The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences EpSBS
Volume XVI, Pages 1- 919 (November 2016)

e-ISSN: 2357-1330
Edited by: Zafer Bekirogullari, Melis Y. Minas & Roslind X. Thambusamy
Articles: 1-95
Conference:  ICEEPSY 2016 - 7th International Conference on Education and Educational Conference
Dates: 10 - 15 October 2016
Location: Rhodes - Greece
Conference Chair(s): Prof Dr Heikki Ruismäki, Vice Dean, Faculty of Behavioral Sciences, Department of Teacher Education Art Research Centre University of Helsinki, Finland; Prof. Dr. Kirsti Lonka, Professor of Educational Psychology
University of Helsinki, Finland; Pavlo Kanellakis
 CPsychol, FBPsS (British Psychological Society) HCPC Registered Clinical, Counselling, Health, Sport and Exercise Psychologist (United Kingdom) Association for Psychological Therapies (APT), Couples SIG
Cover Page here 

Title: Contents

Open Access


No: 1
Title: Making Small Achievements: A Step by Step Motivating Approach in L2 Learning
Pages 1-6
Author(s): Zohreh Molaee*
Open Access

Full Text 1

The purpose of this study was defining the effectiveness of an achievement making method, a motivating instructional one to improve English learning as a second language (L2). For doing so a case study research design selected and after considering the English scores of students of a language institute and in a purposive sampling method, the subject who was interested in our study has been selected. The scores average for the subject (case) was 71.35 (C) in a 100 points scale. The case, replied to an author made, Persian questionnaire on his English learning experience, as a motivational factor. The case was an Iranian student, 22 years old, male and graduate in industrial management (B.S). He entered in the treatment (instruction) process after passing 8 course sessions (1month). Regarding the results of the subject’s first survey on his learning experience, an instructional method designed, based on multiple short exams and immediate feedback and reinforcement to modify the learner’s L2 experience in a step by step achievement making approach. A general exam on language main skills accomplished after each 4-course session alongside replying to learning L2 experience questionnaire. The final results of qualitative analysis of totally 12 months, 96 course sessions and 22 general exams showed a clear improvement in subject’s L2 scores (L2 achievement) and also in L2 learning experience. Based on our finding, it can be concluded that, designed achievement making instructional method has been effective to improve subject’s learning L2 experience and hence the L2 achievement. 

No: 2
Title: Sources of Information about Dietary Fibre: A Cross-Country Survey
Pages 7-17
Author(s): Manuela Ferreira, Raquel P. F. Guiné*, João Duarte, Paula Correia, Marcela Leal, Ivana Rumbak
Open Access

Full Text 2
Dietary fibre (DF) is recognized as a major determinant for improvement of health. Hence the means of information through which people become aware of its benefits are crucial and this work aimed at studying the sources of information about DF. Factors such as age, gender, level of education, living environment or country were evaluated as to their effect on the selection of sources and preferences. For this, a descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 6010 participants from 10 countries. For the analysis were used descriptive statistics, crosstabs and chi square test, and factor analysis with Varimax rotation. The results showed that mostly the information about DF comes from the internet, but the participants recognize that television might be a most suitable way to disseminate information about DF. The results also indicated differences between age groups, genders, levels of education, living environments and countries. The internet, the preferred source of information, got highest scores for Hungary, for urban areas, for university level of education and for female gender. The radio, the least scored source of information, was preferred in Egypt, for men and with lower education (primary school). As a conclusion, people get information through the internet due to easy access. However, it is to some extent a risk given the impossibility to control de information made public on the internet. The role of health centers and hospitals as well as schools should definitely be increased, as a responsible way to ensure correct information. 

No: 3 
Title: Determinants of psycho-emotional postpartum changes: the effects of self-esteem
Pages 18-26
Author(s): Manuela Ferreira*, Catarina Coelho, Bruno Batista, João Duarte, Claudia Chavesa
Open Access

Full Text 3
During the puerperium, women face a set of changes that occur at a biological, psychological and social level. They are also confronted with the necessity of living through constant adjustments that make them more vulnerable to psychological and emotional imbalance. Psycho-emotional changes during the puerperium come from what people call the postpartum blues, a cross-cultural, high prevalence phenomenon, of benign and transient nature, that occurs in healthy women affecting them  physically and  psychologically.
The assessment of the puerperal mother’s self-esteem is fundamental to understand the risk of developing psycho emotional changes during the postpartum period.
With this in mind, we conducted a quantitative, cross-sectional, correlational and explanatory study on 175  healthy puerperal women to identify the psycho-emotional changes that occur between the fourth and sixth week of postpartum and to determine the relationship between the different variables (socio-demographic, factors that are associated with the mother’s labour, those which are  associated with breastfeeding, self-esteem) and psycho-emotional changes.
Results revealed that recent mothers who are professionally active, who have a higher education level, with no history of preterm birth and having had breastfeeding problems exhibit higher levels of psycho-emotional changes. The key changes identified in this study were moderate/severe anxiety.
In this context we should point out: the feeling of exhaustion, mental and physical fatigue and insecurity in providing care for the baby; followed by moderate/severe depressive feelings, like: sadness, melancholy, weariness, crying and solitude; and finally, a moderate/severe feeling of concern, nervousness and unrest.
Self-esteem has proven to be a predictor of psycho-emotional changes, since the greater the self-esteem, the higher the levels of changes. 

No: 4
Title: Attachment styles among a sample of Estonian adult male offenders
Pages 27-35
Author(s): Kristi Kõiv*
Open Access

Full Text 4
The link between offenders’ attachment styles and bully-category, as well as violent offending has been assessed empirically in the present study. Estonian adult male (N = 110: 47 of them violent and 63 nonviolent) offenders were required to complete a measure of attachment, namely the Multiple-item Attachment Scale developed by Simpson (1990), and exploring secure, avoidant and anxious/ambivalent styles.  Inmates in the high security prison were also required to complete a self-report behavioral checklist – Direct and Indirect Prisoner Behaviour Checklist-Revised (DIPC-R©: Ireland, 2002a), that enables inmates to categorize into four groups: pure bullies (N = 16), pure victims (N = 22), bully/victims (N = 47), and those not involved in bullying or victimization (N = 25). A significant difference was found regarding the bully-categories: (1) pure victims reported lower secure attachment scores than the other bully-categories; (2) bully/victims and pure victims reported higher anxious/ambivalent attachment scores than pure bullies and not involved offenders. Additionally, a significant difference was found regarding the violent versus non-violent offender status: violent offenders reported higher anxious/ambivalent attachment scores than non-violent inmates. The present study extends results to a sample of adult male prison inmates suggesting that offenders may share some common characteristics across different prison settings regarding insecure attachment styles as risk factors of prison bullying and violent criminal behavior. 

No: 5
Title: Teens and Sex: Are they ready?
Pages 36-43
Author(s): Wilailak Ounjit (Laila) *
Open Access

Full Text 5
Sexual desire is something natural for men and women. When sexual desire occurs, especially among teenagers,  it needs to be managed correctly and properly so that no issues will arise later on. The purpose of this research is to examine management of sexual problems among Thai teenagers, by applying theoretical concepts on social structure and culture, concepts on teenager attitudes towards sexual relationships. This research is considered as aQuantitative Research using Accidental Sampling, Survey Research Methods and Questionnaires as data collecting tools. The sample group of this research consisted of first to fourth year students in undergraduate programs totaling672 students. These analyses indicate that Thai teenagers trusted and were close to family members and so they had the courage to talk to or ask their parents directly about sexual issues. Even though masturbation was the safest sexual activity, some teenagers believed that it is a sin and immoral.  With regard to ways to deal with sexual relationships within the limits of Thai culture in order to avoid students being exposed to circumstances that may expose them to the risk of unintended sexual relationships, it was found that most teenagers believed that female students should wear appropriate clothing and should not wear revealing clothes that may arouse sexual desire in others.  They should refrain from alcohol, and should avoid being alone with people of the opposite sex. 

No: 6
Title: Traditional Toys and Student Motivation and Commitment in Technological Education
Pages 44-54
Author(s): Ana Paula Cardoso*, Luísa Correia, Paula Rodrigues, Sara Felizardo, Ana Lopes
Open Access

Full Text 6
Technological Education is a subject where students acquire knowledge and technical skills, which will enable them to analyse and resolve specific situations and will prepare them for an increasingly technological world. This course requires students to gain knowledge and know-how such that motivation and commitment are crucial for the development of classroom projects and activities. It is in this context that traditional toys come up in this study as catalysts for motivation and student interest. Thus, the aim of the research performed is to understand whether the units of work related to traditional toys promote the students’ motivation and commitment on Technological Education. In terms of methodology, we carried out an exploratory research of qualitative nature, based on semi-structured interviews with teachers and students in the 2nd cycle of basic education at five schools in the municipality of Viseu, Portugal. Nine teachers and forty-five Technological Education students, aged between 10 and 12 years, attending the 5th and 6th years of schooling participated. Content analysis of the answers revealed that the implementation of units of work involving the construction of traditional toys are conducive to students’ motivation and commitment, constituting an added value in Technological Education. As this is a classroom project, it allows students to apply technical knowledge they have acquired. Thus, starting from a first idea, it allows them to experience all of the stages of toy building, from conception to completion, contributing to greater student satisfaction in the teaching-learning process. 

No: 7
Title: Leadership and Pedagogical Interaction as Predictors of Learning Outcomes in Physical Education
Pages 55-64
Author(s): Pedro Trigo Araújo, Ana Paula Cardoso*, Susana Fidalgo
Open Access

Full Text 7
This research aims to understand the relative contribution of leadership styles and teacher-student and student-student pedagogical interaction concerning learning performance and academic achievement in Physical Education. A quantitative methodology was implemented, comprising a sample of 447 students attending a school grouping located in the coastal region of central Portugal. In order to verify the nature, the strength and the direction of the relations among the variables, correlation and multiple regression analyses were used. For this, scales already validated and used in other researches were applied. The results show that the learning performance and the academic achievement are significantly associated with teacher leadership styles and teacher-student and student-student pedagogical interaction. A stronger association was obtained with leadership styles, especially the democratic one. It should be mentioned that these factors provide a higher relative contribution to the learning performance than to the academic achievement. The analysis conducted highlights the importance of the democratic teacher leadership style and of the pedagogical interaction established within the classroom towards the improvement of students’ ability to understand the gains and the effort made in learning. 

No: 8
Title: Meditation and Procrastination
Pages 65-72
Author(s): Miriam Thye*, Katharina Mosen, Ulrich Weger, Diethard Tauschel
Open Access

Full Text 8
The term Procrastination describes a complex disturbance in the process of controlling action and is associated with low self-regulation capacities. Especially among students for whom 75 percent report being negatively impacted by the tendency. The study at hand tests the theory that meditation supports self-relational capacities among students, and therefore leads to a reduction in procrastination behavior. Eight semi structured interviews were conducted with students experienced in meditation (N=8, age= 20-25 years). The students were instructed to reflect on their meditation practice and its possible influence on their study habits, especially procrastination. Qualitative content analysis revealed the following main factors on the relationship between the effectiveness of meditation and procrastination: time-management, focus of attention, self-regulation, pressure to perform, self-worth and acuteness of thoughts. Further, to investigate procrastination among the participants the Tuckman Procrastination Scale (TSP-D) was included. The quantitative results indicate, that the participating students, who are experienced in meditation show a very low score on procrastination. In conclusion, the study suggests that mediation is associated lessened procrastination with possible mechanisms of increased acuteness of thoughts, focus of attention and self-regulation. 

No: 9
Title:  Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction of Estonian Primary School Teachers
Pages 73-83
Author(s): Merike Kaseorg*, Krista Uibu
Open Access

Full Text 9
Vast changes in the education field have an effect on teachers’ job satisfaction. In a tightening competition principals of educational institutions have to keep track of their staff’s satisfaction, as it is an important factor in achieving the organization’s objectives. The aim of the current article is to find out about the internal (e.g., work-related collaboration with colleagues and school principals, school management) and external (e.g., salary, promotion) factors influencing job satisfaction. Forty-five primary school teachers from 28 Estonian schools participated in the study. Structured interviews were used to collect teachers’ attitudes and descriptions and thematic analysis to analyze them. It was found that primary school teachers’ job satisfaction was greater in the case of internal factors. It became evident that about 50% of the primary school teachers were satisfied with work-related matters and school management. It appeared that even though the professional development of teachers was supported in small quantities, teachers found opportunities for self-development by exchanging knowledge and experiences with colleagues. Most teachers were not satisfied with their salary and possibilities for promotion in schools. When teachers are satisfied the collegiality, job satisfaction with school environment and job performance improve.  

No: 10
Title: Attitudes of Czech University Students to a Healthy Lifestyle
Pages 84-95
Author(s): Marie Chrásková*, Jana Kvintová
Open Access

Full Text 10
The paper describes the results of a research study investigating the attitudes of university students to concepts associated with health and healthy lifestyle by means of a semantic differential. Another objective was to compare these attitudes with the basic components of a healthy lifestyle. Specifically, these components included student-reported eating habits, leisure activity and physical activity. The research sample consisted of 612 university students enrolled in various teacher training programmes. The tool for the measurement of the students’ attitudes was a semantic differential of an own design using a factor analysis. To measure their attitudes to health and healthy lifestyle, the students were presented with the following concepts: I, Stress, Risky sexual behaviour, Drugs, Alcohol, Smoking, Health, Disease, Physical activity and Healthy lifestyle. The authors also investigated other students’ characteristics relating to the issue such as eating habits and preferred leisure activity and physical activity. Further indicators included the following: field of study, year of study, and gender. The obtained data were used to develop a semantic space to observe the concepts in various groups of respondents. The differences between various groups were further compared by means of the Student’s t-test and analysis of variance. It was revealed that men and women have different attitudes to health, and that students who highly value their health, healthy lifestyle and physical activity mostly adhere to healthy eating principles and engage in physical activity. 

No: 11
Title: A Comparison of Mindsets and Goal Orientations Using Number Line Estimation Software
Pages 96-112
Author(s): Kristin Villanueva*
Open Access

Full Text 11
People are thought to lie somewhere along the spectrum between two opposing theories of intelligence, the incremental theory and the entity theory. Individuals with a growth mindset tend to believe that intelligence and ability can grow with effort and practice, while individuals with a fixed mindset tend to believe that peoples’ level of skill and intelligence is predetermined and innate. Individual differences in beliefs and perceptions about intelligence and ability manifest themselves through differences in motivation and goal-seeking behavior. Typically, individuals who hold a growth mindset have been linked to be more mastery goal oriented, as opposed to fixed mindset individuals, who are associated with more performance orientation. Research has shown that individuals exposed to a growth mindset significantly perform better on mathematics tasks than individuals with a fixed mindset (Dar-Nimrod & Heine, 2006). The primary goal of this study was to analyze how participants’ implicit theories, goal orientations and goal seeking behaviors differ with respect to how they approach number line estimation problems in the MathemAntics Sort and Estimate (MASE) software. Participants’ mindset and goal orientations were evaluated using a self-response questionnaire, and their performance and behavior were assessed using computer log files from the MASE activity. The results showed that higher performance-avoid goal orientation was related to less accurate estimations on the MASE activity. Surprisingly, the results did not detect significant associations between mindset and goal orientation, nor were differences between growth and fixed mindset performance and behavior observed in the present study. 

No: 12
Title: A Corpus Based Investigation of Academic Emotions in Foreign Language Learning Environment
Pages 113-121
Author(s): Betül Bal Gezegin*, Melike Baş
Open Access

Full Text 12
Academic emotions refer to various emotions that students experience in their academic activities during their language learning process. Emotions experienced in the learning environment have a great impact on learning. The aim of this project is to investigate students’ emotions in the English Language Department of Amasya University and to identify what emotions students experience most in classroom environment. Within this scope, data are collected via emotional experience diaries in which students write their experiences of various emotions each week in a 14-week academic term. Emotions are tagged and analyzed with the help of UAM corpus software. Dominant emotion types are identified and categorized as positive and negative. Findings demonstrate that negative emotions outnumber positive ones, which needs further investigations. Among 15 types of negative emotions, distress, fear, sadness are found to be the most frequent types students experience, whereas happiness is the most dominant one among 10 positive emotions types. Findings of the study will help foreign language teachers to better understand emotional procedures students pass through, and be aware of particularly negative emotions. In addition, teachers can create an educational atmosphere in which students enjoy language learning and use their cognitive skills effectively. The academic emotions model emerging with this study will be of great use to researchers, foreign language teachers and students.  

No: 13
Title: Developing Drama Teachers' Body Awareness and Holistic Interactions Using Theatre Based Methods
Pages 122-131
Author(s): Tapio Toivanen*, Miia Kaasinen
Open Access

Full Text 13
The challenges of pedagogical interaction in drama are related to the teacher-student interaction. The aim of our research is to develop theatre based training programmes designed to take advantage of teachers’ holistic, especially nonverbal communication interaction skills; presence and the use of bodies and space in educational settings.  Our research questions are: 1) what theatre based tools can be used to teach body awareness? And 2) is it possible to use those practiced body messages consciously in teaching-studying-learning situations? The aim of this paper is to present the background and some aspects of the theory based practical training program we have developed to teach holistic interaction to professional teachers and teacher students in Helsinki University´s teacher education “Challenge of the Empty space -research project”. We also present the preliminary results of the effectiveness of the training programme. Preliminary data collection was carried out between 2014 and 2016.  Two groups of teacher students (N=36) and one group of qualified teachers (N=16) took the basic studies of drama education course (25 ECTS credits). Holistic interaction skills were especially studied in the theatre education course (7 ECTS credits). After the course the participants reflected on their learning by answering a questionnaire. All the respondents felt that they have learnt something new about teacher‒student interaction and about the importance interactions during teaching. They mentioned that they had been paying close attention to their own supplementary communication. All the qualified teachers (N=16) described concrete situations where they have used “new holistic interaction” skills consciously. The results of the preliminary study reinforced our view. They give indications that teachers’ body awareness in teaching situations can be developed with these methods. The results will help us to develop the theatre based training programme further.  

No: 14
Title: Language Effectiveness in print media advertisements of Multi-national Fast Food chains
Pages 132-139
Author(s): Ameena Zafar*
Open Access

Full Text 14
Print media advertising is area specific and tailored for a specific target market. The customer preference of language content used in advertisements of fast food chains is not gauged once they are printed and sent out to the consumers. Only pre-launch studies are conducted, but fast food chains for specific areas do not collect post-launch data. To study the advertisements of fast food multinational companies in print media one needs to identify the vocabulary that is liked and disliked by the consumers of these fast food chains. This language feedback will enhance the effectiveness of the future advertising campaigns, consequently enhancing the sales of the product in Islamabad. Printed advertisements were collected for language assessment. Researcher observations, and a survey was conducted through random sampling, to study the script, tag lines and slogans used by multinational fast food chains, namely, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Pizza Hut, Hardees and McDonalds in their print media advertisements. It focused on the popular vocabulary, whether it was effective, and how it affected the consumer behaviour towards advertising in the capital city Islamabad.It was found that the targeted consumers mostly preferred a contemporary mixture of English and Urdu scripts and enjoyed those tag lines and slogans, which they could relate to their cosmopolitan lifestyle. KFC, Pizza Hut, Hardees and McDonalds’ marketing departments can use this valuable data to tailor their future advertising strategies in print media according to the preferences of their consumers in Islamabad, which can, consequently have a positive effect on their product sales. 

No: 15
Title: Who are those healthy behaved?
The analysis of the relationship between personality and health-related behavior
Pages 140-148
Author(s): Jana Marie Havigerová*, Jaroslava Dosedlová, Iva Burešová
Open Access

Full Text 15
The paper is focused on health-related behavior. The study forms part of a large research project with the title “Health-Enhancing and Health-Threatening Behavior: Determinants, Models, and Consequences“ (GA13-19808S). The purpose of this study is to find a relationship between personality variables (measured using GPP-I questionnaire) and health-related behavior (measured using the Health-Related Behavior Scale, Dosedlová et al., 2013). The research sample of this study consisted of N=650 undergraduates (61.1% women and 38.9% men) aged 18-26 years. In cluster analysis, three different life styles were defined using ten health-related factors. Super-healthy behaved students, unlike those healthy and unhealthy behaved, are represented much more frequently by women than men living in a partnership. Correlation analysis and analyses of variance were conducted to examine whether students with different health-related life-styles differ in chosen personal characteristics. As indicated by the results, there is a tight relationship between personality and life style. In university graduates, the strongest relationship was found between health-related behavior and personality traits: responsibility and stability (the lower the responsibility and stability, the more unhealthy the life style). A tendency connected with the sociability trait is interesting: the higher the sociability, the higher the tendency to produce some of the extreme behavior types (unhealthy or super-healthy). A hypothesis is formulated regarding the effect of increasing probability of the conception and protective action of the primary family setting on the choice of health-related behavior. 

No: 16
Title: Audiovisual Method, Psycholinguistics and Sociocultural Approaches in Teaching Chinese
Pages 149-156
Author(s): Svetlana Korovina*, Anna Pushkina, Lyudmila Krivoshlykova
Open Access

Full Text 16
Growth of popularity of Chinese in Russia  requires regular upgrading of the course contents, means, methods of teaching in the frame of international standards in language education. Communicative language teaching of Chinese suggests new effective methodological tools and techniques in language skills training. The purpose of teaching Chinese is built around the notion of communicative competence and seeks to develop functional communicative skills in students due to the set of methodological principles and syllabus specifications which are incorporated into the method which contributes to successful achievement of the aforesaid goal. The research methods are based on psycholinguistics and sociocultural approaches combined.  Classroom activities include regular work with the practical audiovisual course developed by the authors. The course contains a Student’s book, a Teacher’s book, a CD with 55 short (max. 5 mins.) authentic films. Each section of the course is followed by exercises and methodological recommendations to work with audiovisual material. Such tasks as stating the main idea of the micro-film, debating, role-playing contribute to students’ mastering communicative skills. As a result, the practical course of Chinese sets an appropriate level of challenge for Russian students and keeps them motivated. The activities in the course are designed to recycle knowledge and demonstrate language acquisition. Along with well-balanced combination of psycholinguistics and sociocultural approaches, both teachers and students feel a real sense of achievement. 

No: 17
Title: Poster – A Form of Communication for Doctoral Students
Pages 157-166
Author(s): Anezka Lengalova*
Open Access

Full Text 17
For many doctoral students, the initial contacts with the community are international conferences. Since the communication language at most conferences is English, it is also an opportunity to demonstrate the student´s skills in this language. The first genre that PhD students use to present their research results is often the poster. It has its limitations, but also advantages. An advantage is that, unlike an oral lecture, which is intended for an "average listener", the poster can offer diverse explanations and can provoke feedback (often in the form of constructive criticism) that can stimulate new ideas for the poster creator. In any case, the poster is a genre with specific features, requiring skills that a future scientist should acquire. This paper and accompanying virtual presentation provide the principles of the poster in terms of both its content and form, as well as presentation, and they also deal with the experiences of the author in teaching this genre to doctoral students. The paper also compares the poster with other ways of presenting research results - with research papers and oral presentations. Attention is also paid to the technical details that allow doctoral students to avoid unpleasant surprises while printing and transporting posters. Finally, it identifies new trends in the preparation of and general approach to posters, which should assist doctoral students in knowledge dissemination. 

No: 18
Title: Research Management Competencies: Croatian Academics’ Perspective
Pages 167-178
Author(s): Marko Turk*, Nena Rončević, Jasminka Ledić
Open Access

Full Text 18
The research on the academics’ competencies, primarily teaching competencies, has been present for many years now. On the other hand, studies on academics’ research management competencies have been almost completely absent. The main research question of this study was: How do the academics in Croatia assess the importance of the research management competencies? The purpose of this paper is to explore and analyse the assessment of importance of the research management competencies on a sample of Croatian academics. The applied research method was an on-line survey, and the research instrument used was a survey questionnaire. The research included 1130 participants from seven public universities in Croatia. This paper will further analyse the differences in assessment with respect to the independent variables of sex, academic rank and research field of the research participants. The results indicate that the junior academics assess the research management competencies as statistically significantly less important in comparison with the senior academics. Additionally, men assess these competencies as more important compared with women. It should also be noted that there are differences between the academics from different research field (humanities, social sciences and arts versus natural and technical sciences). The data obtained are indicative and interesting particularly in the context of current higher education policies in Croatia, which among other issues, discuss the promotion procedures within the academic profession. In this context, it seems that research management competencies are going to be one of the important promotion criteria. 

No: 19
Title: Undergraduate Social Education Student’s Perspectives about the Profession
Pages 179-188
Author(s): Esperança Jales Ribeiro*, Sara Alexandre Felizardo, Emília Martins, Rosina Fernandes, Maria João Amante, Leandra Cordeiro
Open Access

Full Text 19
Higher education institutions, responsible for training social educators, should ensure the construction of a profile marked by their technical versatility and whose socio-educational intervention is directed at all people, regardless of their situations in life. Reflection on the construction of this profile is fundamental given the difficulties of identity that the profession faces. In this context, we sought to develop a study which would allow us to identify how the students of a degree course in Social Education characterise this professional, in order to reflect on the contribution of training provided by the institution concerned and, if necessary, make the adjustments arising from the results. This is a qualitative, exploratory study, using an unstructured questionnaire applied to a convenience sample of 140 Portuguese students of the three years of a degree course in Social Education. Its emerging categorical content analysis was performed using the NVivo software, version 11. The main results point to a broad vision of the profession and are not limited to the work geared to specific populations or issues, valuing the relevance of the professional in the field of non-assistance socio-educational intervention. The main area of overlap between training objectives and students’ perceptions about practice allows the impact of training to be positively assessed, despite possible curricular adjustments resulting from further analysis, including the need to reinforce community intervention, undervalued by students, even though it plays a key role for social educators. 

No: 20
Title: Students’ and Professors’ Perception of Occurrence and Disturbance of Disruptive Classroom Behaviors
Pages 189-202
Author(s): Irena Miljkovic Krecar*, Maja Kolega, Vicko Krampus
Open Access

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Disruptive behavior could be defined as the behavior that interrupts the educational process and causes stress to teachers or other students. In this research an anonymous questionnaire containing 30 disruptive behaviors was given to a group of students (N=251) and professors (N=49) at the University of Applied Sciences VERN’ (Zagreb, Croatia). Participants had to appraise: a) to what extent those behaviors occur in the classroom and b) how disturbing they are. Results have shown that disruptive behaviors occur to a moderate extent in general as well as that there are no significant differences in the perception of their occurrence among participants. However, professors find these behaviors significantly more disturbing. Within participant groups some gender and age differences were also found. Younger students and younger professors notice more disruptive behaviors. Furthermore, female students and female professors find these behaviors more disturbing, while female students also notice them more. Results and practical implications are discussed in relation to previous research. 

No: 21
Title: Analysis of the Graduate Employability at the Labour Market
Pages 203-215
Author(s): Petra Hlaváčková*, Josef Lenoch, David Březina
Open Access

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Universities have been requested to assure production of “employable” graduates in connection with significant changes at the labor market and in the academic sector. Employability also tends to be one of the criteria for allocation of financial resources in the academic sector. The aim of the paper is analysis of the labour market and finding of causes of failure in employment and graduate employability of the Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology Mendel University in Brno (Czech Republic) in practice. Results will serve to management as a strategic tool for decision-making in the areas of innovation and optimization of educational programs. To determine the theoretical background a secondary research based on review of domestic and foreign studies was used. In order to acquire primary data, in the practical part there was a questionnaire survey applied and realization of personal interviews with employers and another interested subjects. There was low graduate employability found by the questionnaire survey, especially in wood processing study programs. The reason is incompatibility of education with needs of wood processing operations. Potential employers require graduates to be significantly better prepared, especially regarding practical skills. A majority of potential employers of graduates of the Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology Mendel University in Brno is willing to offer work internships and short-term practice. 

No: 22
Title: Student’s Perceptions of the Community Impact of Social Education Degree Internship
Pages 216-223
Author(s): Esperança Jales Ribeiro*, Emília Martins, Maria João Amante, Sara Alexandre Felizardo, Rosina Fernandes, Lia Araújo
Open Access

Full Text 22
Evaluating the impact of an intervention is a very important stage in social educators’ practice, since it allows them to improve the quality of socio-educational projects. The aim of this study is to rethink the internship of the social education degree through students’ perceptions about the impact of their projects in the community. This is a qualitative and exploratory study using documental analysis of 50 internship final reports of a social education degree from a Portuguese polytechnic higher education institution and whose emerging categorical content analysis was performed with NVivo software. The analysis revealed four distinct indicators linked to the project (accomplished objectives, evaluation of activities, sustainability and innovation), the target group (participation, motivation and benefits), the institution (satisfaction of collaborators, improved dynamic, routines and space enhancements), and the students (relational, reflexive and planning skills; satisfaction). It also revealed instruments, feedback, observation, document analysis and case reports as means of verification. The use of indicators related to the project’s objectives, the changes perceived from the benefits in the target-group and in the institution, and the interveners’ level of satisfaction should be noted as positive. Given the inconsistency in the use of formal assessment instruments, the results show the need to strengthen students’ mobilisation of project assessment skills in order to improve the quality of undergraduate education. 

No: 23
Title: Supervisors’ experiences with e-portfolio in pre-service teacher education
Pages 224-228
Author(s): Ali Leijen*, Pihel Hunt, Gerli Silm, Liina Malva
Open Access

Full Text 23
This study is part of a larger study that explores how the use of an e-portfolio can improve student teachers’ development of profession related competences in a workplace setting. More specifically, we focus on the potential of an e-portfolio for enhancing and managing feedback provided by supervisors. For this study we collected data from nine school-based and four university-based teacher education internship supervisors about the perceived usability of one assessment e-portfolio which was used during a four-month internship period in which they supervised thirteen student teachers of the final (fifth) year of the primary school teacher curriculum. 

No: 24
Title: Factors that Affect Occupational Choice for Future Teachers in Estonia
Pages 229-239
Author(s): Inge Timoštšuk*, Aino Ugaste, Lea Kallas
Open Access

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The popularity of the teaching profession in Estonia is low: the increase of the number of young teachers is modest and staff is ageing. The aim of our study was to find out and describe what motivates young people to become a teacher and to highlight meaningful personal and social factors of the job. Our study involved students (n-67) from the most popular at university teacher specialties (primary teachers and early childhood pedagogues). A questionnaire and interview was used for collecting data. The result was that the choice of teaching specialty was decided by a combination of factors - the more essential ones being social utility value factors based on internal motivation and altruistic reasons. These respondents wished to contribute to social development in a child- and youth-centered environment. They see teachers as a professional group with high-level knowledge assume that a teaching job entails continuous professional development.  In spite of the fact that the teaching profession is not popular, student teachers see themselves as active, influential members of society. They perceive teachers as specialists able to develop children’s’ and adolescents’ values and foster their development. The perception of the meaning and future influence is clearly forward in popular specialties but less popular specialties need more detailed attention. 

No: 25
Title: Coping strategies preferred by adolescents when managing stress in sport − pilot study
Pages 240-254
Author(s): Iva Burešová*, Tereza Demlová, Kateřina Bartošová
Open Access

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The aim of the study, which was carried out as a part of the research grant project "Psychological aspects of managing stress by top athletes in adolescence", was to map the occurrence of psychological aspects of possible overtraining in adolescent athletes in the Czech socio-cultural environment and to verify possible connections between the perceived level of training stress and coping strategies preferred by adolescent athletes, focusing on the relationship between the level of perceived stress and intensity of training. The study also aims to verify basic psychometric characteristics of the used methods for the purpose of follow-up research. A quantitative design was used to carry out this research as well as a combination of three self-assessment methods: Training Distress Scale; Profile of Mood States and Children´s Coping Strategies Checklist. The research file contained 230 respondents aged 14-20 years: 147 boys (64%) and 83 girls (36%). The average age was 16.4 years. The most represented sports were football (N=72; 31%), athletics (N=25; 11%) and ice-hockey (N=17; 7%). Most of the respondents were members of sport clubs (N=177; 77%), 21 athletes were (9%) representatives of the CR in that particular sport and the most numbered group of respondents have been doing the sport for more than eight years (67%). The results showed a statistically significant difference between felt symptoms of overstrain after the training and in the following 24 hours. Respondents most often described the following combinations of emotional states in connection with the perceived stress: anger and depression; depression and tiredness; and confusion and tension. As far as coping strategies are concerned, respondents reached the highest average score in the Active strategy (2.44) and Strategy of avoiding (2.38) scales, which are more often practiced by athletes reporting a higher level of perceived stress. The highest scores were reached by respondents on the Direct problem-solving (M = 2.66) and Cognitive decision-making (M = 2.50) sub-scales. 

No: 26
Title: Crisis Management and Education in Health
Pages 255-261
Author(s): Irena ŠvarcovaŠárka Hošková-Mayerová*, Josef Navrátil
Open Access

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The paper is devoted to the crisis management field in the emergency medical services (EMS) in case of emergency with mass health disabilities, and education of crisis management staff. Acts related to EMS in the Czech Republic do not specify a particular professional profile and education targeted at emergency preparedness, crisis management on the list of medical professional staff. This fact is reflected in the personal equipment of EMS emergency preparedness workplaces in each region of the Czech Republic. In practice, the crisis management system is often faced with a lack of inadequately professionally trained and experienced staff. The paper suggests possible approaches to enhance the education effectiveness in the field of crisis management in pre-hospital emergency care. 

No: 27
Title: Children´s Concepts of How the Digestive System Works
Pages 262-269
Author(s): Adriana Wiegerová*, Hana Navrátilová, Andrea Dalajková
Open Access

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This study presents the findings in the concepts of preschool children about the human digestive system.  The research is based on qualitative approach with analysis of children´s drawings and interviews and it includes a group of 18 five to six-year-old children. Through the significant findings comparing to older studies on the concepts of the digestive system, the authors discuss the changes in concepts of today´s children. The aim of the study is also to identify the possibilities of working with children´s concepts from the position of a preschool teacher and to provide basic suggestions for the application of appropriate didactic strategies for preschool teachers in kindergartens. 

No: 28
Title: Student’s Perceptions on the Personal Impact of a Social Education Degree Internship
Pages 270-277
Author(s): Esperança Jales Ribeiro*, Maria João Amante, Emília Martins, Sara Alexandre Felizardo, Rosina Fernandes, Paula Xavier
Open Access

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The functional profile of the social educator is based on the development of theoretical, technical and personal/relational skills, which should guide training courses organization. Assuming the shortcomings of a merely theoretical approach, besides a consistent preparation in theoretical and essential technical contents for socio-educational intervention, practice in context should be favoured as an opportunity to develop professional skills, together with a critical reflection on the functional profile. This study emerges from the need to reflect and rethink the internship, as well as how the respective supervision is developed, of the degree in social education at the School of Education of the Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, and it is based on the students’ perceptions about the impact of the internship on personal development. This is a qualitative and exploratory study, using the documentary analysis of 50 final internship reports. From the content analysis, four categories emerged referring to gains in terms of acquiring and managing knowledge, development of technical skills, personal and relational development and reinforcement of professional identity. The importance given to personal and relational development should be noted (41.4% of mentions) taking into account its relevance in constructing a professional identity. Findings on the technical skills and on the increase of profession knowledge, also by mobilising theoretical training, positively reinforce the internship model that is based on a proximity supervision approach and on a dialogical perspective of the professional learning. 

No: 29
Title: Students’ Involvement in School and Parental Support: Contributions to the Socio-Educational Intervention
Pages 278-287
Author(s): Sara Alexandre Felizardo*, Diana Cantarinha, Ana Berta Alves, Esperança Jales Ribeiro, Maria João Amante
Open Access

Full Text 29
Student involvement in the school and the perception of parental support are core variables in the context of studies on personal and school adjustment of children and adolescents and should be considered in the context of socio-educational intervention. In this study, we formulated the following objectives: i) to understand the differences in students’ involvement in school and the perception of parental support, according to several socio-demographic and school variables, ii) to analyse the relationship between involvement and the perception of parental support iii) to outline socio-educational intervention strategies in the contexts of children’s lives. This is a non-experimental, correlational and cross-sectional study by means of a non-probabilistic convenience sample consisting of 150 children, aged between 10 and 16 years, attending the 2nd and 3rd cycles basic education [5th – 9th years of schooling] attending a school in the central region of Portugal. The data collection instruments were “Students’ Engagement in School: a Four-Dimensional Scale – SES-4DS” (Veiga 2013, 2016), the “Perceived Parental Support Scale” (Veiga, 2011) and a part with socio-demographic and school questions was added. We found significant differences in overall (and partial) amounts of student involvement and the perception of parental support, depending on the age, gender (in agency and behaviour subscales), school difficulties/retentions and methods of study (time, a place to study and a study schedule). We also found positive and significant relationships between student involvement and perception of parental support. The results are in line with the scientific literature in the field, which highlights the key role of the variables, student involvement and perception of parental support in the academic and psychosocial adjustment of young people. These should be considered in the context of socio-educational intervention. Given the above, we present areas and action strategies promoting parent and student involvement in the educational process. 

No: 30
Title: Health behavior in the context of perceived social support in late adolescence
Pages 288-301
Author(s): Iva Burešová*, Markéta Cahová
Open Access

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The presented study is a part of a grant research project: "Health-enhancing and health-threatening behavior: determinants, models and consequences" (n° 13-19808S). It follows up on the results of foreign research on possible connections between health behavior and the perceived level of social support. The primary aim was to identify the key components of health behavior in the developmental stage of late adolescence, map their relation to perceived social support and to explore if there are also some possible significant gender differences in health behavior or in perceived social support of adolescents which would be projected into their health behavior. The quantitative research design based on one-time questionnaire survey was used to carry out the research. Health behavior was assessed by the Health behavior scale, and the level of social support was assessed by the Close relationships and social support scale. The research file contained 825 adolescents aged 15-19 years (the average age was 16.89 years and the median was 17 years); there was a slight predominance of women (457 − 55.4%) over men (368 − 44.6%). By carrying out factor analysis of Health behavior scale, 4 factors explaining the 35.2% of the overall spread were extracted and they were named as: 1. Healthy eating; 2. Health protection; 3. Positive thinking; and 4. Illness prevention. In most of these factors, statistically significant gender differences were found, which are reflected in the reported health behavior. The results have demonstrated that two of the identified components of health behavior − Positive thinking and Illness prevention − are in a positive manner statistically significantly related to the level of perceived social support. Also differences in perceived social support in the given developmental stage have been mapped, and the highest level of social support has been found in 18-year-old respondents. The results of the study highlight the importance of future research in the area of studying the mechanism of impact that perceived social support has on the reported health behavior and the changes of this relationship in ontogeny. 

No: 31
Title: Comparative Study of Knowledge and Attitudes of Secondary Students on Water Issues
Pages 302-310
Author(s): Nezam Tzaberis*, & Angeliki Tzaberi
Open Access

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Water resources perform important functions for the biosphere and for all life forms. However development, overconsumption, and pollution endanger safe access to clean water in many areas of our planet. Are knowledge and attitudes of gymnasium students (age 14-15) on water pollution and water scarcity differentiated in relation to their counterparts of lyceum (age 16-17). The aim of the survey is to investigate and record the knowledge and attitudes of gymnasium and lyceum students on issues related to water pollution, scarcity and management, and the comparison of data from these two groups. The case study was chosen as the basic method, and the questionnaire as the research tool, because the questionnaire is the main technique used in social sciences. The sample consisted of 289 gymnasium students and 292 lyceum students. The questionnaire included 19 questions, and was administered 3-29 March 2014. In the sample, significant lack of knowledge is observed concerning the problems of pollution, the ways to tackle them, and the issues related to the management of water resources. Regarding the attitudes, the students seem to adopt a certain degree of environmental friendliness. Similar results, as far as environmental attitudes are concerned, were recorded in recent years in international literature. Concerning the knowledge of students on water pollution, scarcity, and management, lyceum students excel their counterparts of gymnasium. On addressing pollution and water scarcity, the lyceum students present a more positive attitude. This perhaps is due to the fact that lyceum students have stricter judgment than their gymnasium counterparts. 

No: 32
Title: Non-technical Skills in Undergraduate Nursing Education: Consideration for a Training Course Development
Pages 311-319
Author(s): S. Piresa*, S. Monteiro, A. Pereira, D. Chaló, E. Melo, A. Rodrigues
Open Access

Full Text 32
Until nowadays, formal training of nurses has focused predominantly on developing knowledge, clinical expertise and technical skills. These skills are necessary but not sufficient to promote and maintain high levels of patient care and safety. Therefore, although recent literature has highlighted the importance of introducing non-technical skills training and assessment within healthcare, nursing education has still to fully include these skills on the training process.  International research has shown that many errors and adverse events are due to a lack of non-technical skills rather than clinical knowledge (Dieckmann, 2010; Irwin & Weidmann, 2015; Lyk-Jensen, Jepsen, Spanager, Dieckmann, & Ostergaard, 2014). Patient safety issues and the incidence of errors are important to all healthcare professionals and public health organizations. Errors do occur in healthcare as in other industries but when these errors involve the risk to human life, the concern is paramount. Thus, one of the most important strategies for error reduction involves prevention (Lindamood, Rachwal, Kappus, Weinstock, & Doherty, 2011). In the light of this, it is essential for undergraduate nursing students to develop not only technical but also non-technical skills. Moreover, developing and implementing a non-technical skills training course may significantly improve students’ performance and better prepare them for their future clinical practice. Consequently, consideration must be given in integrating NTS training into undergraduate nursing education curriculum. 

No: 33
Title: Applications of Experiential Learning in Science Education Non-Formal Contexts
Pages 320-326
Author(s): Gabriel Gorghiu*, Elena Ancuța Santi
Open Access

Full Text 33
Education represents a process in constant evolution, which continuously adapts its structure and vision, objectives and strategies in order to successfully meet the challenges and significant changes occurring in society, but also in the psychical structure of its actors. As a suitable alternative to traditional learning, the experiential learning directly capitalizes skills and attitudes related to critical thinking and problem solving, being less anchored in mechanical learning and memorizing. The experiential learning includes learning by doing, through experience, through exploration and discovery, having the aim to teach the student how to learn, to develop his/her skills by individual work, to emphasize his/her creativity and originality, but also its self-confidence. The paper has an exploratory character, its aim being to discover how experiential learning can influence the student's motivation, knowledge transfer, creativity, self-confidence and how may be created learning opportunities, which can influence development of metacognitive skills, practical and independent work skills, exploratory skills and efficient learning through non-formal activities. The paper also highlights on the students’ perception related to their involvement in a series of non-formal activities, organized in the frame of the EU FP7 project entitled: “IRRESISTIBLE - Including Responsible Research and Innovation in Cutting Edge Science and Inquiry-based Science Education to Improve Teacher's Ability of Bridging Learning Environments”, and dedicated to the promoting of cutting-edge scientific subjects, together with the disseminating of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) dimensions. The feed-back offered by the students - who expressed their degree of interest and their openness to such activities - led to the conclusion that those contexts could create proper opportunities to facilitate the knowledge transfer, emphasizing more on developing practical skills and producing a sustainable learning. 

No: 34
Title: Are Philosophical Methods Suitable Instruments in Education?
Pages 327-332
Author(s): Pompiliu Alexandru*, Gabriel Gorghiu
Open Access

Full Text 34
Today, education is more related with a practice which orientates the individual towards an economical adaptation.  How to make money seems to be the supreme value in our days. So, is Philosophy able to be an appropriate paradigm to rethinking the education? Science for science, knowledge for knowledge, wisdom for wisdom are empty and useless ideas in education. In the paper, we propose to make an interpretation of the dynamics of the educational values and how those are seen from the philosophical/psychological perspective. Our method is a hermeneutical one applied on several concepts which are considered as fundamental in education. At the same time, we emphasize on a phenomenological approach of the problem. Consequently, we have in front of us a system of values as a powerful one that affects the psychological desire, with the values having their own dynamics. We found that most of the educational issues have to be treated like psycho-analytical ones, but also by introducing some philosophical instruments. In this respect, there are several teaching strategies which can easily enhanced the learning process and contribute to the knowledge transfer. There are several channels to integrate philosophy into the actual education, but basically, the philosophy represents a clear mode of thinking about our world and life, producing a major impact and engagement with the world and life, completing in many ways different types of education. 

No: 35
Title: Analysis of Accessibility of the Electronic Graphic Elements and Other Focal Areas in Tertiary Education
Pages 333-342
Author(s): Vojtech Regec*
Open Access

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Within the context of information content growth in the tertiary education, the issue of the accessibility of electronic graphic elements and other focal areas belongs to the current practice issues. The main research goal is to introduce the key aspects of electronic graphic elements' accessibility and other focal areas for the individuals with impaired visual perception in tertiary education in the Czech and Slovak Republic. By qualitative analysis, we have evaluated the websites and other electronic documents at 106 electronic platforms of universities and colleges in the Czech and Slovak Republic. In the process of accessibility analysis of electronic graphic elements and other focal areas, we used the specifically adapted system of accessibility assessment. Since 2008, this assessment system has been an integral part of the official methodology of the electronic document accessibility in the Slovak Republic. We found that only 2.8% of universities and colleges in total provide their electronic graphic elements in an accessible form. For visually impaired individuals, the information provided via graphic elements without text equivalent represent a substantial digital barrier, since the assistive technology is not able to interpret such non-text elements correctly. 

No: 36
Title:  Effective Teaching Practice: Peer Tutoring in Education for Active Citizenship
Pages 343-355
Author(s): Olga Bombardelli*
Open Access

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This paper deals with active learning and participation at school, outlining a new version of an already known teaching/ learning practice: the peer tutoring, which can be performed in all learning fields, individually and in groups, face to face and on line. The research question is about the best methods of empowering students for a good peer tutoring in the field of active citizenship. The Purpose of the Study is examining approaches of effective teaching / learning practices to promote civic competences at school, especially through the work of the Students Councils. Links are made with the European project SPACE (Students Promoting Active Citizenship in Europe), currently performed by 6 European partners from 4 countries, where students are expected both to learn and to give advices to peers. The research methods are: analyzing studies on the topic (Biesta, 2007; ten Dam, 2011), included the most important international Surveys (Eurydice, 2012, ICCS, IEA 2009, 2016) on education of citizens, and comparing the activities for promoting active citizenship in the partner schools of the SPACE project on the basis of a common frame describing both working process and expected outcomes.The findings are related to the strategies for developing active participation, firstly on the indicators of competence in cognitive, social and civic fields, and on descriptors of participation which are shared among teachers and students referring to the different experiences of the schools in the European project partner countries: Spain, Itlaly, Lituania, United Kingdom. 

No: 37
Title:  Attitudes of Educational Professionals to the Implementation of Support Measures in the Context of Inclusive Education
Pages 356-365
Author(s): Jan Michalík*
Open Access

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In the Czech Republic, a crucial amendment to the Education Act (No. 86/2015 Coll.) has been passed. Effective from 1 September 2016, the amendment introduces the principle of joint education – inclusion in kindergartens, elementary schools and secondary schools in the CR. The present paper provides information about an extensive survey comparing the attitudes of two groups of teachers working in mainstream schools and special schools to the legal provision on inclusive education. The research confirmed significant differences in the readiness and willingness of teachers of both groups to participate in inclusive education. Considerable differences were confirmed between both target groups in almost all aspects of inclusive education. Opinions about the necessity, appropriateness and benefits of this educational model differ. Teachers in special education schools hold significantly more negative attitudes than teachers in mainstream schools. This particularly relates to negative attitudes towards joint education of pupils with impaired cognitive functions. The research brought unique information about the opinions and attitudes of Czech teachers concerning inclusive education. It brought fundamental findings in the form of rejection of this model by teachers from special schools. The research confirmed positive opinions among teachers from mainstream schools. The results are crucial for the organization and management of the Czech educational system. The results make it possible to compare other countries which opted for the model of inclusive education. 

No: 38
Title: Teachers´ Attitude Towards Errors
Pages 366-370
Author(s): Adéla Antlová*, Štefan Chudý, Danping Peng
Open Access

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Error-making becomes a topic studied from different points of view through different fields. This study aims to focus on teachers´ attitude towards errors-making especially, it is to investigate whether there is a difference in attitude of teachers to their own errors if they are committed in front of their learners, in front of their colleagues, or on their own. The second aim of this study is to reveal whether there is a difference in attitude of teachers to their own errors, to errors of their learners and to errors in general. Many studies dealing with errors in school environment start from investigating teachers´ attitude to errors. Normally, they treat errors as if they were all the same however, there might be a great difference if they occur in different context and this is what this study should prove. 

No: 39
Title: Can mastery of Teacher Competences Determine Student Teachers’ Readiness for the Job?
Pages 371-383
Author(s): Zulaikha Mohamed*, Martin Valcke, Bram De Wever
Open Access

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This study looks into finding the level of “readiness-for-the-job” in student teachers about to graduate from teaching programmes, through exploring their mastery of the teacher competences that are presumably employed in teacher education. By conducting surveys and using questioning techniques like Likert scale, MSQ and vignette, 226 student teachers were invited to identify and reflect on their perceived and attained mastery of 11 international teacher competences, based on their personal experiences and individual views. Primarily, the study addresses the problem with the current curriculum of teacher education in many teacher colleges around the world where the emphasis on the practical component of their teaching programmes has resulted in a fragmented readiness-for-the-job. Thus, teachers are becoming quite competent in the practical divisions of teaching, such as managing the learning environment, and critically less competent in the knowledge of the subject per se and similar domains. 

No: 40
Title: Organization of Teacher-Student Interaction by Means of a Situation Centre
Pages 384-390
Author(s): Tatyana Gnitetskaya, Elena Ivanova*, Natalya Kovalchuk, Yuliya Shutko, Valentina Teslenko
Open Access

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This paper, based on the questioning of students of the Far Eastern Federal University, reveals peculiarities of a problem of teacher-students interaction. The dependence of the degree of the problem on the reciprocal value of students’ academic progress was found. The solution to this problem was introduced by creating a situational center explaining its structure and functionality of its services. It was found that a low level of pre-university preparation of students is a key factor of many conflict situations. 

No: 41
Title: Does Enhancing Visual Perception in Mild Intellectually Disabled Children transfer to other skills?
Pages 391-402
Author(s): Ahmed Teleb, Wessam Mohamed*,Thomas Elbert
Open Access

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This work examines the effectiveness of two training programs (teacher-assisted versus computer-based) to enhance the visual perception of mild intellectually disabled children native Arabic children in Egypt. Subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: control group with treatment as usual (n=12), traditional/teacher-assisted training (n=12) and a computerized training (n=12). Groups were matched for socio-demographic variables controlling for age, gender, and the education of parents. The success of the different training procedures was evaluated by Frosting Developmental Test of Visual Perception and its transfer to other skills in the same modality (List of Reading Readiness Skills) and general improvement in cognitive abilities (The Stanford-Binet Test). Both programs significantly improved performances of the experimental groups compared to the control group. Yet, no significant differences were found between the two active training groups, suggesting that a computerized trainings may be an option to assist challenged children, particularly when there are no specialized teachers available for the highly time consuming trainings.  These findings are discussed in terms of neurological plasticity as well as recommendations for integrated training programs. 

No: 42
Title: Comparison of Different Unidimensional-CAT Algorithms Measuring Students’ Language Abilities: Post-hoc Simulation Study
Pages 403-416
Author(s): Burhanettin Özdemir*
Open Access

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The purpose of this study is to examine the applicability of Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) for English Proficiency Tests (EPT) and to determine the most suitable unidimensional-CAT algorithm that aims to measure language ability of university students. In addition, results of CAT designs were compared to the results of the original paper-pencil format of EPT. For this purpose, real data set was used to create item pool. In order to determine the best CAT algorithm for EPT, three different theta estimation methods, three different Fisher-information based item selection methods and four different Kullback-Leibler divergence based item selection methods and three different termination methods were used. In total, 63 different conditions were taken into consideration and results of these conditions were compared with respect to SEM, averaged number of administered items, reliability coefficients and RMSD values between full bank theta and estimated CAT theta. Results indicated that using different theta estimation methods and item selection methods and termination rules had substantial effect on SEM of estimated theta, averaged number of administered items and RMSD values. Averaged number of administered items decreased to less than 11 items when precision criteria to terminate the analysis was set to .30. Overall, EAP estimation method with Fixed pointwise Kullback-Leibler (FP-KL) item selection and precision based stopping rule (0.20) yield more consistent results with smaller RMSD and SEM. Results indicated that post-hoc CAT simulation for EPT provided ability estimations with higher reliability and fewer items compared to corresponding paper and pencil format. 

No: 43
Title: Pakistani University Students’ Perception Regarding Pragmatics
Pages 417-426
Author(s): Ghazala Kausar*
Open Access

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Pragmatics competence plays a vital role in enhancing communicative competence. The present study is an endeavor to evaluate the current competence, knowledge, perceptions, attitudes and strategies used in the teaching and learning of pragmatics in Pakistan at university level. A questionnaire used by Yuan (2012) was used to collect data from 30 first year university students majoring in English. For the statistical analysis of the data, statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) program (version 20) was used. The participants believed that vocabulary, pronunciation and grammar learning are important for English language learning but it was noted that Pakistani first year university learners have limited pragmatic knowledge. The findings proved that the learners have different opinions about the pragmatic competence and its development in learners at university level. The knowledge about these perceptions can help teachers, administrators, supervisors and language planners in developing syllabus and teaching/learning activities for English language learners at university level in Pakistan. 

No: 44
Title:  Examine The Factor That Influence Training Reaction, And Its Consequence On Employee
Pages 427-435
Author(s): Abdul Rahim Zumrah*, Muhammad Yusuf Khalid, Kalsom Ali, Ahmad Najaa’ Mokhtar
Open Access

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This study examines the relationship between religiosity, training reaction and motivation to transfer. Structured equation modelling is conducted on survey data from 306 public sector employees in Malaysia. The result of this study highlight the importance of religiosity as a trainee characteristic factor that can influence employee reaction toward the training program, and ultimately demonstrate positive intention to transfer the training outcomes in the workplace. The findings of this study is very important because the relationship between religiosity, reaction and motivation to transfer has not been examined in the literature, particularly the relationship between religiosity and reaction, and the role of reaction as a mediator between religiosity and motivation to transfer. 

No: 45
Title: Positive Expectations – Optimism and Hope in Models
Pages 436-447
Author(s): Jaroslava Dosedlová*, Martin Jelínek, Helena Klimusová, Iva Burešová
Open Access

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Current approaches to optimism accentuate its many different aspects: dispositional optimism (Scheier, & Carver, 2002), defensive pessimism (Norem, & Cantor, 1989), unrealistic optimism (Weinstein, 1980) and hope (Snyder, 1994). The aims of the research (supported by GACR, no. 13-19808S) were to design a model of optimism/pessimism using the dimensions of dispositional optimism, defensive pessimism, unrealistic optimism and hope, and to determine the degree of conceptual overlap between optimism and hope. We collected data from 1,774 respondents (men 33.3%, women 66.7 %) at the age from 15 to 79 (m 33.5, SD 15.8, med 27). Following measures were used: the Defensive Pessimism Questionnaire (DPQ), the Life Orientation Test (LOT-R), Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS) and Unrealistic Optimism Scale. We created three models and evaluated them using confirmatory factor analysis. The first model was first order factor analysis model with correlated factors represented by individual measures.  The second model implemented a second order factor of general optimism. The third model used two second order correlated factors - optimism and hope. We consider model three as the best suited both statistically and for interpretation. Our model corresponds to Snyder’s concept (in Chang, 2002), who views his construct of hope more actively and specifically in comparison to optimism. Optimism focuses more broadly on the expected quality of future outcomes in general. 

No: 46
Title: Support of Social Relationships in Children’s Groups by means of Physical Activities
Pages 448-457
Author(s): Viktor Pacholíka*, Martina Nedělová
Open Access

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The contribution deals with possibilities of development of social skills with pre-school children by means of physical activities. We work on the presumption that physical activities are a rich source of emotions and situations with a strong hub, so they provide considerable scope for developing social skills in a playful and entertaining way. The contribution presents running results of the pedagogical experiment, which was aimed at testing the program of physical activities aimed at developing social skills in children. Running results suggest that well-chosen physical activities lead to development of social skills in children, particularly regarding respecting rules, regulation of emotions and the ability to cooperate. The text is an outcome of the IGA project run on Tomas Bata University in Zlín called Support of Social Relationships in Children’s Groups by Means of Physical Activities (IGA/FHS/2015/010). 

No: 47
Title: Relationship Between On-Campus Student Engagement and Student Ownership of the Institution
Pages 458-469
Author(s): Syed Akif Hasan*, Muhammad Imtiaz Subhani
Open Access

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Educational institutions in the developing countries have always viewed student on-campus engagement as a burden on resources and cost factor. However studies at various primary and secondary level shows better performance and retention of students with on-campus engagement activities. This research focuses on a much-ignored tertiary level of education where students have a much stronger role in creating word of mouth for or against the institution. This research used a sample 2500 tertiary level students of 50 tertiary level educational institutions to see the relationship between the student on-campus engagement measured through number of student societies and extra-curricular activities and student satisfaction and ownership of the institution. The findings of this paper reveals that the ordinary association between on-campus student societies and students' level of ownership for institution was found not significant in the absence of students’ satisfaction level as a mediating variable while the stated associations was found handsomely significant and robust in the presence of students’ satisfaction level towards societies. Furthermore the ordinary association between students’ recreational activities and students' level of ownership for institution was found again insignificant in the absence of students’ satisfaction level as a mediating variable while the stated associations was found augustly  significant and robust when students’ satisfaction level towards societies was taken as the mediating variable. This study helps the educational institutions to understand the psychological aspects of student's association with their educational institution. It outlines the importance of on-campus engagement that leads to students’ satisfaction with their institution and development of positive word of mouth at all forums by the students. 

No: 48
Title: The Students’ Perceptions and Attitudes to Teaching Profession, the Case of Estonia
Pages 470-481
Author(s): Katrin Saks*, Reet Soosaar, Helen Ilves
Open Access

Full Text 48
The general ageing of population is reflected at schools similarly to the society as a whole.The averageag eof teachers is growing andyoung peopledonotfindthe teaching careerattractive enoughto pursue. This is leadingtothe situationwhere theschools maylackteachers in 10-15 years’ time. Theaimofthecurrent studywas toexplorethe18-19-year-old students’ perceptions and attitudes to the teaching profession in the case of Estonia. 275 students were questioned to explore the popularity of the teaching profession. The results revealed that although the studentsvalue teachers’ jobhighly, theyconsider it a hard,underpaidandlow-challenging job. 

No: 49
Title: Leadership and Mediation in Risk Contexts:  New Actors and Models of Intervention
Pages 482-489
Author(s): Mariana Dias*, Lia Pappamikail, Maria João Carvalho
Open Access

Full Text 49
This article aims to analyze the program Network of Mediators of Capacitation for Academic Achievement which has been presented in international agencies of great prestige as a model of “good practices.” The program, which is promoted by the EPIS Association, founded by a group of Portuguese entrepreneurs under the theme of social inclusion, presents itself as an innovative model of solidarity and social capacitation of young people under risk of academic underachievement and school withdrawal. The research we have carried out focuses on the following aspects: the objectives of the EPIS Association, the work methodology of the Network of Mediators and the manner in which it is developed and envisioned on the field. The study, which is qualitative in nature, is based on the analysis of a vast documental compilation and interviews with actors which are more directly involved with the program (head teachers, mediators, and local authorities). The results of the study show that the program under analysis favours a highly structured intervention which, although generally valued and considered effective, does not concede a wide margin of leadership, autonomy, and participation to local actors. On a deeper analytical level, the study shows that the creation of the Association and program under analysis is included in the affirmation process of new forms of governance and public action in Portugal, namely the affirmation of “new philanthropies” on education, a tendency with scarce tradition in the country. 

No: 50
Title: Teachers’ Self-Reports of Active Teaching Methods: The Relationship of Age and Subject
Pages 490-501
Author(s): Anne-Mai Näkk*, Inge Timoštšuk
Open Access

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Estonian teachers believe in active teaching methods but do not use them as often as reported, experienced teachers use autonomy supportive and structured teaching methods more than beginning teachers. The aim of this study was to examine teachers’ self-reports of their instructional methods – autonomy supportive and structured teaching, and explore its relationship with subject field and age. Two research questions were set: how teachers’ self-report their instructional methods, and how subject and teachers’ age is related with their self-reports about instructional methods. Data was collected from 670 self-reports from middle and high school teachers across Estonia. The results revealed that overall teachers self-reported high use of autonomy supportive and structured teaching methods, with some age and subject field variances. The results confirm previous findings about Estonian teachers’ high self-reported active teaching methods – autonomy supportive and structured teaching. Further studies should be conducted to compare teachers’ self-reports and their classroom practices in their lessons. This information can be useful to improve pre-service and in-service teacher education. 

No: 51
Title: Emotional Skills and Promoting School Success in the 3rd Cycle: Students Perception
Pages 502-511
Author(s): Sofia Campos, Manuela Ferreira, Ana Paula Cardoso, João Duarte, Sara Felizardo, Claudia Chaves*
Open Access

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The perceptions about school play a central role in behaviour, performance and learning outcomes. There is evidence that an improvement in emotional skills is associated with a higher school success. The aim of this paper is to establish the relationship between internalizing and externalizing behaviours, emotional skills and academic success of lower secondary education students. In order to promote students social and emotional skills, a pilot study in a School Grouping from the central region of Portugal was carried out. A diagnosis of disruptive behaviour (ASEBA) was made and 6 children aged between 12 and 14 years old were identified and followed by 3 focus groups of students, parents and teachers, respectively. Six students, mostly male, showing signs of externalizing behaviors and academic failure were identified. They didn’t like school and showed no learning motivation. The relationship between parents and teachers was conflictive. All parents had the utmost concern about academic success and teachers showed good practices but without success. This programme is seen as a way to improve the educational agents’ action and to help them manage different environments and relationships. The results point out the importance of a systemic intervention programme which aims are to improve the social and emotional competences and academic achievement. 

No: 52
Title: Comparison of Social Skills between Students in Ordinary and Talented Schools
Pages 512-521
Author(s): Minoo Daraee*, Keyvan Salehi, Maryam Fakhr
Open Access

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Social skills are considered one of the important factors in the success or failure of every individual in a society. Lack of research in this field along with its considerable significance motivated the present study. The present study presents a comparison of the social skills of students in ordinary schools and talented schools. The required data were collected using a standard questionnaire of students’ social skills assessment. The statistical sample of the present investigation comprised female high school students in the province of Alborz, in which 200 students were selected from eight ordinary schools and 8 exceptional talent schools through cluster sampling. The results showed that the students of talented schools are significantly higher in appropriatesocial skills and are overconfident, but no significant difference was observed in other components. Teaching the appropriate social skills and providing opportunities and experiences that increase social interactions allows students to practice and apply social strategies and skills in all environments and situations in life. 

No: 53
Title: Education for Entrepreneurship in Teacher´s Education – The report of an experience
Pages 522-532
Author(s): Cristina Maria Gonçalves Pereira*
Open Access

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In the last decade there has been an increasing defense on the role of education in development of entrepreneurial skills, as these can and should be learned and developed very early. The appreciation of the role of education in development of entrepreneurial skills prints a new responsibility to educational institutions, particularly to higher education. It is precisely one example of entrepreneurial education in higher education that this paper presents. We give the example of one center of learning and development of children (Centro de Aprendizagem e Desenvolvimento da Infância – CeADIN) from one institution of higher education in Portugal involving in this process the students of teacher’s education courses. The project's mission is the provision of a qualified service in education aimed at the school community in the area of influence of the institution. Its main objective is to offer a set of integrated services in development psycho-pedagogical skills to students who are doing their initial training as teachers while providing actions and interventions promoting psychosocial adjustment and academic success of children attending schools in Castelo Branco, Portugal.

No: 54
Title: Possible Applications Of Judicial Precedent And Legal Consuetude In The Regulation Of Labor Disputes
Pages 533-542
Author(s): Abaideldinov Tleukhabyl*, Askarova Aliya,  Suleimenova Saule
Open Access

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Legal reform and related significant changes in the legal framework and legal matters of the Republic of Kazakhstan brought up to date the problem of the world and national civilization legal heritage use. In particular, now we can speak about "vindication" and "legalization" of such primordial (traditional) source of law as custom in the legal framework of Kazakhstan and accordingly, such form of law as customary law. 

No: 55
Title: The use of psychoactive substances and adolescents’ school performance
Pages 543-551
Author(s): Leonor Pestan, Joao Duarte, Emilia Coutinho*, Claudia Chaves, Odete Amaral, Paula Nelas
Open Access

Full Text 55
The use of psychoactive substances is a public health problem. The use of these substances usually starts during adolescence and is associated with school problems, namely poor school performance. Research Questions included which psychoactive substances interfere with school performance (learning environment, planning of studies, methods of studying, reading skills, study motivation, overall school performance) in adolescents.  The purpose of the study was  to analyse the relationship between the use of psychoactive substances and adolescents’ school performance. The Research Methods included a cross-sectional study.  Data were collected through a questionnaire which included socio-demographic information, psychoactive substances and a school performance scale (adapted from Fermin, 2005). Non-probability sampling for convenience, with 380 students from 7th, 8th and 9th grade. Data were collected in 2011/2012 among students from a Basic School in the Portuguese Municipality of Viseu. Results: There was a 4.2% of prevalence of drug use: 4,3% in boys and 4.1% in girls.  For both genders, the most commonly used drugs were hashish and marijuana (43.8%). Girls (p<0.001), younger students (p<0.001), those whose parents graduated from high-school or who have a higher education (p=0.019) and students who do not use drugs (p=0.000) do better in school. We concluded that drug abuse is associated with adolescents’ poorer school performance. It is therefore important to identify risk groups and develop policies to prevent youngsters from using psychoactive substances because of the major impact they have on individual, family and social levels. 

No: 56
Title: Educational-technology based activities for development of algorithmic thinking and programming skills
Pages 552-557
Author(s): Daniel Tocháček*, Jakub Lapeš, Jaroslav Novák
Open Access

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The conference contribution discusses the research educational project consisting in the creation, realization and the subsequent analysis of the implementation of a comprehensive system of interlinked courses aimed at developing algorithmic thinking and programming skills. The courses include lessons for students of bachelor's and master's degree studies of IT in education. In the courses there are greatly accentuated the principles of constructivism, project-based teaching methods and to a large extent the scope for creative projects and practical activities. In the research project there has been a substantial alteration of the content and implementation the earlier courses or entirely new courses were created, so that the whole system meaningfully enabled the gradual development of algorithmic thinking and programming skills for prospective teachers of IT through attractive activity-oriented projects and activities using modern technologies such as e.g. programmable sets Arduino or robotic kit Lego WeDo and Mindstorms. The part of the research project is a systematic analysis of the content of the training courses, application of teaching methods and outputs produced by course participants. Collected data are continuously evaluated and used to further modify the system. 

No: 57
Title: The Impact of the First Foreign Language on Another Foreign Language
Pages 558-565
Author(s): Vera Tauchmanova*
Open Access

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Learners of foreign languages often make mistakes resulting from language interference. When two (or more) foreign languages are studied, then this kind of interference becomes “doubled” (or even “more multiplied”). Mistakes caused by language interference are made also by university students majoring in teaching two foreign languages. That is why it is necessary to draw these pre-service teachers´ attention to the issue of negative impacts of the first studied foreign language on the second studied foreign language. Future teachers of foreign languages should be, however, also aware of positive transfers existing when more foreign languages are studied. The text presents preliminary findings of the beginning phase of a research project realized at the Faculty of Education of the University of Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic). The research focuses on the impact of the already acquired knowledge of English on the process of learning another foreign language. The main objective of the research is to find ways how to diminish the interference, how to eliminate “unnecessary” mistakes and how to use positive transfers arising in the process of learning foreign languages. 

No: 58
Title: Understanding Pre-Service Teachers´ Approaches to Preschool Education. Findings in the Czech Republic
Pages 566-573
Author(s): Peter Gavora*, Adriana Wiegerová
Open Access

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This qualitative study aimed to answer two broad questions: (1) How do pre-service teachers at the beginning of their pre-graduate university programme conceptualise the purposes and aims of preschool?  (2) How do they view the essence of a teacher´s work with children in preschool?  In-depth interviews were conducted to gather data about the participants´ conceptualisations. Open coding and thematic analysis were performed to process the interview data. The participants were 34 students in the first semester of the bachelor of preschool pedagogy programme at a university in the Czech Republic, and had no direct teaching experience in preschool education. The participants indicated that the primary function of preschool is to provide space for a child´s socialisation into the peer group and preparation for entry into primary school. The core task of the preschool teacher was conceptualised as the establishing safe environment, the exercising of (mild) authority, the expression of emotions to children, and the development of professionalism. These findings offer challenges for university educators to elaborate the students´ professional knowledge and skills. 

No: 59
Title: The Makeover: A Leadership Development Training Intervention in Higher Education
Pages 574-583
Author(s): Asia Zulfqar*, Martin Valcke, Geert Devos
Open Access

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Though there is abundant research available about leadership practices, the empirical literature focusing on studies about the impact of leadership training programs remains scarce. The present study addresses this gap in the literature and aims at evaluating a leadership training intervention with the aim to raise academic leaders’ awareness to adopt transformational leadership. Leaders from one public university were involved in a six-week leadership development training program. Qualitative analysis of interviews, taken before and after the intervention, helped to develop a picture of changes in transformational leadership behaviours. There is a clear impact of the intervention. Compared to the pre-intervention interviews we observe consistent increase in awareness for all six transformational leadership behaviours. These results are discussed in view of follow-up studies in a broader research context. 

No: 60
Title: Implementing Responsible Research and Innovation in Science Lessons - Challenges and Benefits
Pages 584-591
Author(s): Laura Monica Gorghiua*, Mihai Bizoi
Open Access

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The huge problems faced by our society call for an increasing number of researchers able to explain and find scientific solutions to them. We need a bigger number of scientists able to act and find innovative solutions to the new challenges of science and technology. The educational systems all over the world are trying to find solutions to attract an increasing number of students to the Sciences and Technology areas. A lot of financial resources were allotted during the last decades to find and promote new methods and tools in Science teaching. Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) is an inclusive approach of the ‘Science with and for Society’ FP7 Programme meant to ensure that a big number of stakeholders think and work together to connect the problems of the present society with the new discoveries and innovative solutions provided by the research area. Due to the presence of the RRI concept among the FP7 Programme priorities, many European projects have been financed by the EU to promote research and innovation results to the general public. ENGAGE is one of these projects (“Equipping the Next Generation for Active Engagement in Science”. This paper aims to present the feedback of the teachers - who participated to an on-line course organized in the framework of the ENGAGE project - concerning the ways of implementing responsible research and innovation in teaching science, in order to attract students towards finding scientific solutions to the present societal problems. 

No: 61
Title: Class Leaders in Physics Lessons’ Management
Pages 592-597
Author(s): Tatyana Gnitetskaya*, Pavel Gnitetskiy, Elena Ivanova, Natalya Kovalchuk, Yuliya Shutko
Open Access

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This paper discusses the possibility of educational process management in physics with the help of class leaders. Good morals were found to be a criterion for the selection of candidates for leadership training to help teacher with physics lesson management. The types of referent leaders (intellectual and guardian) are specified that may contribute to the effective management of a team of teenagers in teaching physics. 

No: 62
Title: Association of Optimism and Health-Related Behavior with Mental Health in Czech Adolescents
Pages 598-605
Author(s): Helena Klimusová*, Iva Burešová, Jaroslava Dosedlová, Martin Jelínek
Open Access

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Dispositional optimism is a psychological trait associated with both physical and mental health in adults. Less is known about the associations between optimism and health among adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between dispositional optimism, health-related behavior and mental health among Czech adolescents. Further on, the effect of gender and age (early vs. late adolescence) on mental health levels was explored. Instruments: short form of the Mental Health Continuum (MHC-SF); Health Behaviours Scale; Life Orientation Test – Revised  (LOT-R). Sample: 1376 Czech adolescents aged 11-19 (M = 15.9; SD = 2.3), 56.8% females. Statistical analysis: Hierarchical multiple regression analysis with three sets of predictors. The first set of predictors (age and gender) explained 7.3% of variance in MHC-SF scores; the second set of predictors – LOT-R optimism and pessimism scores – explained another 25% of variance; and the third set of predictors (health-related behaviors) explained additional 16.3% of variance. The final model explained 48.6% of variance in mental health among adolescents. Dimensions of dispositional optimism turned out to be the strongest set of predictors of positive mental health in adolescents, while health behavior components predicted the mental health levels to a lesser extent. Gender and age were also significant predictors of mental health, with boys and younger adolescents scoring higher. 

No: 63
Title: Computer Games – Preferred Way of Using ICT by Grammar School Students
Pages 606-616
Author(s): Miroslav Chráska*
Open Access

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The paper describes the results of a research study, which examined the degree of addiction in 18-year-old grammar school students in the Czech Republic to computer games. In the research the authors used a quantitative research approach based on the author’s own questionnaire to identify the degree of addictive behaviour in students in relation to computer games. The research sample consisted of 525 students in grade three of four-year grammar schools (or an equivalent grade of multi-year grammar schools) from 10 randomly selected schools. The author used a statistical analysis to identify the groups of 18-year-old students according to their addictive behaviour. In the research the following result processing methods were used: K-means cluster analysis, globalized cluster analysis, Student’s t-test and analysis of variance ANOVA; the analysis of nominal data was performed by means of the Chi-square test of independence. The research study suggested that 7.8 % of all grammar school students involved in the study showed addictive behaviour in relation to computer games. Their behaviour was affected by gender; male students showed a significantly higher degree of addictive behaviour compared with female students. An interesting finding is the effect of the school’s focus on addictive behaviour. In a Church grammar school the degree of addictive behaviour was significantly lower than in other types of schools. The results of the research study also suggested three basic groups of grammar school students according to their approach to computer games. In addition to other aspects, these groups showed a completely different degree of addiction. 

No: 64
Title: Relation the lifestyle and subjective well-being in nursing students
Pages 617-623
Author(s): Claudia Chaves*, Joao Duarte, Sofia Campos, Maria Conceiçao Martins, Manuela Ferreira, Emilia Coutinho
Open Access

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Habits of healthy living, including adequate food, avoiding tobacco and alcohol consumption, regular practice of physical activity along with general preventive behaviours, have demonstrated positive effects on the health of students in higher education. The objective of this study was to identify the contextual variables of lifestyles that interfere with the subjective well-being of nursing students; Descriptive, correlational and analytical methods were used to study  a non-probabilistic sample of 404 nursing students. A questionnaire on socio-demographic and academic characteristics, dietary restriction range; the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ – Short Version); the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS); Nicotine Dependence Scale (FTQ) were used. The sample was predominantly female (87.4%), aged 18-24 years. Prevalence of 4th year students (37.4%) mostly male had a higher index of weight fluctuation and food restriction; younger students revealed concerns with their diet; men (37.3%) practiced more intense physical activity, while women engaged in moderate physical activity (69.7%). The students had a higher dependence on nicotine where men showed more positive affect and women more negative affect; younger students, residing in rural areas, living with their families in the 3rd year were slightly physically active, overweight, not addicted to nicotine and have more positive affect.  The results point towards promoting health training activities and education sessions, in order to inform and educate more students of all the factors that may be associated with a psychologically rich and healthy life. 

No: 65
Title: A Study on the Development of Teacher Training Programme for Maker Education
Pages 624-630
Author(s): Seong-Eun Hyeon*, Seungyun Lee, Hyoung Jun Kim
Open Access

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Maker education, a new project-based education trend, is becoming important for developing students’ creativity, confidence and interest in science and technologies. It can create opportunities for young students to turn their ideas into reality and is consistent with the goals of the Free Semester Program in Korea. This study developed and applied a project-based training programme for 72 teachers to change perceptions on the necessity and possibility of maker education. After training, there were statistically significant differences in teachers’ perceptions on the necessity of providing maker education when the project group utilised ICT (e.g. 3D printers and Arduino). In addition, through an open-ended survey, necessary things for implementing maker education in each school were discussed. 

No: 66
Title: Proprioception And Self-Awareness For Psychophysical Integration
Pages 631-638
Author(s): Giulia Lucchesi*
Open Access

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Due to massive overuse  of technology, teenagers nowadays have less opportunities to become familiar with their body (Kurzweil, 2008; Combi, 2000) and to control internal and external proprioceptive stimuli (Rose, 2010, Cuomo, 2007; Ivanenko et al., 1999, 2000; Allum, 1998; Massion, 1992; Goodwin et. al., 1972). This can cause difficulties in the processing and integration of information at a physical, cognitive and emotional level (Macdonald,1992; Livingstone, 2008; Coklar & Sahin, 2011).International research confirms that today more than ever educators have the fundamental task to help each child to regain the perception of his or her body, its spatial orientation and the perception of its single parts, in order to be able to integrate in a whole concept both physic and psychic dimensions.To this end, a pilot study has been conducted with a group of Italian students in the final year of secondary school in Florence. The pilot study spanned six physical education sessions and involved participants between 18 and 19 years of age. The purpose of the test was to study how a protocol of basic static and dynamic balance exercises, along with breath exercises and proprioceptive awareness stimulated through meditative practices, could influence the moods and wellbeing of the students. 

No: 67
Title: Development of the Indicators and Instrument to Evaluate the Effectiveness of the Professional Nurse Training Project: An Application of Kirkpatrick’s Model and  Theory-Based Evaluation Approaches
Pages 639-645
Author(s): Suthep Thuraphun*, Sompong Panhoon, Phongthep Jiraro, Suwimon Wongwanich
Open Access

Full Text 67
Professional nurse training is very important aspect for enhancing the effectiveness of continuing nursing education and to accumulate continuing nursing education unit for the renew of license; however, there are no specific the indicators and the  measure instruments for the effective solution evidence in Thailand. The purposes of this research sought to develop the indicators and instrument to evaluate the effectiveness of the professional nurse training project, by using two approaches. An application of Kirkpatrick’s model focused on training and previous researches. Theory-based evaluation approach was built from literature reviews. The first phase of the study was the developing of the indicators and instrument, on the other hand of the second phase was the building instrument to evaluation effectiveness of training project and testing. This research proposes a comprehensive and systematic approach with a discussion of methodology related to developing of the indicators and instrument to evaluate on  the professional nurse training project effectiveness in all steps of assessment, implementation and evaluation.  

No: 68
Title: Music as an intercultural medium of foreign language teaching
Pages 646-662
Author(s): Petra Besedova*
Open Access

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Music and language are inherent parts of our every-day life, they are considered as means conveying communication. Differently from a foreign language, whose system has to be understood, music can be considered as an international language understandable even without words. The connection of music with teaching of foreign languages seems to be an obvious thing, too.  This connection refers mainly to linking of the phonetic and phonological level of the language with the perception of music, which means involving music in practising the correct pronunciation, intonation, speech rhythm and melody. The importance of the music being involved in teaching of foreign languages is presented by the author of this paper from several possible points of view – the view of motivation, the view of the language reception and production, the view of the support of intensive perception, the emotional view, etc. The other angle of viewing the reality is offered by the research results – the reality is completely different because teachers do not make music involved in their teaching process. It is evident that the acoustic understanding of a foreign language obviously depends on the level at which listening is trained, and which can be increased through music education. The principal idea of this paper is based on the facts that music accompanies human beings through all their life, and within the framework of teaching of foreign languages it has, due to its qualities, a formatively developing function and educational function. 

No: 69
Title: Decisional Procrastination: The Role of Courage, Media Multitasking and Planning Fallacy
Pages 663-675
Author(s): Jeremy Kristanto*, & Juneman Abraham
Open Access

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Some adverse effects of procrastination are anxiety, tension, loss of valuable opportunities, as well as the breakdown of relationships with other people. This study assumed that procrastination is learned. Procrastination can be avoided by identifying its predictors; the question is: Are courage, media multitasking, and planning fallacy able to predict the decisional procrastination? The purpose of this study was to test the following hypotheses: (1) Courage can predict decisional procrastination in the negative direction; (2) Media multitasking can predict it in a positive direction, and (3) Planning fallacy can predict it in a positive direction. Participants of this study were 192 university students in the Greater Area of Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia (116 males, 76 females; mean of age = 20.77 years old; standard deviation = 3.02 years) recruited using convenience sampling technique. The research data were obtained through questionnaires in Indonesian and analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that our model can explain the decisional procrastination, with R-square = 6.4%. This study found that (1) The higher one’s courage, the lower his/her decisional procrastination, (2) Media multitasking and planning fallacy cannot predict it. Since the planning fallacy is laden with cognitive processes, courage has a dominant affective or behavioral attitudinal nuance, and media multitasking can be viewed as a psychomotor variable; the current study concludes that the affective variable is the principal thing to be intervened to prevent or stop the decisional procrastination.  

No: 70
Title: The Importance of Didactic Computer Games in the Acquisition of New Knowledge
Pages 676-688
Author(s): Veronika Stoffová*
Open Access

Full Text 70
Playing computer games is popular not only among pupils but also among students and adults. Not only do educational computer games offer fun, relaxation and a good feeling of win but also a possibility to acquire new knowledge and computer skills. Games contribute to the development of the user’s algorithmic and logical thinking and they develop the user’s own winning strategy which is often the same as the optimal algorithm of solving the problem. This research paper demonstrates how students accept such indirect way of teaching and what is their relationship to computer (didactic) games. The author in her research wants to answer two main questions: Are computer games attractive and popular among students? Is it possible to increase the knowledge level of students by playing didactic computer games? 

No: 71
Title: Problem Solving Design for Emotional Intelligence Training of Middle Managers
Pages 689-694
Author(s): Natalya Khona*, Alla Kima, Zhanerke Aidossova
Open Access

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In general, EI (not only emotional perceptions of others, but self-concept, influence, relationships and self-management) is regarded as important for managers. Is it possible to develop EI through competency based EI training in problem-solving design? The purpose of this study was to explore and evaluate a training programme designed to improve the ability of participants to solve working problems related to EI. The participants were 64 middle managers of a production company, banking and investment sectors. This Problem Solving Training Approach employed case studies, group dynamic exercises and a 360 degree questionnaire used as an EI diagnostics tool. Our results suggest that EI components, such as self-concept and self-management, can be improved through the Problem Solving Training Approach. This training design was found to be especially effective for improving self-management as EI competence. Most existing approaches to emotional intelligence training are focused on the emotional perceptions of others. Self-concept, self-management and regulating the emotions of others tends of be overlooked. In our study, the Problem Solving Approach is proposed as a design for EI training and evidence attesting to its effectiveness with regard to self-understanding and emotional regulation was found. 

No: 72
Title: Action Research in Taiwan: Development and Inclusion of Feminist Principles in Counselor Training
Pages 695-704
Author(s): Paoling Yeh*
Open Access

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This study presents the results of training designed to enhance students’ awareness of gender consciousness and gender attitudes in counseling. The participants were 49 master’s degree students (19 male; 30 female; average age, 34 years).We adopted the methodology of action research and took a feminist standpoint. Five focus-group interviews were conducted with students to discuss and share what they learned from the new ‘Gender and Counseling’unit. The results suggest that some graduate students were able to accept gender pluralism, some expressed astonishment at being in contact with lecturers, and others displayed the profound influence of traditional Chinese culture and insisted that gender pluralism breeds social unrest.  

No: 73
Title: The Formation of Sensual Synesthesia Abilities in Contemporary Art Education
Pages 705-713
Author(s): Margarita Gudova*, Irina Lisovetc, Elena Tapilina
Open Access

Full Text 73
Today it is the necessary to change art education for the formation synesthetic sensibility of the artist. This ability is the condition for creation and perception of art work on the new polymorphic artistic languages. To difference the uniqueness of synesthetic sensuality in compare with traditional aesthetical sensuality in fine or modern art, to trace the relationship between new synesthetic sensuality and new artistic languages, and to elaborate new techniques of art education for formation new artistic sensibility are the purposes of study today. For such complex problem it is rightly use following methods. The philosophy-aesthetical method allows find out the essence and uniqueness of synesthetic sensuality. The aesthetic-psychological method lets describe the connections between new sensibility and new artistic languages. The problem-pedagogical method permits elaborate new techniques of art education for formation new artistic sensuality for adequate creation and interpretation of art. The essence and uniqueness of synesthetic sensuality is in ability to create and percept the art work used to supersensuous and super high-speed multimedia for multi-sensual, multi-dimensional and multi-valued realization of art world. Today the language of each art form absorbs and synthesizes the languages of other arts, creating a new polymorphic language of artistic expression. New techniques of art education for formation new artistic sensibility consist in developing not only the one specific fine art language, but of all languages of  arts and  models of its combinations.  

No: 74
Title: The Effects of Teamwork on Competency Building in Manufacturing–PBL (Project-based Learning)
Pages 714-724
Author(s): Hiroshi Takeshita*, Norikatsu Fujita, and Hiroyuki Yamaguchi
Open Access

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Enhancing students’ competency through team activities has become a social demand. Previous studies in higher education claim that Manufacturing--Project-based Learning (M-PBL) enhances students’ competencies, although empirical studies are limited. Therefore, this study addresses the following questions in M-PBL: 1) how do the input and throughput components of teamwork influence each other, and 2) does “working in a team” per se facilitate competencies? Our purposes are 1) to clarify the teamwork factor structure in the M-PBL by factor analysis, 2) to create a process model that shows how both input and throughput components of teamwork affect competency building, and 3) to empirically verify the model by structural equation modelling (SEM). Our methodology included: 1) the revision of questionnaire items on existing teamwork, scaled for a non-manufacturing industry, and 2) collection of data from fourth-grade students of three polytechnic colleges (N = 157) who had finished 972 hours of industry-academia collaborative M-PBL. The students came from different departments (machinery, electricity, and programming) and were organised into teams. The factor analysis results revealed two “team-orientedness” factors, three “team leadership” factors, three “team process” factors, and two “competency-building” factors. The SEM results showed that input components of teamwork enhanced throughput components and throughput components enhanced competency building. The relationships among teamwork components were clarified, such as “work-norm--orientedness” and “human relation leadership” enhanced “problem coping”. The influence of teamwork on competency building was illustrated by the throughput components of teamwork, which enhanced both technical and attitudinal competency building at the individual level. 

No: 75
Title: Morality and ethical acting in Higher Education Students
Pages 725-734
Author(s): Madalena Cunha*, Jéssica Figueiredo, Joana Breia, João Pina Sónia Almeidaa & Tiago Oliveira
Open Access

Full Text 75
The teaching-learning process should promote an ethical culture of proximity that focuses on people who are capable to promote identity feelings of citizenship that will support the making of decisions towards the universal good and the creation of a sense of belonging which will bind them together and allow them to express their solidarity towards the community they are part of and in which they intervene. The Research Questions included identifying the moral principles that support the ethical performance of higher education students. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the morality of higher education students. The Research Methods included the use of a descriptive cross-sectional study, performed with the help of 345 nursing students, 80% of them being female, and whose average age was 20.82. Cunha’s  “Questionário de Modo de Agir Ético (2015)” (QMAE) was administered. The findings revealed that the morality of the student’s actions focused mostly on individualism and is based on the following ethical principles: Ethical Subjectivism- 68,7% (69,1% ♂  and  68,6% ♀); Relativism- 56,5% ( 56,5% ♂ and 56,7% ♀); Deontological Ethics (Kant)- 53,9% (55,8% ♂ and 47,0%♀); Subjectivism/ Ethical Egoism- 11,3% (7,4% ♂   and 12,3%♀ ). It can be concluded that as part of the pedagogical practice, schools must educate their  students for the decision making process, creating consensus based on universal values. Therefore, bioethical education becomes more important and should integrate the discussion of Trans-subjective morality criteria, like rationality (what any person would do for everyone’s well-being) interconnected with impartiality, among others.  

No: 76
Title: Are Future Mathematics Teachers Ready for the Profession? A Pilot Study in the Spanish Framework
Pages 735-745
Author(s): Laura Muñiz-Rodríguez*, Pedro Alonso, Luis J. Rodríguez-Muñiz, Martin Valcke
Open Access

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Prospective teachers’ preparation throughout initial teacher education programmes is crucial in order to guarantee future teachers’ readiness for the job. Initial teacher education programmes are expected to provide student teachers with the desired competences to build-up their professional identity as teachers. As part of a wider research, this paper presents the results of a pilot study with a double aim. First, to assess the quality of an instrument to analyse the extent to what initial teacher education programmes are successful in training prospective secondary mathematics teachers in view of a framework of professional teaching competences in Spain. As a consequence, to perform a preceding evaluation of initial teacher education programmes in mathematics. An online-based survey was conducted by 51 graduate students from initial teacher education programmes for future secondary mathematics teachers in Spain. Statistical analysis suggested weak levels of attainment in all assessed competences. The competence level was in all cases lower than the 80% of mastery level benchmark desired for a competence to be attained. The results of the pilot survey support the validity of the instrument in view of a coming study to be carried out on a larger scale. 

No: 77
Title: Stress Vulnerability: Implications For Teacher Well-Being And Satisfaction
Pages 746-757
Author(s): Conceição Martins*, Laudenice Bispo, Sofia Campos, Teresa Moreira
Rosa Martinsa  &  Marco Vieira
Open Access

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Background: Stress is part of the individual, both at work and in social life. Prompted by several factors, stress is also present in the life of the teacher. Objectives: To identify the factors that have prompted stress situations for teachers in elementary school in the city of Campo Grande-AL; to determine the main stressors on well-being and satisfaction. Methods: Quantitative, non-experimental, cross-sectional, descriptive and correlational research was selected. Data collection was performed by a protocol consisting of a sociodemographic characterisation questionnaire and the following: the Overall Job Satisfaction Scale; the Stress vulnerabilityScale; the Positive and Negative AffectScale; the Family Apgar and the Quality of Life Inventory. We used a non-probabilistic, convenience sample made up of 70 (seventy) elementary school teachers. Results: 50% of participants were found to show stress vulnerability; 28.5% had a good relationship with strangers and 55% reported having support from friends. No family problems were identified and 65% of respondents reported having family help. In job satisfaction only 27% of teachers were satisfied and 30% thought about leaving their work. Conclusions: Burnout in the classroom involves everyday situations for teachers, leading to the need to alert government agencies in order to adopt strategies for teacher well-being and satisfaction with a view to success. 

No: 78
Title: The Development of Didactic Competence of Pre-service Mathematics Teachers Through Teaching Practice at School
Pages 758-774
Author(s): Nijolė Cibulskaitė*
Open Access

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The article investigates the development of teaching profession competence of the students at the Lithuanian University of Educational Sciences during their teaching practicum at school. The research focuses on how pre-service mathematics teachers develop their own original teaching methodology. The main research question addressed in this study is: are teaching and learning methods chosen by the two groups of students, who studied by different programmes (former or new), linked more to the traditional methodology based on the normative educational paradigm or to the innovative methodology based on the interpretive paradigm?  The objective of the study is twofold: to highlight the features of developing pre-service teachers’ didactic competence in using mathematics teaching methods, and to investigate the relationship between the teaching practicum model and teaching methodology developed by pre-service mathematics teachers. The results reveal that the majority of the pre-service mathematics teachers, who studied by the former study programme, frequently used traditional teaching and learning methods. The pre-service mathematics teachers, who studied by the new study programme, more often utilise both teacher-oriented and student-centered instruction methods, so that the new teaching practicum model is more effective for the development of their didactic competence. 

No: 79
Title: “Learning How to Learn” – Which Learning Techniques Really Foster Contemporary Academic Learning?
Pages 775-779
Author(s): Miriam Thye*, Désirée Ritzka, Rose Link, & Diethard Tauschel
Open Access

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Learning is an essential competency that can be developed over an entire life time. Taking up a course of academic study is a situation of radical change and requires transforming the way a person learns. Training in learning how to  learn seems to play an important role within universities. At the University of Witten / Herdecke, “Learning to Learn,” a longitudinal seminar,was developed and carried out that addresses physiological, psychological and spiritual known to contribute to both the improvement of learning and to the development of learning techniques. Which learning techniques were perceived to bethemostefficient? This study aimed to evaluate students’ attitudes towards different learning techniques and explore how these techniques are integrated into the processof contemporary academic learning. After finishing the seminar, the students completed a mixed - methods questionnaire for evaluation. A few months later, some students reflected in writing on their learning habits. Which learning techniques a reperceived to be the most effective? This study aims to evaluate students’ attitudes towards different learning techniques and explore how these techniques are integrated into the process of contemporary academic learning. The qualitative and quantitative data were analyzed by means of Atlas-Tiand SPSS. “Organization and structure,” “taking a day off” and “self-reflection” were identified as the most important strategies for the students. The preparation of a weekly schedule was considered to be the most efficient ofalllearning techniques andalsoremainedinuse for months afterthe seminar was completed.One of the keys to facilitating contemporary academic learning seems to lie in helpingstudentsstructuretheirlearning, encouraging themtotakeadayoffonceinawhile,andinmotivatingthemtobe introspective. 

No: 80
Title: Measurement of Rubrical Essay-based Test Using Rasch Model
Pages 780-787
Author(s): Mohd Nor Mamata*, &Siti Fatahiyah Mahamood
Open Access

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There are many educators use raw score as measurement for student’s ability, but it never truly measures the right measurement. The raw score should be converted into a right linear metrics for ability measurement.  This study is to implement rubrical analysis or assessment for essay-based test using Rasch Model (RM). It is to produce a reliable and accurate measurement procedure for student’s performance in essay-based test. The initial study has identified the concept of RM to be applied in educational test or examination. The design and development stages has produced a comprehensive but simplified procedure template of scientific analysis within Bond&Bond Steps software. The proposed procedures contains of measuring score of accurate student’s ability in LOGIT unit, providing of student’s result profiling, and measuring reliability of the test set and the student’s answers,. The procedure is designed for essay-based test which is more difficult to be analysed, compared to the multiple choice type. This procedure converts the student’s answer into rubrical ratio-based scale to be most accurately measured and definitely better than the common practice of merely analysis on raw marks for each question. It will show true student’s performance of cognitive performance (test) which represents the true student’s ability, in order to accurately measure the right outcome.  

No: 81
Title: Errors as a Part of Teaching of Foreign Languages
Pages 788-797
Author(s): Jana Ondrakova*
Open Access

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The purpose working with errors is to gradually teach students to use errors and their corrections as an additional source of learning. Does the knowledge and foreign language proficiency correlate with the ability to be able to find and correct errors in the text in a foreign language? The aim of this study is to present the research project on this area with its preliminary findings. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were applied. Several kinds of analysis were carried out (the analysis of mistakes in written assignments of students of German language, the analysis of error corrections made by these students, the analysis of the ability to identify the errors). The research was started at the Department of German Language and Literature at the Faculty of Education of the University of Hradec Králové in April 2016 and the data was analysed in autumn 2016. However, it can be claimed that foreign language proficiency does not in itself guarantee that a person can identify, correct and explain mistakes and errors in the text created by another person. Professional training in this sphere is essential for foreign language teachers.  

No: 82
Title: Emotion Regulation and Life Satisfaction in University Students: Gender Differences
Pages 798-809
Author(s): Maryam Esmaeilinasab*, Alireza Andami Khoshk, Amirhossein Makhmali
Open Access

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This study aimed to compare gender differences in nine strategies of cognitive emotion regulation and to predict life satisfaction through these strategies. The participants consisted of 302 students (202 female and 100 male) of Allameh Tabataba’i University that were selected through Multi-stage cluster sampling and assessed by Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ). The results showed that females reported more usage of Rumination while strategies of Positive refocusing, Refocus on planning and Positive reappraisal were often used by males. Also multiple regression analysis in females showed that Rumination predicted life satisfaction negatively and strategies of Positive reappraisal and putting into perspective, predicted life satisfaction positively, whereas in males strategies of Positive reappraisal and Refocus on planning predicted life satisfaction positively.  The results demonstrated that there were some differences between males and females in selecting cognitive emotion regulation strategies and also a number of these strategies have a crucial role in predicting life satisfaction. Thus, teaching some adaptive strategies and removing maladaptive strategies might prove useful in increasing life satisfaction.

No: 83
Title: Art Appreciation: Ability, Development and Components Relating
Pages 810-816
Author(s): Vyacheslav O. Popov*,Natalya N. Khon, Delwyn L. Harnisch
Open Access

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According to our research, modern educational system is characterized by a bias towards the exact and natural sciences. Subjects related to art are on the sidelines usually. We raised the question in our study: What specific components are surrounding art appreciation. How values, emotional intelligence, perception of beauty relate to Art Appreciation. As the purposes of the study, we chose to reveal the relationship between personal characteristics such as values, emotional intelligence, perception of beauty on the one hand, and the personal characteristics of the ways of perceiving art, and painting in particular, on the other. The following methods were used in the study: the Schwartz Value survey (PVQ-RR, 19 Values), Engagement with beauty scale (EBS 2.0), The videotest of emotion recognition, phenomenological interview, structured interview. Multiple regression analysis, content analysis and the mix methods methodology was used in data processing. Individual ways of art appreciation are qualitatively differ from each other and correlate differently with personal characteristics such as emotional intelligence, values and engagement with beauty. The most appropriate way to explore such complex subject is using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. The phenomenological approach provides valuable qualitative data, which improves the ecological validity of the study. The art appreciation is specific internal activity. The creation of conditions for the development of such activity should be one of the tasks of the educational environment. This will systematically influence human development at all levels, from the development of emotional intelligence to the formation of values. The most appropriate educational methodology is existential - phenomenological paradigm. 

No: 84
Title: Capacity For Reflection As A Predictor Of Children’s Readiness For Elementary School
Pages 817-827
Author(s): Milica Tošić-Radev*, Aleksandra Stojilković, Tatjana Stefanović-Stanojević, Snežana Vidanović, Vesna Andjelković
Open Access

Full Text 84
Reflective functioning is defined as the ability to explain the behavior of others in terms of their mental states (Fonagy & Target, 2005). This ability is derived before the end of the preschool years and it represents one of the crucial changes in child development. This research was conducted on a sample of 60 six-year old children. Readiness for school was operationalized by the Readiness for Elementary School Test – POS (Tolčic, 1986) and children’s reflective functioning by one subscale on The Affect task (Steele et al., 1999). Results indicate that children’s reflective functioning is a significant predictor of their readiness for school, explaining the 49,4 % of the variance on standardized score of the POS. In detail, results show that children’s capacity for reflection explains 63,3% of children's verbal comprehension (beta= ,80), 44% of of variance on logic task (beta= ,67), as 34,9 % (beta=,600) and 37,2% (beta=,619) of the success of children on graphomotor and quantity understanding tasks, respectively. Also, the employment of parents, economic status of a family, higher education of the father and being a firstborn, but not the only child in a the family are factors which are related with children’s success on Scholl readiness test.  Our results indicate that the system for processing social information is an important predictor of the children’s readiness for Elementary school. 

No: 85
Title: Development of Entrepreneurship Education in Estonian Universities: Case of University of Tartu
Pages 828-837
Author(s): Mervi Raudsaar*, Merike Kaseorg
Open Access

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There are different opinions on how entrepreneurship education (EE) should be organized in a curriculum and how to create interdisciplinarity within different curricula. It depends on several aspects, included what is the aim of entrepreneurship education – is it about entrepreneurship or education for or through entrepreneurship? How should the curriculum be designed to be more effective for teaching entrepreneurship, including different dimensions: environmental factors, personal relations, their network, development of one’s entrepreneurial behavior, personality and learning process itself? The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of contemporary trends how entrepreneurship education is integrated in different university curricula and how different stakeholders are involved into the process. For that purpose first, the authors provided a comprehensive literature review of research in entrepreneurship education in higher education institutions (HEIs). Secondly, they analyzed University of Tartu faculties’ curricula to analyze full time programs teaching entrepreneurship. Thirdly, the authors adopted a qualitative research approach, where they conducted semi-structured interviews with programme leaders from all faculties from the University of Tartu in 2016. The main result is that, EE should be more interdisciplinary and integrated in different specialty subjects and the teaching/practice-oriented subjects should be embedded in the curricula; EE should be supported by the ecosystem, teaching methods must change etc. The concept “entrepreneurship education” has been understood in a narrow sense, aiming to give people the knowledge and skills needed to become self-employed and develop a new business in the long term. 

No: 86
Title: Assessment Scale For Trainee Self-concept In The Portuguese Navy: Psychometric Properties
Pages 838-848
Author(s): Ana Frade*, Feliciano H. Veiga
Open Access

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In this study the Assessment Scale for Trainee Self-concept in the Portuguese Navy (ASTSC-PN) was adapted to the military context. The psychometric properties are presented and the results from the factor analysis displayed, which highlighted five significant dimensions: interpersonal relationships, competence, satisfaction, self-acceptance, and risk acceptance, with an item distribution coherent with the Teacher Self-concept Evaluation Scale (Veiga, Gonçalves, Caldeira, & Zuniga, 2006). The sample involved 149 trainees of the Training Course for Petty Officers 1st Class of the Portuguese Navy, ages ranging from 25 to 36, mostly of male gender. When studying external validity the scale factors appeared correlated, as expected, with other variables of commitment with training tasks, assessed with Assessment Scale for Trainee Engagement in the Portuguese Navy (ASTE-PN) and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), and with other variables of learning motivation, assessed with Learning Motivation Scale (LMS). The results suggest that the adapted version presents good psychometric qualities, which makes it useful in research and intervention, in psychology and education within a military context. 

No: 87
Title: Education and Training in Crisis Management
Pages 849-856
Author(s): Šárka Hošková-Mayerová*
Open Access

Full Text 87
Quality education is an indispensable prerequisite for all kinds of human activities. No area of human activity if it has to function properly can exist without sophisticated education that determines the quality of workers in the given area. Training of public administration officials is a very important step to ensure conditions for adequate response in case of disasters and other emergencies. Conditions for successful solutions can be created by acquiring professional knowledge and skills, having mastered technical and technological readiness to manage critical crisis situations and creating and updating legislation interlinked with harmonizing mutual cooperation with EU countries. This article aims to highlight the inconsistence in educating “target groups” in the field of crisis management which is becoming a systematic problem in the educational system of the Czech Republic. According to § 39 of the Act no. 111/1998 Coll., on universities and on the change and amendments to other Acts, the military colleges and universities prepare specialists, particularly for armed forces. However, students, not being soldiers in active duty, can study there as well. Police colleges prepare experts especially for security forces. However, there can also study those who are not members of the security forces. Moreover, the paper analyses the possibility to prepare “a common minimum”, which could be reflected in curricula of universities and colleges preparing students in the field of crisis management. The results of the analysis will be the base for the proposal, which would greatly help to resolve the situation.  

No: 88
Title: Problems, challenges, trends and prospects for Special Education for talented children
Pages 857-861
Author(s): Esther Antequera-Manotas*, & Omar Cortés-Peña
Open Access

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The purpose of this paper is develop a documental review about the problem, needs, challenges and prospects of the models of Special Education for talented children. To this end, various studies associated with contemporary problems and challenges that must take special education from a meta-analytic perspective were reviewed. From systematic review of the different studies were identified three types of contemporary approach in Special Education models: a) models oriented toward the active and personalized classroom, b) models focused on maximizing in the achievement of the standards and the development of skills and competencies, and c) models that articulate the use of information and communication technologies with the research training, sport and cultural activities, and artistic production. The findings from this review are focused on the need to design a curriculum educational model tailored to the needs of special education and personalized children according to their abilities and skills, promoting their integral development and the gradual building their life projects, ensuring their well-being and quality of life. 

No: 89
Title: Creating a Platform for Teacher Mentors: A Project on Teachers´ Professional Development in Zlín Region in the Czech Republic
Pages 862-869
Author(s): Hana Navrátilová*, & Anežka Lengálová
Open Access

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This paper presents experiences with creating a platform for teachers´ training as well as the results from selected instructional modules. The aim of the project is to provide a specialized professional assistance to teachers at all stages of their professional development. The project is based on a holistic model of teachers´ training that is structured for novice teachers, expert teachers and teacher mentors. The project includes sixteen differentiated instructional modules suited to the actual needs of participating teachers. The project was created thanks to the Fund for Education Policy of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic and it has been implemented by the Faculty of Humanities at Tomas Bata University in Zlín since 2014.  The paper also deals with the selected outcomes of the project evaluation. 

No: 90
Title: Attitude toward School and Learning and Academic Achievement of Adolescents
Pages 870-876
Author(s): Marcela Verešová*, Dana Malá
Open Access

Full Text 90
In the paper we highlight the significance of attitudes toward school and learning (ATSL) as a significant predictor of academic achievement. We also looked for an answer to the question whether there are intersexual differences in attitude toward school and learning in adolescents. The sample consisted of 269 adolescents studying at secondary schools (146 girls, 123 boys). Among adolescent boys and girls we noted significant differences in the ATSL in favour of a more positive ATSL for girls (t=-2.862, p=.005). The analysis of the internal components of ATSL shows significant differences between girls and boys in cognitive component (t=-3,044, p=.003) and behavioural component (t=-4,299, p=.000) of ATSL (more positive attitude among girls). We identified a significant relationship between ATSL and GPA (r = -.312**, p =.000), We have found that the more positive is the ATSL of adolescents, the more positive is academic achievement expressed by GPA at the end of the school year. Analysing the relationship of the components of ATSL we have established the identical findings thatthere is a significant relationship between affective component and GPA (r= -.267**, p=.000), between behavioural component and GPA (r = -.265**, p=.000), and between cognitive component and GPA (r= -.276**, p=.000). In the field of predictive relationship we note that the attitude toward school and learning is an important predictor of academic achievement (R²=.098, beta =-.312, t=-5,373, p=.000). 

No: 91
Title: Academic Self – Efficacy, Heteronomous and Autonomous Evaluation of Academic Achievement of Adolescents
Pages 877-885
Author(s): Marcela Verešová*, & Lucia Foglová
Open Access

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In the research we focused on an analysis of relationship between academic self-efficacy (ASE), heteronomous (AAH) and autonomous evaluation (AAA) of academic achievement of adolescents. We also analyse the intersexual differences in ASE, AAH and AAA in adolescents. The sample consisted of 107 adolescents (57 girls, 50 boys). We used Morgan-Jinks Student Efficacy Scale. We measured academic achievement by GPA. Autonomous evaluation of academic achievement was measured by perceived self-evaluation of academic achievement (expressed by a self-perceived quality level of knowledge and skill in 3 study subjects - Mathematics, Slovak language, English language and in all study subjects). Among adolescent boys and girls we noted significant differences in GPA (t=2.608, p=.010), the girls GPA was better than boys GPA. In the AAA we determined no evidenced significant intersexual differences (t=.724, p=.471), and in the ASE of adolescents there were no evidenced significant intersexual differences either (t=.019, p=.985). We identified a significant relationship between ASE and GPA (r =.269**, p =.005) and between ASE and AAA (r =.385**, p =.000). Analysing the relationship of autonomous evaluation of success in Mathematics, Slovak language and English language (as study subjects) we have come to the identical finding - there was a significant relationship with ASE of adolescents. We found out that GPA as an indicator of AAH strongly correlates with AAA of adolescent (r =.700**, p =.000). 

No: 92
Title: Changes in Higher Education Process towards Better Relevance to Practice
Pages 886-894
Author(s): Andrea Sujová*
Open Access

Full Text 92
The problem of higher education in Slovakia is low interface between theoretical education and needs of practice. As a consequence, there is insufficient success of graduates in the labour market. How to improve readiness of students for practice and the professional life and if implementing software applications is the right way for increasing the quality and relevance of higher education are main research questions. The aim of paper is to present changes in education process of economic courses of the study programme „Business Economics and Management“ at Technical University in Zvolen. To propose changes correctly, initial information were acquired as follows: course evaluation by students; questionnaire survey focused on finding out employment of graduates; inquiry carried out with managers of important companies; analysis of digital skills of lecturers; analysis of courses´ contents, consequences and interlocks. Results of carried out surveys led to proposal of changes in education process towards provision of knowledge and skills for work with business information systems. The integrated system of implementation of IS into education process across core study courses was suggested. The solution consists in using the same database platform of model enterprise in education of all selected study courses and acquirement of economic knowledge and user skills via working out assignments in enterprise information systems. Provided possibility to gain competencies and skills for work with business and management information systems in the study branch Business Economics and management is the reflection of higher education quality and relevance to practice. 

No: 93
Title: Construction of a Motivational Self-System Instrument for the Learning of Persian as a L2
Pages 895-905
Author(s): Zohreh Molaee*, Esmaeil Sadipour, Fariborz Dortaj, Amir Reza Vakilifard
Open Access

Full Text 93
The purpose of the study was to develop a motivational Self-System instrument for learning Persian language as a second language (L2) with an acceptable validity and reliability. To do so, first of all, based on existing literature especially Zoltán Dörnyei's works and also qualitative methods, a six-factor Persian questionnaire  was prepared which comprised: L2 Ideal self, L2 Ought-to self, L2 Learning experience ,L2 self-efficacy, International posture & L2 learning experience items. The population of the study consisted of foreign students of Imam Khomeini International University, Persian learning faculty of the 2015-16, second semester (N=100).  The sampling method was done through a census survey  and sample size was (n=73).The reliability of the questionnaire items were measured in terms of Cronbach’s alpha & bisection method.  A descriptive research design, was used with Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for construct validity, as well as experts' input  for face validity and content validity ratio (CVR) for content validity. The results from the 73 participants demonstrated that all items had an acceptable factor loading except in International posture in  item no.27 which was removed  from the questionnaire. The Cronbach’s alpha for the questionnaire was 0.947. The estimated significance levels were more than 0.05 for each item which demonstrated the normality of all the study variables. It can be concluded that the Persian  researcher-developed questionnaire on motivational self-system has both acceptable variability and reliability. 

No: 94
Title: Socially-Psychological Research of Religious Orientations and Preferences in Modern Kazakhstan
Pages 906-913
Author(s): Оlga Аimaganbetova*, Аkhmet Аimaganbetov, Elena Mussikhina, Maira Kabakova, Gulzhikhan Nurysheva, Elnura Adilova
Open Access

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This article presents the results of the socio-psychological research of religious orientations and preferences of students in Kazakhstan, one of the major states of Central Asia.Kazakhstan, where more 130 ethnic groups live all together, states religious tolerance and acceptance as one of the main internal policies. However, due to the rise of religious extremism and terrorism around the world there is a danger that religious tensions can also affect Kazakhstan. The purpose of this socio-psychological research is to study religious orientation and preference of students in a multicultural and multi-religious society. Research methods include M.Kuhn’s (1954) twenty statements test and Bogdanov’s  (2002) questionnaire of religious orientations. Intensity of religious identity is evident among 15% of representatives of Kazakh ethnic and among 5% of representatives of Russian ethnic group.  In terms of ethnic identity, it is evident among 40% of ethnic Kazakhs and only among 5% of Russians. 90% of students and 75% of Kazakh-Russian students consider themselves as believers. Thus, our socio-psychological research has shown that religious identity does not take an important place in the self-categorization of the personality of students of both national groups - Kazakh and Russian. In these circumstances, students apart from the religious factor, focus on themselves, define and update their interests in personal, professional, ethnic problems.  

No: 95
Title: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): Implications in people’s loss of function
Pages 914-919
Author(s): Rosa Martins*, Elisabete Figueiredo, Ana Andrade, Helena Moreira, Madalena Cunha
Open Access

Full Text 95
Background: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a pathology which has deep implications in people’s loss of function (physical, emotional, social and economical implications). It is therefore essential to assess the functionality and the kind of limitations people who suffer from AR experience and their relationship with the socio-demographic and clinical variables as well as with these people’s sleep quality. Methods: Non-experimental, cross-sectional, descriptive-correlational and quantitative study. A non-probabilistic defined for convenience sample was used. That sample was formed by 75 Portuguese people diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis.  In the data collection, a protocol that included socio-demographic and clinical questions was used. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and The Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) were used in the data collection as well. Results: We could witness that 60% of the participants show mild incapacity as far as their ability to perform daily tasks was concerned, 32,0% show moderate incapacity and 8,0% show serious incapacity. The functionality of people suffering from RA is in correlation with the socio-demographic, age (p=0,003), people’s employment situation (p=0,000), their educational level (p=0,006) and their monthly income (p=0,001). These people loss of function is worsened by the pain intensity (p=0,007), the time needed to performed the diagnosis (p=0,013) and bad sleep quality (p=0,030). Conclusion: Evidence shows that incapacity is a reality in the lives of people suffering from RA. This incapacity is associated with several socio-demographic, clinical and psycho-social variables. Thus, early diagnosis, adopting the right measures to promote good sleep quality, implementing pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical measures which will ease people’s pain and educational measures that will be offered to RA patients should be developed as strategies to minimize the negative impact caused by this disease.