLAS provides a flexible, informative and quick tool for evaluating public knowledge and perceptions of genetics. In particular, it provides a tool that can be used across all demographics, allowing for tailored research with specific groups of interest.
Title: Authoritarianism And Attribution Of Responsibility
Author(s): Y.D. Chertkova*, M.S. Egorova, A.Ya. Fominykh
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The relationship between authoritarianism and personality traits was studied in a sample of people (N=401, .9% – females) aged 18-78 (М = 26.58, SD = 12.91). Measures: 1) abbreviated questionnaire of right-wing authoritarianism by B. Altermeyer (RWA), adapted by the authors of the current study; 2) Level of Subjective Control (LSC) questionnaire and 3) the Free Will and Determinism scale (FAD Plus), shortened and adapted by the authors. Males have higher authoritarianism than females. Authoritarianism is related to some extend with the structure of the parental family. Age-related changes in the level of authoritarianism are non-linear.Gender differences in locus of control are only observed in internality in the area of achievement (it is higher in males). Females assess the freedom of will and unpredictability of the world higher than males. There are no age differences in these characteristics. No influence is found of the structure of parental family on the indicators of responsibility attribution. The parameters of the internal locus of control are mainly related to conventionalism: the internal locus of control corresponds to a higher level of authoritarianism. It is shown that the link of authoritarianism to internality is partly due to internality in family relations. The links between the indicators of determinism and authoritarianism are similar in their content to the links between authoritarianism and the locus of control, which is quite natural since the indicators of the locus of control and determinism are interrelated.
Title: The Russian Version Of The Social Problem-Solving Inventory (Spsi-R-Ru)
Author(s):Maria Danina, Evgenia Kuminskaya, Natalia Kiselnikova*, Elena Lavrova
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This work is devoted to adaptation and validation of the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised questionnaire on Russian sample. D’Zurilla developed this questionnaire. SPSI-R has better psychometric properties then other tools for measuring various aspects of solving personal and social problems. Earlier the questionnaire had already been adapted in different countries, but never in Russia. Approbation of the questionnaire, its items reliability verification and identification of the factor structure was performed on a sample of 329 people. Verification of construct validity was made on a sample of 466 people. The Russian version of the SPSI-R questionnaire showed satisfactory results of evaluating the internal consistency of four scales matching the original version of the questionnaire. The modeling of the factor structure by the method of structural equations was carried out on a questionnaire of 35 points. Verification of construct validity using the COPE questionnaire and the Scale of Life Satisfaction showed results corresponding to the correlation hypotheses at the level of statistical significance p <0.001. The obtained tool has the characteristics, sufficient for its application for research purposes. As prospects for research, we see the study of other types of validity and reliability SPSI-R, as well as the definition of leading styles of problem solving in different age and sex groups.
Title: Svm-Classification Based On The Multi-Objective Optimization In The Educational Sphere’s Problems
Author(s):L.A. Demidova,M.M. Egin*, A.A. Mikhailov, A.M. Rusakov, Y.S. Sokolova
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The aspects of the multi-objective optimization in the development of the SVM classifiers has been considered. The NSGA-II has been used to provide the simultaneous search for the optimal values of the classification quality indicators chosen from the such classification quality indicators as total accuracy, completeness, sensitivity, specificity, -measure and, also, the supports vectors number. The program which allows comparing the SVM classifiers and the values of the classification quality indicators found by the NSGA-II and choose the best ones has been developed. Approbation of the developed program on the real datasets taken from the Statlog project and the UCI Machine Learning Repository has confirmed the efficiency of the developed tools of the data analysis with application of various combinations of the classification quality indicators. Also, the program has been applied to predict the success of passing of the unified state examination (USE) on "Russian language" and "Mathematics" disciplines, which are obligatory to delivery for obtaining the certificate about the secondary education. A herewith, the poll results of pupils of the graduation classes of school, which reflect the different personal features, family features, etc., before passing the USE were used to create the training dataset. The analysis of the experimental results confirms the efficiency of the SVM classifiers for the prediction problem solution of the USE success on "Russian language" and "Mathematics" disciplines.
Title: Svm Classification Based On The Imbalanced Datasets For Problems Of Psychodiagnostics
Author(s):Liliya Demidova,Irina Klyueva*, Alexander Pylkin
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This article discusses the aspects of application of the different psychodiagnostics tests in the educational sphere, in particular, in the schools and universities, to predict some events. Also, the problem of the results classification of the psychodiagnostics tests of individuals in the educational sphere has been considered. The application of the SVM classification based on the imbalanced datasets to this problem has been discussed. The data imbalance is inherent in the results of many tests, for example, intellectual tests. It is shown that the SMOTE (Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique) and its modification famous as the bSMOTE (boundary SMOTE) algorithm can be used for the data rebalancing. It allows improving the classification results for the boundary objects. A herewith, the novel approach to the search of the parameters’ values of the bSMOTE algorithm has been analyzed. It allows minimizing the time expenditures for development of the best SVM classifier. It is shown, that the Python toolkids allow accelerating the process of the program development, that can be useful for the problem of the SVM classification based on the imbalanced datasets. The analysis of the experimental results confirms the efficiency of the SVM classification, when it is necessary to predict the assessment of individual on the base of the psychodiagnostics tests' results.
Title: Self-Regulation And Personality Characteristics Of Elementary School Children With School Life Satisfaction
Author(s): Tatiana Fomina*, Olga Eftimova, Varvara Morosanova
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This article presents research results on the relationship between the conscious self-regulation of learning activity, personal characteristics, and life satisfaction in younger schoolchildren (N = 156, 85 girls, 71 boys, aged 10-11 years). Russian adaptation of Multidimensional Students Life Satisfaction Scale(MSLSS), Russian version of the «Big Five Questionnaire – Children (BFQ-C)» and Morosanova’s Self-Regulation Profile Questionnaire – Junior was used. The focus is made on studying self-regulation and achieving educational goals in the context of the subjective well-being problem. Significant links have been revealed between the personality characteristics, regulatory features and life satisfaction indicators in three subscales: family life, school life, and self-attitude. The largest number of significant links was found for the School Life Satisfaction Subscale. Gender differences were discovered in the manifestations of self-regulation, personal characteristics, and the indicators of life satisfaction in younger schoolchildren: girls have significantly higher level of School Life Satisfaction, some regulatory processes and indicators of Agreeableness and Neuroticism. The study displays specificity of regulatory and personality characteristics of students with high and low level of School Life Satisfaction (SLS). Students with high level of SLS are characterized by a higher development of regulatory processes, self-regulation in general and those particular personality characteristics as Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness.
Title: The Experimental Research Of The Way Acoustic Noise Influences Speech Characteristics
Author(s):A. Sh. Gabdrakhmanov, O. N. Korsun*
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One of the promising direction of the development of interface cockpits of modern aircraft is the voice control of on-board equipment. The main element of the voice control is the automatic recognition of voice commands, the effectiveness of which is determined by many factors, first of all the different types of acoustic noises. Noise is one of the biggest problems in speech recognition area. It does not only create problems when finding a speech signal in condition of noise or another acoustic interference, but also can change the speaker`s voice manner. This article focuses on the results of the way acoustic noise influences speech characteristics. The authors have come up with the two methods to decrease this influence. Firstly, recognition patterns can be formed using words, which have been influenced in this way. Secondly, the special reverse, or feed-back, channel can be added in the speech recognition system, which enables a speaker to hear himself as well as usually. All results were obtained with the implementation of the speech recognition algorithm, based on parameterization of the speech signal, on method of forming a pattern and the method of recognizing the individual words by comparison with standards of words, on linear regression and application of an additional microphone. An additional microphone is positioned at a distance of 0.3–0.7 m from the speaker in order to fix predominantly acoustic noises in the cockpit.
Title: Effects Of Education And Media Framing On Genetic Knowledge And Attitudes
Author(s):Lucy Gallop, Robert Chapman, Fatos Selita, Yulia Kovas
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Genetic education is paramount to continued genetic advances, as well as for beneficial use of the outcomes of such advances. However, a large body of literature suggests that the public’s genetic literacy remains inadequate. Previous research has found a positive relationship between educational level and genetic literacy. The current research explores this in 2 samples of UK students: school (A-Level) and undergraduates. A between groups ANOVA revealed a significant difference in genetic literacy scores between the educational levels. The current study further explored genetic literacy of Psychology undergraduates, as psychologists are likely to play a key role in the genomic era, for example contributing to genomic research and providing genetic counselling. Results revealed low genetic literacy in Psychology undergraduate students, highlighting the need for genetic education improvements. To this end, experimental manipulations were conducted to investigate the effects of media framing and feedback on views of genetic determinism and knowledge calibration. A between groups ANOVA showed no significant difference between high and low determinism media framing. The knowledge calibration findings suggested that participants were underconfident in their genetic knowledge. No correlation was found between knowledge and perceived knowledge (confidence) in the group of participants who received feedback. In contrast, a positive correlation between knowledge and confidence was found in the no-feedback condition. Future research is needed to build on these findings.
Title: The Relationship Of Forms Of Justice Sensitivity And Values Among Young People
Author(s): A. A. Gayvoronskaya*
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In the article the results of an empirical study of the relationship of forms of sensitivity tojusticeandvaluesamong students (n=125) are represented. The forms of sensitivitywere determinedwith the aid ofM.Schmidt'squestionnaire,adapted byNartova-BochaverandAstanina(2013,2014)anddirectedtoward the development of sensitivitytojusticefrom the position: “victim”,“observer”,“beneficiary”and“perpetrator”. The Valuequestionnaire of S.Schwarz, adapted by Karandashov,was used forvalues` identification (2004). According to the results, the leading values of the group “beneficiaries” are: traditions,reaching and authority (ideals), and also universalism, kindness, reaching (priorities). The predominantvalues for the group of “observers” are: conformity, authority, kindness and hedonism (ideals), andalsoindependenceandauthority(priorities). For the group of “perpetrator”: authority, hedonism, independence (ideals),and also achievements (priorities). As the leadingvaluesfor the group was: conformity,tradition,achievement(ideals),andalsoachievement,universalism,tradition(priorities). Comprehensionandexperience of justwrongsituationsis connectedwith the prognosticcompetence,whichis expressedin the anticipationjustifiability. Probably, the person at a collision with injustice forms the possible scenario forms an exit from a traumatic situation, that can be reflected in prosocial behavior or delinquent.
Title: Types Of Language Abilities: Differential And Psychological Attitude
Author(s): Muhamed Kаbаrdov*, Elena Artsishevskaya, Elena Bauer
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The article provides the analysis of the most general characteristics of the «successful» and «non-successful» ones during the intensive and traditional foreign language teaching forms. The individual differences have been examined on the different levels of activity: а) on the behavioural characteristics level manifested as a type of the foreign language mastering; б) on the level of the determination of certain abilities in the cognitive processes directly relating to the foreign language mastering type; в) on the level of the neurodynamical characteristics. The types of the abilities and native and foreign language mastering types discovered on the experimental model of the intensive teaching turned out to be universal enough: they can be found in other, less rough conditions. This idea concerning the foreign language mastering types as stable individual and typical characteristics of the students, which form rather independently on the teaching method, has got the experimental confirmation in several our papers and papers implemented under our guidance. The results of studies of the junior, teenage and adolescent schoolchildren have confirmed the existence of three foreign language mastering types –‘communication and speech’, ‘cognitive and linguistic’and‘mixed’ ones, which tend to survive from one age to another. These foreign language mastering types have a different psychophysiological and psychological nature including the communication and speech and cognitive and linguistic aspects. The favorable condition for maximal development of the schoolchildren’s language abilities is a correspondence of the teaching type, content of the education technology and individual and typological schoolchildren’s particularities.
Title: A View Of The Change In The Objectives Of Teacher Education
Author(s): Valentina Kalney*, Sergey Shishov
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In the study, the results of which formed the basis of this article, the authors proceeded from the fact that the last two decades in Russia, not only scientists, but also teacher practices are constantly discussing the problems of changing the goals of teacher education. The authors attempt to understand where and why should strive the Russian pedagogical education in a constantly changing external conditions. Research results are analyzed from the opinions of young teachers of Russia about the changes occurring in the system of pedagogical education and their relationship to transformations occurring under severe pressure trends of globalization and the emergence of the information society. The authors argue that at this stage it is important to determine the goals and values. Globalization has degenerated not in an equal dialogue of original cultures of education, but in active enforcement of modern ideals of consumer society and Western values on other cultures. Authors invite to see the emergence of a new (relative to traditional and rationalist) stage of pedagogical education development - anthropocentric - which will require a major spiritual transformation, a revision of the already established among young teachers of Russia rationalist values. A critical component of this step is awareness of the importance of the personal values of education, which involves individually motivated attitude of the individual to his education.
Title: Motor Imagery Perspective In Cross-Country Skiers With Various Technical Skill Levels
Author(s): I.V. Kaminskiy*, O.V. Almazova, T.S. Kaminskaya, S.Y. Egorov, S.V. Leonov
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Motor imagery is widely known to be an effective tool commonly used in sport settings to enhance motor coordination. However, differences between first- and third person imagery in terms of its effects on performance and underlying psychological mechanisms as well as conditions in which using of each perspective should be considered optimal are still not well understood. At the same time, current options to adjust mental imagery for individual need and, in particular, special strategies for imagery use depending on athletes’ level of expertise are limited. To investigate potential features of imagery perspective related to athletes technical expertise, we have tested 54 cross-country skiers (40 males and 14 females) aged from 11 to 31 (M = 16.3) and ranked from third-class junior to merited master of sport. To determine athletes’ technical skill levels dual-task methodology with following video analysis and expert technique assessment were implemented. Then, by using cluster analysis, the participants were divided into 4 groups according to their expertise. The national team members were assigned to the fifth group as best-skilled performers. Based on imagery perspective for 11 ski technical elements, groups with predominant use of first-person, third-person or switching perspective were formed by means of cluster analysis. Cross-tabulation revealed gradual rise of the third-person imagery use across motor skill development with a secondary increase in the first person images frequency in most-skilled performers. Possible explanations and applications of the obtained data are discussed.
Title: Coping Strategies Of Vietnamese And Russian Students Of An Internationally Oriented University
Author(s):Natalya B. Karabushckenko, Alexandr V. Ivashchenko, Tatiana S. Pilishvili*, Nina L. Sungurova
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The research on coping strategies of Vietnamese and Russian students attending an internationally oriented university calls forth the necessity of the adaptation process improvement in a new educational and multicultural environment. It was hypothesized that there are similarities and differences in coping strategies among the Vietnamese and Russian students of People Friendship University in Russia (PFUR) during their education in a multicultural environment. The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristics of coping strategies among these students, using education in universities as an example. 120 Vietnamese and Russian students aged 18 to 22 participated in this research. The students were divided into two samples by gender and again categorized into four subgroups: 30 men and 30 women from Vietnam, 30 men and 30 women from Russia (all studying at PFUR). The level of confrontational coping, distancing and search for social support prevailed among Vietnamese students. Low levels of tension and feelings management were observed among Russian men. Vietnamese students are prone to use the strategy of taking responsibility under the distinct influence of anxiety. The probability of “emotional stress development” was higher among Russian students. The factorial structures, which prove the connections between emotions and the development of stress in difficult situations among Russian and Vietnamese students, were different. High levels of coping strategies such as distracting and avoiding problems, providing responsible and positive solutions to problems were revealed among Vietnamese students. The strategy of distractingand avoiding stressful situationsby communicating prevailed among Russian students.
Title: Identification Of Grammatical Functions In Three Languages
Author(s): Mark Leikin*, Esther Tovli, Vera Polickovsky
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The present study investigated brain activity (ERP) in trilingual (Arabic/Hebrew/English) readers when processing the grammatical functions of words while reading sentences in three languages. Twenty native Arabic-speaking university students participated in this study. Differences between syntactic processing strategies in Arabic, Hebrew and English, as first, second and third languages respectively, were investigated. P300, N400 and P600 ERP components were identified for three grammatical functions (subject, predicate and object) in each sentence, in all reading items, in all three languages. Analysis of the results showed that, in English, the participants used the word-order strategy, whereas in Hebrew, a mixed (word-order, verb-oriented, and morphology-based) strategy was used. The verb-oriented strategy was also used in Arabic. The findings suggest that the different processing strategies are influenced specifically by the language in which reading takes place and the morphological and grammatical properties of that language. Differences in localization patterns between the languages and the grammatical functions were also observed.
Title: The Dark Triad Of Personality And Work Efficiency Of Kindergarten Teachers
Author(s): Sergey L. Lenkov*, Nadezhda E. Rubtsova, Elena S. Nizamova
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The current study investigates the association between work efficiency indicators and the Dark Triad of personality traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) within the professional group of kindergarten teachers. The sample included 129 female Russian kindergarten teachers who completed a Russian-language adaptation of the Short Dark Triad questionnaire (SD3). The work efficiency included 5 indicators evaluated by experts and the total efficiency score (the average of the five indicators). The results obtained with one-way ANOVA showed significant (p < .05) association between the Dark Triad traits and some work efficiency indicators. The specificity of these associations for different traits of the Dark Triad was found to be manifested in two aspects: (1) sets of vulnerable efficiency indicators, and (2) the type of association in relation to the level of a trait. Thus, high Machiavellianism was associated with lower scores for the efficiency indicator "Professional competence", whereas both high and low psychopathy were associated with reduced scores for the indicator "Functional completeness". Finally, unlike both of these cases, narcissism had an ambiguous effect: all four efficiency indicators were sensitive to its effects (functional completeness, labor creativity, professional motivation, total efficiency), decreasing with both low and high narcissism. This result is consistent with an unfolding discussion about the special role of narcissism within the Dark Triad. The results of the study suggest certain requirements to a kindergarten teacher’s personality, namely low or medium Machiavellianism, medium narcissism and low psychopathy.
Title: Maths Anxiety Does Not Moderate The Link Between Spatial And Maths Ability
Author(s): M. Likhanov*, I. Zakharov, Y. Kuzmina, A. Budakova, G. Vasin, S. Malykh, Y. Kovas
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Spatial ability (SA) is known to be closely related to mathematical ability (Tosto et al., 2014). Maths anxiety (MA) has been shown to affect both mathematical and spatial ability (Maloney, 2011). The present study investigated the relationship between maths performance and spatial ability, as well as the effects of MA and gender on the association between them. General cognitive ability and trait anxiety were added as control variables. Data were collected from 146 twins (32% males) aged 17-33. Maths performance was measured with Problem Verification Task (PVT). SA was measured with Mental rotation task. MA was measured with sMARS questionnaire. General cognitive ability was measured with Raven’s matrices. Trait anxiety was measured with Spielberger anxiety rating scale. There were no correlations between SA and maths performance, except a negative correlation between SA and PVT reaction time variance. MA did not moderate the association between SA and maths performance. Interestingly, the interaction term between trait anxiety and SA was significant as a predictor for PVT reaction time. Posthoc analysis showed that higher spatial ability was associated with lower reaction time in PVT for high trait anxiety individuals only. Neither main effects of gender and maths anxiety, nor the interaction term between them were significant while predicting spatial ability. Altogether, our results indicate that the interplay between anxiety and mathematical cognition is complex and requires further research.
Title: The Adequacy Of Personal Success Prediction In Psychological Achievement Testing
Author(s): U.E. Makarevskaya*, I.G. Makarevskaya, Z.I. Ryabikina
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At the present time, a number of scientists are considering a psychological study "from the position of the subject", as an experimentally organized activity of the subject to perform a specific behavioral task. In this case, a person is included in the study as an integral object, and, consequently, the organization of research requires the consideration of the basic psychological regularities that determine the behavior of the individual in conditions appropriate to the situation of measurement. The article gives an overview of the research that reflects the features of predicting the success of subjects in various situations of psychological testing of professional and educational achievements. The article analyzes the adequacy of the personal forecast to the probable success in the "situation of expertise" and the "client situation". It is shown that in the situation of expert evaluation of achievements, the majority of subjects inadequately predict their chances of success, namely: they underestimate them. And one of the essential factors of the adequacy of a personal forecast of success can be assumed high self-esteem of their own level of knowledge.
Title: Cognitive Predictors Of Academic Achievement At High School Age: Cross-Cultural Study
Author(s): Sergey Malykh*, Irina Lysenkova, Iliya Zakharov, & Tatiana Tikhomirova
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The aim of the study is to investigate the role of cognitive characteristics (processing speed, working memory and sense of number) and general (nonverbal intelligence) in the individual differences in academic achievement on the samples of high school children from Russia and Kyrgyzstan. These countries are characterized, on the one hand, by similarities in the organization of the national education system, and, on the other hand, differences in socioeconomic status and effectiveness of public education. The study involved 514 schoolchildren at Grades 10 & 11 from two state educational institutions. The samples were balanced by the educational microenvironment. The Russian sample was represented by 205 pupils from 15.8 to 18.8 years (41.9% of boys). The Kyrgyz sample included 309 schoolchildren from 15.3 to 18.8 years (36.4% of boys). It is shown that both in Russia and in Kyrgyzstan, the best model fit was for the speed of information processing as a key predictor of intelligence, working memory and a number sense, which in turn explained variation in the academic achievement. At the same time, we found cross-cultural differences in the interrelationships between certain cognitive development factors and academic achievement. Thus, in less favorable socioeconomic conditions, the greatest functional weight was obtained for the correlation between the speed of processing information and academic achievement through working memory and nonverbal intelligence. On the contrary, under more favorable conditions, the contribution of cognitive characteristics to the development of individual differences in academic achievement was not significant.
Title: Effect Of Handedness On Response Inhibition: Fmri Study
Author(s): Julia Marakshina*, Natalia Buldakova, Anna Korotkov, Alexander Vartanov, Stanislav Kozlovskiy, Sophie Shirenova, Andrey Kiselnikov, Vladimir Popov, Alexander Baev
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Response inhibition one of the crucial cognitive functions in humans. Neuroimaging studies revealed the critical role of the right presupplementary motor area and the right anterior cingulate cortex in response inhibition. These data were obtained mostly on right-handers; however, lateralization of this function could be related to manual lateral asymmetry in humans. We compared brain areas involved in simple response inhibition tasks performance (rings and letters were used as visual stimuli) and differences in the activated brain structures between groups of participants with different types of motor asymmetry by fMRI. 29 participants (23 right-handers and 6 left-handers) performed Go/NoGo task and Stop-signal task. In Go/NoGo task the participants had to ignore specific non-verbal stimuli (red rings). In Stop-signal task the participants had to ignore specific verbal stimuli (red letters). Results showed increased activation of the right cerebellar hemisphere only for right-handers in comparison with left-handers in Stop-signal task. Within-group analysis in the left-handers group revealed activation of the fusiform gyrus and the BA19 during Go/NoGo task in comparison with Stop-signal task. Significant differences have been demonstrated between right-handers and left-handers in simple response inhibition tasks which involve verbal stimuli processing. The right cerebellum structures have been activated during verbal information processing in right-handers in Stop-signal-task.
Title: Psychological Aspects Of Informational Socialization In Multicultural World
Author(s): T. Martsinkovskaya*, G. Huzeeva, E. Balashova, N. Golubeva, E. Dubovskaya, A. Ayanan, O. Grebennikova, E. Isotova
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The role of information socialization in the modern multicultural world is analysed, the significance of psychological transitivity is revealed. The growing role of information culture and information socialization for adequate positioning in this space is shown. The influence of age, place of residence, language and socio-cultural identity on the process of information socialization is considered. The results of the empiric study of information socialization of adolescents, youth and adults from Moscow, Petrozavodsk and Syktyvkar are presented. Several leading trends in information socialization in the modern multicultural and transitive world are worked out. It is proved that the differences between young people and adult respondents consist in the choice of information sources (Internet and TV respectively), the degree of confidence in them, as well as in the level of development of the operational side of the information culture. These differences are largely the source of intergenerational conflicts. Differences in the choice of information and trust in it between residents of large and small towns are shown; these differences manifest themselves regardless of age. It is proved that in the process of information socialization the role of Russian (as well as foreign) language among young people of Karelia and Komi increases, while the need for knowledge of the native, Karelian and Komi languages decreases. It is proved that a mixed linguistic identity increases tolerance to uncertainty and optimize socialization of adolescents in a multicultural environment.
Title: Evaluation Of Nosql Dbms Scalability For Storing Data For Psychology Web Platform
Author(s): Evgeny Nikulchev*, Dmitry Ilin, Pavel Kolyasnikov, Sergey Kasatonov, Ilya Zakharov
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The study examines the design and development of a web-based platform for conducting online psychological research. The authors substantiated the need for the development of a platform and described advantages over the pen-and-paper approach, both with respect to data collection and subsequent processing. The necessity of using NoSQL solutions for data storage is indicated, which is due to the large number of users of the system and the need to work with large volumes of data arriving at high speed. As the main advantage the possibility of sharding is considered, which is offered by NoSQL solutions by default. Replication is considered as an additional method for improvement of the platform availability and fault tolerance. An experiment was performed to analyze the scalability of NoSQL database management systems MongoDB and Cassandra, which estimated the speed of data recording with increasing the number of nodes (from 1 to 3 nodes). The performance gain is noticeably better with an increase in the write volume to about 10K per query for MongoDB and 100K per query for Cassandra. In view of Cassandra's high requirements for the qualifications of engineers, MongoDB was chosen as a solution for developing a web-based platform for conducting psychological research.
Title: Modernization Of Educational Programs Of Professional Skill Improvement Using Patent Activity Data
Author(s): Evgeny Nikulchev*, Dmitry Ilin, Gregory Bubnov, Ilya Osipov, Aleksandr Kosenkov
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The study raises the issue of the need to verify the adequacy of the skills forming the educational program to the current realities. The initial data consists of a sample of 20 skills divided into 5 groups. The common methods of evaluating study programs are considered and the presence of a human factor is noted. The authors proposed to evaluate the indicators of technology development based on the annual number of published patents and labor market data, as it is an objective approach that excludes human participation. The main difficulties leading to the occurrence of large amounts of false positive results were noted, which required the development of filtering mechanisms. The analysis of the skills was conducted using data on patent activity and the state of the labor market. Professional predictive learning service was involved in order to do this, which was improved in accordance with the requirements of the study. The results show that there is a high level of correlation between patent activity and subsequent demand for specific skills in the labor market (r = 0.8). Most of the skills are recommended for the study, 10 of them are well-established in the labor market, 9 more skills are promising and gaining popularity.
Title: Analysis Of Ecopsychological Types Of Interaction In System "Learner-Teacher"
Author(s): V.I. Panov*, I.V. Plaksina
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Article is dedicated to description of subject-subject pedagogical position as the most important condition for forming of scholar's subjectness. According to ecopsychological types of interaction (V.I. Panov, 2014), subject-subject type of interaction in system "scholar - trainer (educational environment)" is defined by the role position of its each components and has three subtypes: subject-insular, subject-cooperative and subject-generative. Article represents reliable differences in pedagogical excerpts by parameters, characterizing precepts and reactions to scholars, showing that pedagogues affect on children's behavior actively, with usage of traditional "parental" methods: suppress infant aggression, demonstrate irritation, form infantilism and dependence from pedagogue. Accentuation of dominating signs in structure of variables demonstrates that subject-subject position of pedagogue does not depend on person's subject characteristics development level. In development of professional pedagogical competence it's important to create conditions for revealing habitual behavior styles, analyze behavioral patterns from positions of transact analysis and form flexible behavioral skills, which let implementation of real subject-subject interaction of subject-cooperative and subject-generating types.
Title: Interlingua-Based Numeral Translation In Web-Application With Knowledge-Testing
Author(s): Alexander Prutzkow*
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The purpose of this research is developing an Interlingua-based technique of the natural language numeral processing and translation. We propose a three-level generalized numeral model as Interlingua-representation. The model formal grammar describes the natural language numeral structure. The first level grammar rules define that a numeral consists of sign, integer part, separation symbol, and fractional part. The second level decribes numeral integer part as a triad sequence. The third level defines the triad structure. We developed number-into-numeral, numeral-into-number, and translating algorithms based on the model. The algorithms are implemented in the Markov normal algorithms. We realized the model and the algorithms in web-application in the Internet. The web-application has a knowledge-testing function. The function allows to users test numeral convering and translating knowledge. Users from more than 100 countries visit web-application and convert numerals. The largest number of users resides in the US and the Russian Federation. The web-application log contains more than 200,000 records. The largest number of user requests related to the conversion of cardinal numerals of Spanish. The web-application is integrated in toolbox of a complex linguistic web-portal for translators as well. We conclude the Interlgua-based technique is effective for numeral processing and translation and realization in web-applications.
Title: Project-Based Integration Of Robotics Platforms Into Educational Process In Universities
Author(s):Igor Ryadchikov, Semyon Sechenev, Alexander Svidlov, Sergey Sinitsa,Pavel Volkodav, Yury Mamelin & Kirill Popko and Evgeny Nikulchev*
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There is a lack of a number of relevant technologies relevant to modern development of curriculum in robotics for secondary and higher educational institutions in Russia. In the presented work, the question of the creation educational materials on robotics, mechatronics, control theory and the introduction of a design-based learning in the teaching of robotics is being studied. Ultra-mobile chassis for service robots that can overcome obstacles up to a meter in height was developed. It has open hardware and software architecture and can be a platform for student start-ups, experiments, diploma works. Simple integration with other existing technologies and algorithms for mobile robots. Simulation environment for virtual programming of each hardware complex is provided. Educational and methodological materials and laboratory work on robotics, control theory, mechatronics, mathematical modeling. Separation of tasks, the joint construction of a mathematical model and the programming of a complex robotic system. The main emphasis in training is on the solution of model problems, the project approach is widely used. Such tasks can become a basis for individual course and diploma papers, for example, creating robots for the various scenarios. This educational platform is tested in the course "Introduction to Robotics and Artificial Intelligence" at the Kuban State University, Krasnodar.
Title: Integration Of Robotics Simulation Programs Into Educational Process In Kuban State University
Author(s):Igor Ryadchikov,Semyon Sechenev, Alexander Svidlov, Sergey Sinitsa,Pavel Volkodav, Yury Mamelin, Kirill Popko and Evgeny Nikulchev*
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The article describes the practical experience of using the Robocode computer simulator and models in Matlab Simulink Simmechanics in the study of artificial intelligence and robotics systems at the Kuban State University. In this paper, the problem of teaching students of higher educational institutions of robotics with the application of the project-based learning and using the simulation environment is considered. These environments allow, at the initial stage of training, students to replace expensive experiments with real hardware. The actual task when teaching such disciplines is the selection of practical tasks and used software that should help students to learn about non-trivial models and algorithms of artificial intelligence, to awaken interest in discipline and at the same time to be accessible in terms of the complexity of mastering for students. Creating a model of a physical system, taking into account not ideal sensors and actuators, allows you to immerse yourself in the creation of real systems, taking into account the key features of the functioning of robots. The application of different models of behavior on the same robot model makes it possible to identify the strengths and weaknesses of both physical modeling and the AI algorithm. Since 2013 students of two faculties of Kuban State University have been studying programming for RoboCode and Mathlab Simulink.
Title: Similarities And Differences In The Value Of Parents And Their Adult Children
Author(s): I.E. Rzhanova*, O.S Alekseeva
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The present study explores values of two generation: parents and their adult children. The sample include 468 participants: 290 parents (59% – female), aged 37-69 (M = 49.5, SD = 7.2); 178 adult children (60% – female), aged 18-37 (M = 23.3, SD = 4.3). Parents and children filled Schwartz Portrait Values Questionnaire, adapted for the Russian population. Value hierarchies of parents and children were different. For the group of parents, the most important values were Security, Universalism, and Benevolence, less important – Achievement, Power, and Stimulation, while in the group of children, priority values were Self-Direction, Hedonism, and Benevolence and less important – Tradition, Conformity, and Power. Significant differences between parents and children were found in all values except Benevolence. Parents had higher scores for Security, Conformity, Tradition, and Universalism; adult children had higher scores for Self-Direction, Stimulation, Hedonism, Achievement, and Power. The study showed intergenerational transmission of values Security, Tradition, Benevolence, and Universalism in the second level, and Conservation and Self-Transcendence in the third level. Correlation between the value systems of the mothers, in comparison with the fathers, and the value systems of their children were greater, which suggests that mothers have more influence on children’s formation of the structure of values than fathers.
Title: Problems Of Formation Of Technological Education At The Present Stage Of Development
Author(s): Sergey Shishov*, Valentina Kalney
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Previously, the teacher proceeded from the fact that the teenager transferred knowledge will be faithful companions throughout the life of the disciple. The article cites the need to change the goals of technological education the school, which, in general terms, is interpreted as "ways of acquiring knowledge and rules of operation". The authors start from such characteristics of social- economic situation in Russia: serious demand of individualism as a necessary element for the successful development of a market economy in the country; a variety of possible developments in all spheres of public and private life; the "deification" of rationality and Economics; adaptability of life in all the diversity of this concept. The results of studies show that in terms of technological education, special attention must be given to the following key skills: the formation of the reflexive worldview, understanding the changing nature of the information and remaining open to new data; the analysis of the role of new social and cultural ideas in the interpretation of information and dissemination of knowledge; a willingness to work with conflicting information, the development of skills to reason and discuss in order to reach agreement; assess the credibility of sources of information; developing the skills of analysis and synthesis the facts on which the information based.
Title: Approbation Of The Expanded Scale Of Cultural Intelligence In Russia
Author(s):Galina U. Soldatova, Svetlana V. Chigarkova*, Elena I. Rasskazova
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The paper presents the results of approbation of the Expanded Cultural Intelligence Scale in Russia. Due to the growing intercultural interaction in a modern global society, it becomes important to study suchpersonal characteristics, that ensure success during intercultural communication. Cultural intelligence is the capability of an individual to act and communicate effectively in culturally diverse settings. According to the concept of C. Earley and S. Ang, cultural intelligence consists of 4 factors: metacognitive, cognitive, motivational and behavioral. Differentiated structure of each factor of cultural intelligence, proposed later, enabled a more detailed study of this phenomenon. 1545 subjects completed the Russian version ofthe E-CQS. According to the results of our approbation, the E-CQScan be considered as a reliable and valid psychodiagnostic tool in Russia. Research on a representative Russian sample revealed good consistency and test-retest reliability of the E-CQS. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a factor structure, which is generally consistent with the original English version. Results on convergent and discriminant validity are in line with published data about the correlation of the main scales of the E-CQS with other types of intelligence and personal traits measured by the Big Five. Also, new data were obtained on the relationship between cultural intelligence and intercultural sensitivity and tolerance. In the absence of a suitable tool in Russian, approbation of the Russian version of the E-CQS provides deeper understanding of the factors and capacities of the effectiveness in intercultural interactions.
Title: The Parainclusive Education And Problems Of Its Development
Author(s): A.S. Sultanova*
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The term «parainclusive» education is proposed for designation of the integration of children with borderline condition into the common educational process. The categories of children in relation to which we apply the term «parainclusive» education are described: children with borderline abnormalities in their neuropsychiatric status; children who had a rather serious developmental disorders at an early age, but successfully corrected; children without neurological diagnosis, but with mild perinatal pathology of the nervous system in their anamnesis; children with not-disabling chronic somatic diseases; children from migrant families, who have recently arrived and have not yet learned the language, have not assimilated new social norms. The main factors that cause difficulties of parainclusive education are discussed: 1) the difficulties directly related to the manifestations of the child’s disease or disorder; 2) the difficulties associated with impaired communication with children and adults, with the establishment of adequate social relations in the team, i.e. social adaptation disorders;3) the difficulties relating to the inappropriate behavior of teaching staff;4) the difficulties associated with the lack of attention to the individual characteristics of the child in the preparatory period before the start of training in educational institutions. In general, for the success of parainclusive education the declared health-saving humanistic individual approach in education really should be a priority strategic direction of the development of education.
Title: Self-Organization Of Activities Of Students In The Situation Of Network Educational Communication
Author(s): Nina L. Sungurova*, Natalya B. Karabuschenko, Tatiana S. Pilishvili, Daria G. Boguslavskaya
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The psychological aspects of the network educational activity of students are considered in the article, the ambivalent character of the psychological consequences of information interaction is noted. For example, the Internet provides students with large scale and opportunities for information interaction, it allows you to quickly receive up-to-date information. On the other hand, network resources create mediated communication between people, in which products of information exchange become knowledge without active interaction of participants in this process. Students involved in network communication become "consumers" of the content of various information resources. This situation may threaten the security of the individual. The problem of self-organization is relevant in the process of personal and professional self-realization, and in the effective allocation of a temporary resource. Planning the use of your life time is an important component of modern life and indicators of their personal effectiveness. Personal propensity for self-organization is considered an important component of personal potential, which allows it to resist undesirable changes in the surrounding world. The authors conducted an empirical study of the self-organization of activities of students in the context of networked educational activity. Students who prefer active educational communication, daily plan their activities on the assimilated principles. They fix the pre-planned structure of the organization of events in time, are tied to a clear timetable, use external means of organizing activities. The inadequate development of students' ability to concentrate on the goal and streamline the activity make them more prone to dependence on the Internet.
Title: Assessment Of Success In Learning Mathematics: Cross-Cultural Analysis
Author(s): Tatiana Tikhomirova*, Igor Gaydamashko, Artem Malykh, Irina Lysenkova, Elsa Khusnutdinova (e), Sergey Malykh
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The article presents the results of a cross-cultural analysis of the correlation of various success indicators in learning mathematics – teacher assessments, computerized tests and the results of state examinations. The sample consisted of 304 high school students studying in Grade 11 of general education institutions in Russia and Kyrgyzstanwith similar educational conditions. The Russian sample included 120 students (mean age = 17.4, SD = 0.4, 41.9% male); the Kyrgyz sample included 184 students (mean age = 17.1, SD = 0.5, 36.4% male). In the course of the cross-cultural analysis, both similarities and differences in the interrelationships between different indicators of success in learning mathematics at high school age were found. On both cross-cultural samples moderate significant associations among the indicators of success in learning mathematics confirm the hypothesis about the use of various cognitive, motivational and emotional resources in solving mathematical tasks of different types - with and without time limit, in written or oral form. Cross-cultural differences are more closely related to the specific relationship between the results of the state examinations and other analyzed indicators of mathematical success. It was shown that on the Kyrgyz sample the results of the state examination are more associated with the computerized test, while on the Russian sample the results are more associated with the teacher's annual assessment. The results are interpreted in the context of the specifics of the national educational systems, in particular, related to the evaluation of success in learning the school disciplines.
Title: Cross-Cultural Study Of Mother-Child Interactions And Child’s Intelligence
Author(s): Tatiana Tikhomirova*, Irina Lysenkova, Victoria Ismatullina, Sergey Malykh
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The article presents the results of a cross-cultural analysis of the structure of the relationship between primary school age children’s perception of maternal attitude and children’s intelligence on the Russian and Kyrgyz samples. These countries are characterized, on the one hand, by similarities in the organization of the national education system, and, on the other hand, differences in socioeconomic status and effectiveness of public education. The sample comprised 1334 early school age children: 690 students (52.5% boys) from Russian Federation (Moscow District), and 644 students (45.5% boys) from Kyrgyz Republic (Bishkek city). The age of Russian participants ranges from 6.8 to 11.7 years (M=9.3, SD=1.03); the age range of Kyrgyz participants is from 6.8 to 11.8 years (M=9.2, SD=1.16). The perceived maternal attitude was assessed with The Children’s Report of Parental Behavior Inventory, mother version. A statistically significant effect of the country was observed for intelligence and three aspects of the maternal attitude – Acceptance, Positive involvement and Hostile detachment. On average, Kyrgyz children perceive mothers' attitude as more emotionally accepting and less rejective, compared to Russian peers. Regression analysis revealed predictors of intelligence: on the Russian sample – children's perception of the maternal attitude as emotionally rejecting; on the Kyrgyz sample – the degree of maternal hostile detachment. It was shown that the contribution of these perceived aspects of the maternal attitude to child’s intelligence depends on the complexity of the intelligence test items.
Title: Adaptation Of The Russian-Language Version Of Children’s Report Of Parental Behavior Inventory
Author(s): Tatiana Tikhomirova*, Sergey Malykh
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The article presents the psychometric characteristics of the Russian version of The Children's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory, mother and father versions (CRPBI, Schludermann & Schludermann, 1988). The questionnaire is designed to study the perception of parental attitudes by children of primary school age and adolescents. The study involved 1060 children, of whom 690 were primary school age children (mean age = 9.26, SD = 1.04, 52.5% boys), and 370 were adolescents (mean age = 13.27, SD = 1.2, 59.5% boys). The structure of the questionnaire was studied using exploratory factor analysis of the correlation matrix of the responses to each statement. The method of the principal components was chosen for the analysis. To confirm the obtained structure of the questionnaire, confirmatory factor analysis was used. In the course of the study, the four-factor structure of the questionnaire was confirmed, with the following scales: Acceptance, Positive involvement, Rejection and Hostile detachment. Satisfactory internal consistency of these scales on both analyzed samples was revealed. The effect of age and sex on the questionnaire scores was estimated on the samples of primary school children and adolescents. In particular, the sex factor was significant for the ‘positive’ scales of maternal attitude with girls rating it higher than boys. For the perception of paternal attitude, the sex factor was significant for three scales of the questionnaire with girls rating the paternal attitude higher than boys on the ‘positive’ scales – Acceptance and Positive involvement, and boys rating it higher than girls on Rejection.
Title: Creative Storytelling In Childhood Is Related To Exam Performance At Age 16
Author(s): Teemu Toivainen*, Margherita Malanchini, Bonamy R. Oliver, Yulia Kovas
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Creativity is only partly recognised in education. A recent meta-analysis estimated a correlation of r = 0.22 between creativity and educational achievement across many international student samples of all educational levels. In the meta-analysis, creativity was measured with a variety of measures, including divergent thinking and remote association tasks. The differences in the measures influenced the strength of the relationship between creativity and educational achievement. More research is needed to establish reliable measures of creativity, especially in primary school children, whose creativity remains poorly evaluated. The present study measured creativity in written stories in children at age 9 using the Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT). The study employed a longitudinal design, using CAT creativity scores as a predictor of educational achievement at age 16. Each of the stories from 59 children were coded by 6 different judges for 10 dimensions, including creativity. The inter-rater reliabilities between the judges for the 10 dimensions were high (α = .76 - .95). Among the dimensions, a factor analysis revealed two factors: Creative Expressiveness and Logic. The Creative Expressiveness factor explained an additional 7 % of variance in English grades, but not in Maths, beyond intelligence, previous achievement and personality traits associated with creativity. Overall, the study showed that CAT is a robust and reliable measure to detect verbal creativity in childhood. The results also suggest that early creativity predicts later academic achievement, calling for more attention to early creativity assessment and development.
Title: Features Of Meaningful Orientations Of Student Activists As A Component Of Hardiness
Author(s): Irina Trushina*, Yulia Chestiunina,Mikhail Ovchinnikov, Alena Lisichkina, Daria Andreeva
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The article describes a study of meaningful orientations features among student activists with a high level of involvement as a component of hardiness. In modern science there are no well-founded approaches to involving students into the activities of student self-government bodies, no systematic description of factors contributing to student self-government involvement, no uniform methodological field for their study. The article deals with the following issues a: peculiarities of meaningful orientations and involvement as a component of students' hardiness, features of meaningful orientations of student activists with different levels of involvement. The aim of the study is to reveal the specific features of the meaningful orientations of student activists with a high level of involvement. Students from 15 Russian universities took part in the research. The sample included 142 people: 51 activists and 91 nonactivists. The study used a meaningful orientation test, which is an adapted version of the Purpose in Life Test by J. Crumbaugh and L. Maholick, and a resilience test, which is an adaptation of S. Maddi’s "Hardiness Survey" questionnaire. We applied the following methods of mathematical statistics: descriptive statistics, Student t test, Mann-Whitney U test, cluster analysis, discriminant analysis. The results of the research show that students who take an active part in student self-management have a number of features concerning their meaningful orientations and resilience. Belonging to groups of students who are or are not activists of student government is determined by the degree of involvement as a component of resilience.
Title: Executive Functions And Theory Of Mind In Senior Preschool Age
Author(s): A.N. Veraksa*, D.A. Bukhalenkova, O.V. Almazova
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The goal of our study is to specify the role of executive functions in cognitive and social development in preschool age. This research examined the relation between individual differences in all three components of executive functioning (working memory, cognitive flexibility and inhibition) and theory of mind performance in senior preschool-age children. The study involved 267 children aged 5-6 years (143 boys and 124 girls), pupils of the older kindergarten groups in Moscow. The study used NEPSY-II diagnostic complex subtests aimed at diagnosing the level of executive functions and social development («Theory of mind» is one of them). We also used the Raven’s progressive matrix test, the DCCS method and the Test of Emotion Comprehension. The obtained result’s analysis showed the significant connection between all three components of executive functions and theory of mind. Three types of development of regulatory functions in preschool children were identified. Children belonging to different types shown differences in the successfulness of the theory of mind’s tasks performing. Our results provide important details about understanding the relation between executive functioning and theory of mind development in the senior preschool age and practical implications for child’s future academic success, which requires high level of regulation and socio-emotional competence.
Title: Diagnosis Of The Level Of Development Of Executive Functions In Preschool Age
Author(s): A.N. Veraksa*, D.A. Bukhalenkova, O.V. Almazova, M.N Martinenko
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The article considers Miyake’s model of executive functions as applied to preschool age. The main objective of the study was to approbate the NEPSY diagnostic toolkit for assessing the level of executive functions development on a sample of Russian preschoolers (N = 267). As a result of comparing the results shown by US and Russian children aged 5-6 years, some specific cross-cultural features were identified: Russian children display a more developed image memory on average while their American peers showed a better memory for spatial representations. The speed of constraining control task performance averaged two times higher results in Russian preschoolers than in the Americans. To verify the convergent validity of the toolkit, a correlation analysis on a sample part (N = 48) was made of the results of the preschoolers' performance of two batteries of methods which was developed and tested under the guidance of L.A. Wenger. The revealed intercorrelation confirmed the possibility of using the above tools to diagnose executive functions. Analysis of the study data showed that the development levels of auditory and visual memory in older preschool children were not interrelated. However, in many respects verbal memory lies at the basis of attention flexibility development (switching), whereas visual memory underlies restraining control (inhibition). Based on the results of the diagnosis, four different variants of executive function development in the senior preschool age were identified and described.
Title: Relationship Between Quality Of Environment And Cognitive Development In Preschool Age
Author(s): A.N. Veraksa*, D.A. Bukhalenkova, O.V. Almazova, M.N. Martinenko
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The article presents the results of a study aimed to analyze the relationship between the mental development of older preschool age children and the quality of the literacy environment in which they are immersed. The study involved 250 children from 8 kindergarten groups. To obtain a more detailed analysis and comparison of the children's mental development parameters, two most contrasting groups were chosen. The study found that the indicators of mental development of the emotional and personal and cognitive spheres are higher in kindergarten children with higher indicators of literacy environment quality, especially regarding the specific features of child-adult communication and the conditions necessary for children to develop their reasoning skills in the process of communication. This study concludes that the research outcomes reflect important features of the mental development process in children included in this or that literacy environment. The study results can serve as a basis for further elaboration of recommendations on how to organize an environment in a pre-school educational institution.
Title: Child Abuse Prevalence In Russian Families And Schools
Author(s): Elena Volkova*
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The article presents a child abuse spreading study (on physical, emotional, sexual abuse and neglect) fulfilled with International Child Abuse Screening Tool – Children’s version (ICAST-C) in Nizhny Novgorod region of the Russian Federation. The sample numbers 227 children (131 girls, 96 boys) from 11 to 18. The authors found out that 78.4% of children face at least one form of abuse during their lifetime. ¾ of respondents suffered from abuse in family, and 2/3 faced abuse at school. The sample represents high levels of psychological abuse at home (present for more than 2/3 of respondents), while children are more frequently threatened at home than at school (54% and 30% respectively). Also in families, more children suffer from beating (49% in contrast with 33% at school). However, sexual abuse, contact form in particular, is more frequent at school (27%). Almost all forms of abuse are equally present for boys and girls. The exceptions are physical abuse at school, which is more relevant for boys (45%) than for girls (33%), and sexual abuse at home, where girls are more involved (13% in contrast with 4% for boys). Girls also suffer more from humiliation, than boys do. Other forms and types of abuse are not sensitive to gender. Older teenagers are less frequently abused than younger groups. They are less subjected to emotional abuse than other age groups (40% against 60-75% for others), and to sexual abuse forms. However, they suffer from penetrating sexual abuse more than others (8.5%).
Title: Mental Health Of Teenagers Participating At School Bullying
Author(s): Irina Volkova*
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This study is focused on mental health of teenagers participating in bullying. The main goal is to estimate if certain mental health problem can be predictors of victimization, bullying and witnessing in bullying situation. The sample includes 414 students of 7-9 grades of secondary schools (age 12-15). Victims, bullies and witnesses are revealed with Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. Mental health was measured with Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, developed by R. Goodman. The study found that 33,8% of teenagers to be victims, 17,1% - bullies, and 27,5% - witnesses. There were significantly more boys among bullies than girls. Emotional, behavioral, peer-related and hyperactivity problems and prosocial behavior constitute predictors of victimization. We can suggest that emotional, behavioral, peer-related and hyperactivity problems have additive effect on victim mental health status, which makes victims behave in such manner that they become easy targets for bullies. In its turn, bullying incident deepens suffering of victims and produces new mental health problems or enforces existing ones. Hyperactivity and gender were significant predictors for bullying. Prosocial behavior is a predictor of witnessing bullying, and probably, this indicated the conformal position of witnesses. Future research are suggested to add environmental, relational or demographic factors to improve the models.
Title: Do Cognitive Styles Affect Psychophysical Tasks Performance?
Author(s): Nataliia N. Volkova*, Alexey N. Gusev
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Background. In order to deepen understanding of signal detection/discrimination processes we have to focus on highlighting individual differences in observers’ sensory performance due to the contribution of various variables of personality and cognition spheres. The purpose of our study was to test cognitive style factors (augmenting-reducing, levelling-sharpening, flexibility-rigidity of cognitive control, equivalence range, and focusing-scanning) influencing performance of psychophysical tasks. Methods. Ninety participants performed a set of cognitive style tests as well as two psychophysical tasks on visual signal detection (‘yes-no’) and loudness discrimination (‘same-different’). The duration of visual pattern presentation and difference between pairs of auditory stimuli were used to provide task’s difficulty level, and therefore the level of uncertainty. Results. Data analysis showed several effects of cognitive styles on psychophysical tasks performance indices, in particular: sensory sensitivity, RT and its stability, and response confidence. According to our results, each style is related to its own benefits and advantages in observer’s overall productivity. Furthermore, the contribution of cognitive styles differed depending on task’s type and difficulty level. Conclusions. Our results support current findings, considering cognitive styles as playing a regulative role in cognitive activity. Hence, they could be acknowledged as tools, mediating individual strategies, representing different ways of coping with perceptual uncertainty.
Title: Functional Features Of The Preschool Educational Institutions With An Ethnocultural
Author(s): Tatiana Volosovets*, Ivan Kirillov, Alexandr Buyanov
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This article considers the specificities of the ranking mechanics as an instrument, which enables one to proceed with assessing the quality of education in a preschool educational institution by comparing its inherent characteristics with analogous characteristics of other kindergartens. Subjects are state-owned municipal preschool educational institutions, including institutions with an ethnocultural component of education, aimed at child-rearing for tolerance and respect of cultures, instilling universal cultural values, introduction to various cultural traditions. All the information due for assessment is grouped in three areas: favorable environment for the child in the preschool educational institution, professional qualifications of the teachers working with children, and additional services provided by a kindergarten. With the assistance of the ranking, one can determine the most sought-after complex and partial educational programs used by preschool educational institutions for the development of their own core educational program, one can to identify regional and ethnocultural preferences of different Russian Federation regions in choosing the content for the implementation in the preschool educational institution. The results of the preschool education institutions' ranking are provided in a form of flexible database that can be searched for any information in demand. Functioning features of the preschool educational institutions with an ethnocultural component are considered separately.
Title: Density As A Ratio-Concept: Cultural-Historical Activity Approach In Teaching
Author(s):Helen Vysotskaya, Maria Yanishevskaya*, Iya Rekhtman
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We discuss the potential of Cultural-Historical Theory (Vygotsky) and Activity Approach (Leontiev) for teaching ratio-based concepts (in particular – density) in middle school. The Activity Approach assumes that the concept should originate from some meaningful object-related action. The logical and activity content of the concept of density was analyzed. We have suggested the float-or-sink problem as the proper context for introducing density. Changing the object’s buoyancy thus serves as students’ meaningful activity that brings the density concept into consideration. We also used a specific stratagem for teaching ratio-based concepts: “nominator” and “denominator” (for density, these are weight and volume, respectively) were initially presented as independent features of an object measured in some artificial units. A local instruction theory (educational design research framework) has been devised; 42 students (6th grade) participated in our teaching experiment, while another 40 students (7th grade) were a control group where density has been studied within the ‘problem-and-practice’ physics curriculum. The pre- and post-test of our students were compared to that of the control group. The post-test results were analyzed in terms of strategies that students used, explanations given by the students, mistakes made, etc. The experimental group has shown significantly better results as compared to the control group regarding understanding of density as a ratio-based concept and dealing with it. The key to success, in our opinion, is that the Activity Approach stimulates educators to pay special attention to the operational content of the ratio-based concepts. This ensures much better learning outcomes.
Title: Organization And Analysis Of Psychological And Pedagogical Research Of The Score-Rating System
Author(s): Alexander Y. Vyzhigin*
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This article is devoted to the organization and analysis of psychological and pedagogical research, point-rating system as a means of internal evaluation of the quality of educational results of students of the Universities. The article presents: a description of the psychological and pedagogical research; the main provisions of the score-rating system; the variants changes the score-rating system; the dynamics of changes in the structure of the score-rating system, taking into account attendance of students and has been staged at testacea; the analysis of theoretical aspects of the problem on the subject of the study and sample description of the subjects and stages of psychological and pedagogical research. The hypothesis of the study is that the point-rating system is a means of internal evaluation of the quality of educational results of students of the Universities, provided that the ito-d will be: increased student motivation; improved learning; improving co-statelnent in education; improving the educational process; promotion of systematic work; reducing the influence of random factors at the time of tests and EC-Semenov. Developed a survey questionnaire of students. When analysing the results of the survey on the use of point-rating system in educational process and the final results across the five groups of questions, 68% of students perceived the PRS as a means of internal quality assessment of educational outcomes, consider and realize as an element of professional training, can systematically adjust the individual ing educational path due to the self-evaluation of its results.