Edu World 2016

Volume XXIII, Pages 1- 2032 (25 May 2017)
The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences EpSBS
e-ISSN: 2357-1330
©2017 Published by the Future Academy
Edited by: Emanuel Soare & Claudiu Langa
Articles: 1-251
Conference: Edu World 7th International Conference
Dates: 04 - 05 November 2016
Location: Pilesti - Romania
Conference Chair(s): Prof. Dr. Dan POTOLEA, University of Bucharest, Romania & Professor Dr. Peter JARVIS, University of Surrey, United Kingdom
Cover Page here

Title: Contents

Open Access


No: 1
Title:  Integrative Learning Pathways In Competence Based Curriculum
Pages 1-6
Author(s): Emanuel Soare*
Open Access

Full Text 1
The article focusses on a theoretical inquiry of the ways to implement the competence based curriculum (CBC) in the actual postmodern society, with an analytical emphasis on the integrative learning pathways (ILP) that must be designed and implemented in the didactic activity as concrete ways of operationalization of the curriculum paradigm. There are identified various perspectives of defining the competence as an ability construct that determines the architecture of the school curriculum. The competence development is linked with the design of the complex learning situation (CLS) as the specific pathway in CBC to foster original and efficient integrative learning of students as the basis for the development of the competence. Also, the paper links the CLS with the necessity to develop the students’ integrative learning that is viewed as a paradigmatic shift in curriculum development with focus on integrated didactic activities that leads students toward making logical and social-valued connections across curricula. 

No: 2
Title:  The Impact Of Social Environment On Scholar Activities Of Primary School’s Pupils
Pages 7-14
Author(s): Claudiu Langa*, Cristina Langa
Open Access

Full Text 2
Out of the numerous factors that influence the behaviour of children in the scholar environment, that is the hereditary factors, the psycho- social traits of the family, their social status, school management, we shall focus on this study on the impact the social environment of origin of these children has on the degree of school task performance and on their behaviour related to their didactic activities. The environment where the entire family lives represents the universe in which the child can find and make friends, or play fellows, the universe where they learn various social behaviours, by enculturation in some cases.. The purpose of the study is the analysis of the socioeconomic environment factors upon school activities of small age pupils. The following issues will be taken into account: the involvement degree on solving didactic tasks, the children’s behaviours during scholar activities and homework accomplishment. The methodology used in this investigative approach is the questionnaire applied on a group of 30 primary education teachers in the urban environment and 86 parents of the pupils. The findings and results of this study allowed the reaching the  intended purpose by identifying a correlation between the social environment of origin and the involvement degree in scholar activities of the small  age pupils as well as the quality of the accomplishment of these activities

No: 3
Title:  Management Of University Study Programs From Theory To Practice
Pages 15-22
Author(s): Liliana Ezechil*
Open Access
Full Text 3
In the current context of making high level qualifications, the university environment wrestles with a series of questions regarding the necessity of ensuring a better adaptation of the graduates’ skills to the needs of the labour force, which results in ensuring a better coherence of university professional training programs. If, not long ago, the performance of university study programs was based on the professionalism and personal commitment degree of each teacher, now more and more emphasis is put on the team work. Under these circumstances, the purpose of the study is to highlight the need to perform in universities such a specific management  to university professional training programs. This problem is approached from the perspective of several basic questions: Are there theoretical justifications supporting the necessity of a management specific to university professional training programs? Do the usual university practices reveal the necessity of a specific management of the professional training programs made in the academic environment? How can the specific management of university professional training programs be defined? What are the dimensions of the management specific to university professional training programs? Who can ensure the specific management of university professional training programs? The conclusion of the article is that the assurance of a specific management of university professional training programs involves the preparation of a coherent strategy for the design and implementation of such a program, conceived through combining the program philosophy and the university pragmatics axes. 

No: 4
Title:  Current Challenges In Validation Of Informal Learning (Vinfl) In Europe
Pages 23-31
Author(s): Georgios K. Zarifis*, Achilleas Papadimitriou
Open Access

Full Text 4
What are the political origins of VINFL in Europe? What is the current debate and which challenges can be identified in the field of VINFL? In this reflective paper the authors critically evaluate the issue and plead for a recognition of competences, which differentiates between validation as a concept and validation as a process. Validation as a process covers the appreciation of learning in everyday situations and people's life experience. Reliable validation tools would then support individual professional development and mobility by making these learning processes creditable for future education, training and employment paths. They conclude that today there is a strong need to look at the VINFL’spotential to take into account, to identify, and to identify individual knowledge, skills and competences, and also to regard it as a comprehensive tool to integrate the different learning pathways; because VINFL is a way not only to motivate adults and attract them into continuous lifelong learning by helping them to become more aware of their level of skills and competencies, of their capabilities and their potentialand to have a better grasp of the benefits of learning. 

No: 5
Title:  Importance Of Ecotourism At Students In Teaching Practice
Pages 32-38
Author(s): Helena Maria Sabo*, Mircea Muresianu(
Open Access

Full Text 5
This paper aims to highlight the positive aspects of the application of modern methods of teaching and learning in studying ecotourism and sustainable development in local and regional horizon. We will present the importance of using modern teaching methods in teaching and studying ecotourism and sustainable development in local horizon, choosing for this Maramures region. In our research, we stopped on the Biosferei Reservation area – “Poiana cu Narcise” from Bistra village. An important aspect regarding the location of Bistra is that it lies at a distance of approximately 42 km from the so-called geographical center of Europe (Dilove town, Rahiv district, Zakarpatya region - Ukraine), it is an opportunity for Bistra village, capitalizing this, and the town can become a major European tourist attraction pole. For ecotourism, different plant species are natural attractions, interesting in that their ecosystems are untouched. The research was conducted with the help of a small group of undergraduates from the Geography of Tourism (Faculty of Geography – Babes-Bolyai University) from Bistrita extension during their teaching practice in an optional activity at the eleventh grade students from Bistrita Sports High School, in the second semester, year 2014. 

No: 6
Title:  Democracy, Discrimination And Mobbing In The Romanian Educational System
Pages 39-46
Author(s): Helena Maria Sabo*
Open Access

Full Text 6
A factor which can contribute to the occurrence of conflicts in the workplace is discrimination, which is defined as “the unjust or prejudicial treatment of a person compared against other members of an organization on the grounds of race, color, religion, origins, age, physical or mental impairment or sexual orientation”.  In fact, the reason for conflict is of little importance as compared to the manner in which the conflicting situation is approached. The role of the manager in solving workplace conflicts is cardinal. The existence of a job description for each position is important so that employees should know exactly their responsibilities for the job they do. The present study focuses on the findings of a survey carried out on a sample of 150 Master’s degree students of various specialization programs: Tourism Geography (Bistriţa) and Curriculum Management, in 2014 and 2015. The respondents in the selected sample were full-time teachers of various disciplines (with classes at kindergarten, primary, lower and upper secondary education levels) doing their Master’s degree. The subjects answered the questionnaire anonymously so that the truer and more accurate opinions could be collected. 

No: 7
Title:  Why Referencing PISA In The Romanian Rhetoric On Educational Reform Demands Caution
Pages 47-54
Author(s): Mihaela Mitescu Manea*
Open Access

Full Text 7
The paper introduces a theoretical argument cautioning against the constant referencing of disappointing reports on international (PISA) and/or national examination (i.e. Bacalaureat, Capacitate, Titulatizare în Învățământ) as springboards for reviving a repetitive rhetoric on the imperatives of the educational reform in Romania. It builds on the analysis model proposed by Münch (2014), confronting the concept of literacy applied by PISA test with the curriculum and typical lessons in Romanian secondary schools to explore the extent of their convergence and divergence. Findings indicate that such a focus successfully builds to a rhetoric of deficit in structuring discursive practices on educational reforms, which is neither theoretically sound, nor has it proved productive for envisioning tools and actions worthy of trust and eliciting educational agents’ commitment at all levels of practice and decision. The proposed discussion seems particularly worthy of attention in contexts of educational practice with longstanding histories of conformity to prescribed educational policies. 

No: 8
Title:  Concepts Of Early Childhood Care For Development In Romanian Education
Pages 55-60
Author(s): Emil Lazăr*
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Full Text 8
Early education was considered a systematic activity carried out in specialized institutions like nurseries and kindergartens. The Jomtien Conference was a very important moment for early education. The Salamanca Statement adopted the concepts of accessibility, participation and quality in the context of education for all, as well as the Millennium Development Goals by 2015 underlines that welfare and development of children is the result of a convergent approach, including children’s health, education and protection.These views are related to other concepts, specific ages in general psychology and child psychology in particular: care, growth, development, Early Childhood Development programs.In Romania early education began to be developed in 90 years through reform documents followed by the specific programs. Implementation of the first program of earlyeducation belongs to XXth century. There are a fewgeneral objectives of early education for children from birth to 6/7 years of age in Romanian education. 

No: 9
Title:  The Dysfunctional Paradigms of Romanian Education
Pages 61-68
Author(s): Petru Lisievici*
Open Access

Full Text 9
The purpose of this study is to identify dysfunctional paradigms that supported the explosive expansion of inefficiency, moral degradation and corruption throughout the whole Romanian education system. Critical analysis has been used to i) relate current hypotheses about dysfunctional paradigms to other paradigms that have been mentioned in various international and domestic scientific papers, books and reports and ii) to assess and predict impact of current dysfunctional paradigms on the state of Romanian education. Only a limited number of dysfunctional paradigms have been identified, described and assessed: The Quality Paradigm, The Abstract Thinking Superiority Paradigm, The External Locus of Control Paradigm, The Acceleration Paradigm, and The Stupid Teacher Paradigm. Just like factors that lower the immunity of organisms, dysfunctional paradigms compromise the ability of the education systems to fight off corruption, abuse and bad management, lack of empathy, solidarity and respect. Conclusions are being formulated about the need to replace the dysfunctional paradigms.

No: 10
Title:  Adherence to Recovery Exercise Program of Scapulohumeral Articulation After Breast Cancer Surgery
Pages 69-78
Author(s): Dina-Magdalena Puscas*, Patriciu Achimas-Cadariu, Catalin Vlad, Florina Pop, Simona Tache
Open Access

Full Text 10
The adherence to the recovery exercise program is the key to the optimal results in regaining the shoulder’s full range of motion. Patients and methods: This study was carried out on 30 patients with breast cancer following mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection. We applied The Rotterdam Symptoms Checklist and A Brief Self Report Questionnaire on the first day after breast surgery and after one, three and six months. Results: The results revealed that the poorer the quality of life is perceived by the patient, the higher is the patient’s adherence to the recovery program. Also, the higher adherence at moment zero post surgery is, the higher the chance is to be high also after one, three and six months. Patients from our study evaluate their quality of life based mostly on the presence or the lack of psychological symptoms, despite the physical symptoms. Psychological state of the patient influences her activity score and vice-versa, return to the daily activities improves the psychological symptoms. Conclusion: The evaluation of the overall state of health of the cancer patients after surgery and their activity level is important in determining their future adherence to the exercise program and the success of recovery. 

No: 11
Title:  Educational Policies In Spain. The Current Linguistic Panorama Of The Valencian Community
Pages 79-85
Author(s): Silvia-Maria Chireac*, Anna Devís
Open Access

Full Text 11
This theoretical approach of this study is to compare four bilingual educational systems from Spain: Galicia, Catalonia, Basque Country and Valencian Community. To carry out our objective, we explore to what extent different educational systems promote bilingualism in some communities of Spain where local languages have received special attention over the last years. For this purpose, we used comparative methodology of deductive character, in order to contrast some variables of each structure educational system such bilingual programs, types of schools, curriculum, school access, bilingual teachers, native and immigrant students. In the case of Valencia we present the main characteristics of educational system of Valencian Community, where Valencian is the official language together with the state language Castilian Spanish. Bilingual educational programs are an extremely useful tool for a Europe which is interested in conserving its present linguistic and cultural diversity. In providing detailed accounts of the socio-cultural dimension of differentAutonomous Communities from Spain and the characteristics of each context in which policies are inserted, this paper enriches our understanding of the limits and possibilities of the bilingual education models. 

No: 12
Title:  Perspectives On Essential Interrogations - Values And Directions To Improve Educational Practice
Pages 86-90
Author(s): Ioan Neacșu*
Open Access

Full Text 12
The study represents an original approach of the epistemological and praxiological substance offered by the ideas contained into a minimal set of questions with educational value. The purpose of the paper derives from the motivation to start the analysis of future projects from relatively simple interrogations, which can light a part of searches and decisions, offering added values to the theoretical answers and to the practical models proposed by the experts and practitioners in educational sciences, for the good of students, professors and decision makers. The author advocates for positive changes in school and education harmonized with modern world trends some of them being already listed on the agenda of the one who plan the future. Those are alternative themes such as: the economy of useful knowledge, curricular modernity, interactive methodologies, the reflective autonomy, the decisional-creative quality and the formative act of the actors present in the opened environment of education. 

No: 13
Title:  Intercultural Education And Its Role In The Society Of The Future
Pages 91-100
Author(s): Maria Pescaru*
Open Access

Full Text 13
The role of culture would be that of clearing up the gloomy atmosphere of disbelief amongst peoples, the invitation to friendship, peace-making and cooperation through plenary communication of the values which bestow dignity and sense to the human existence. Or, one of the functions of culture is that of providing the human development with fresh perspectives. Some of the forms of cultural globalisation have effects on the cultural identity of a society: westernisation, cultural hybridisation, contextualisation of global culture, the disparity, the coexistence of different cultures and the inequality in the cultural and  consumption series. Culture expands beyond the national frontiers and, in this respect it gives birth to the spreading of a joint culture or a similar culture in different parts of the world, though with consequences or varieties which differ from one country to another. In the context of creating a joint European space, the resolution of the inter-ethnic conflicts and intercultural education represents some desiderata which constitute a starting point in the direction of real integration and harmonious cohabitation. Reciprocal acquaintance of the ethnic groups in the process of their interaction facilitates communication 

No: 14
Title:  The Learning Situation And The Professional Options Of The Students
Pages 101-106
Author(s): Florica Orțan*
Open Access

Full Text 14
The rationale of this paper is based on the issues emerged in those areas of interference (ways) between educational training and socio-professional activities. We assume that there is a relationship between the student’s learning situation in their last two years of high school and their attitude towards the professional prestige and options The second part of this paper exposes the theoretical and methodological base and the use of certain sociometric items. We included 110 students from a high school, 73 girls and 37 boys. The results pointed out by this paper are grouped into six classifications, four of which being primal and two derived ones obtained by converting the primal charts into the research hypotheses. The last part of the paper comprises a series of discussions regarding the validity of the research and several conclusions. This paper can have implications in order to organize more activities of knowledge of world’s professions. 

No: 15
Title:  Specific Approach Of Special Education In Turkey
Pages 107-114
Author(s): Marin Drămnescu, Vladimir Enăchescu*
Open Access

Full Text 15
In the contemporary world there are many definitions of integration resulting from the idea of equality in education and the principle that people should be educated in the least restrictive environment where you will give a modern education is a prerequisite for democratization. Integrating people with special needs provides education on equal terms with children of the same age in the normal education programs according to the type and degree opportunities offered and resources need to be used. Kircaali-Iftar (1992) defines integration as an education that can be taught in general education classes provided children with special needs to ensure teacher and / or student with disabilities special education services. Therefore, integration is not only the formation of a special needs child with his peers in a normal house without receiving any special educational support. Rather education of students with special needs in general education classes will be continued with the support of special education. This article highlights the role of education through continuing education emphasizing the integration of people with special needs and providing educational support services, along with their peers in countries not belonging to the European Union. Through these apps, people with special needs may continue their education through integration in the same class with their peers without disabilities either in full-time and part-time. In the application program ala part-time students attend certain lessons or extracurricular activities with their peers without disabilities. 

No: 16
Title:  Money metaphors in English and Romanian. A Comparative Approach
Pages 115-125
Author(s): Herteg Maria-Crina*
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The paper aims to analyse conceptual categories clustered around money metaphors both in English and Romanian. It also explores the differences and similarities arising between the realization of this category of conceptual metaphors in Romanian and English, the mappings between Source Domain and Target Domain, the frequency of money metaphors, as well as the morphological realizations of this conceptual category. We will identify the metaphorical mapping which establishes between source domain and target domain. The first stage before embarking upon analysing and identifying conceptual metaphors is establishing the methods of annotation as well as the targets. Depending on the purpose of the research as well as on the length, the researcher can opt for manual processing or for electronic annotation, feeding the concordancing programs with headwords belonging to source domain and/or target domain. In our investigation we rely on previous research studies dealing with the figurative aspects of business language. The degree of interaction between source domain and target domain will also be mentioned. 

No: 17
Title:  Against Any Paradigm In Educational Research
Pages 126-131
Author(s): Maria Butucea*
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The history of science shows that mostly of the paradigms assumed as philosophical conception to guide research in education doesn’t work for entire field of education. All paradigms assumed have some controversial outcomes for educational field. There are tricks of paradigms and we should avoid them by become aware of it. Also there are some signs that a new paradigm is coming. This is a philosophical issue regarding the needs of sciences of education for a new paradigm, in order to improve our researches and make our teaching work better. It could be also an invitation to make research free minded, accepting new cultures and philosophical background. Just adjust the meaning of some concepts regarding learning and human condition and it will be satisfactory. We try here to redefine some concept (sciences of education as integrative science, learning as total complex knowledge, mind as infinite creative process) forced by contemporary “object of inquiry”. 

No: 18
Title:  Language Is Not Only Roots, But Also Wings
Pages 132-141
Author(s): Esther Kalnisky*, Lea Baratz
Open Access

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The article is based on a case study of a two female Israeli Ethiopian students who were enrolled in a teacher-education college. This study advances our understanding of the unique and complex situation of the Ethiopian immigrants. Observation of their use of the mother tongue compared with their use of the acquired language revealed their distinct identity-formation tendencies: one participant clearly demonstrated an unreconciled identity, whereas the other participant appeared to be in the process of forming a reconciled identity. This comparison sheds light on the mechanisms employed in the separation-individuation and in the identity-formation processes. These include a mechanism of abandoning one's native identity (in terms of belonging, tradition, and language), while on the other hand, a mechanism of highlighting aspects of the native culture. We also found that differentiation mechanisms were used regardless of participants' visibility, which resulted in a conflicting experience, allowing us to observe the strategies they used to cope with the conflict. At the same time, immigrants' language-related choices brought to the surface the conflict of their dual identity. 

No: 19
Title:  The Big Four Levels Of The Romanian Teachers Training System
Pages 142-150
Author(s): Steliana Toma*, Dan Potolea
Open Access

Full Text 19
The literature in the field, including some stipulations of the official papers, even Law of national education, refers to only two teachers training levels: initial and continuing teachers training and, as well, give different meanings to the concept of „initial teachers training”. This is the reason the issue of teacher training levels becamed a source of controversy, misunderstanding, wrong or ambiguous formulations in legislative documents, and in some written or public statements. In order to provide a new look on teachers training, the authors demonstrate that the Romanian Teachers Training System (RTTS model) is built on four levels of training: the initial teacher training, obtained during the first cycle of the university studies, the in-depth teacher training, realized during the second cycle of the university studies (by professional and educational master), the advanced/doctoral training and the continuing teachers training. Each of them highlights the teachers competence development and the increase in the professional qualification level. Each level has a relative autonomy, being conditioned by prior attainments. That framework (RTTS) help us analyze and better understand the actual debates on teachers training; as well, it can hopefully serve as a conceptual tool for decision-makers, teachers and other people and organizations interested in teachers training process to more quickly understand and utilize the key concepts involved. Romania has a modern and complex structure of the teachers training system, but it is necessary to transform it into a scientific and methodological working system to improve the teachers professional and pedagogical competences. 

No: 20
Title:  Pedagogical Normativity
Pages 151-156
Author(s): Sorin Cristea*
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Our study addresses to the issue of pedagogical normativity from an epistemological perspective, but also at the level of educational policy. From the epistemological perspective, normative support is a prerequisite for pedagogy as a science. It involves a set of axioms, laws (statistical probability), principles (design, implementation), rules that orders the subject specific pedagogy (education) in the context of a research methodology specific sciences social and human (and therefore pedagogy) - we mean the historical research and hermeneutics (for education at macro level analysis) and experimental research (for empirical analysis at micro level). We take into account the pre-modern pedagogy paradigm (magistro-centrism), paradigms of modern pedagogy (psychocentrism, sociocentrism), postmodern pedagogy paradigm- curriculum paradigm focused on the education purposes (education ideals, general educational goals; overall, specific and practical education objectives), built, in any context (of the educational system and process) at the interdependence level between psychological requirements towards education and educated (expressed in terms of competences)-sociological requirements towards education and educated (expressed in terms of basic knowledge, legitimated or validated by the society, from time to time). 

No: 21
Title:  About the Systems Theory in the Field of Education Sciences
Pages 157-165
Author(s): Bogdan N. Nicolescu*, Tudor C. Petrescu
Open Access

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The objective of this presentation is the analysis of various aspects related to the principles of holistic education from the perspective of dynamic systems theory. Starting from the definition and concepts of dynamic systems, an argument will be made that holistic education, defined in the formal sense in harmony with the real world, it cannot be done without discussing the entirety of the system of education, seen from the view of a systems integrator. This problem exists from ancient times, and it is not believed that a solution will be found in current times, possibly never. This problem is largely correlated with the fundamental problem of philosophy. Besides, neither philosophy, nor science could not yet determine whether the Universe has the border,. Hence, it follows that the "whole" can not really be known.  We can assume that an "object" is a whole only if we "see" this  like to be  isolated from its exterior. So, we are forced to apply the principle of reductionist. Otherwise, the "object" is a part of the whole which is made by the "object" and its outside. 

No: 22
Title:  “The Else School”, Contributions To Application Of The Curriculum At School Level
Pages 166-174
Author(s): Carmen – Gabriela Bostan*
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The National Program ”Week Else School” is dedicated to non-formal educational activities. The purpose of this program is involvement of all educational actors - students, teachers, parents, community - in activities non-formal, to encourage the participation of children, that to meet the interests and concerns them, to find and to highlight them in the talents and capabilities . Schools involved in the research answered a set of 7 questions on the organization of activities during ” The Week Else School”. After analyzing the results, the following can be observed. Organizational culture can influence the conduct of school activities throughout ”The Week Else School”. Particularly important is the specifics of school unit, geography and culture. Involving parents in school life during ” The Week Else School” is imperative. Regarding collaboration with other institutions, it is considered to be one of good quality, being listed unit of culture, universities, police, church, health centre, town hall, library, fire, entrepreneurs, centres for the disabled and elderly, diverse associations or NGOs. Activities in this period took into account the Learning opportunities and capitalizing classroom learning. A positive factor is that, in this time improving the relationship between teacher-pupil is made more active, through collaboration, involvement, responsibility, relationships are free and have the opportunity to know in other contexts. The added value of this program is developing civic skills, learning in a relaxed setting, non-formal, inter- and transdisciplinary. 

No: 23
Title:  Quality Management Of Education Vs Internal Control Management: Efficiency Or Bureaucracy?
Pages 175-182
Author(s): Remus Chină*, Robert Berezovski
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Around the same year, 2005, in the Romanian education system have been initiated two demarches for improving quality of education: a) quality assurance of education; b) the internal control / managerial. There were numerous aspects that have hampered or made the two efforts should be viewed with reticence by the management of school organizations - under the sign of obvious of growth of bureaucracy in the educational system less to increase the quality of educational processes. Authors will try in this paper by a critical analysis, highlighting the main positive and negative aspects and make proposals regarding the compatibility referentials specific to the two important initiatives so that the process of their implementation, to become, to any entity education from pre-university education system, flexible, efficient and efficacious. 

No: 24
Title:  Fostering Entrepreneurial Learning in Teacher Education
Pages 183-187
Author(s): Emanuel Soare*
Open Access

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The paper focuses on presenting entrepreneurial education as a possibility of today educational systems to address the challenges of the postmodern, post-industrial, the knowledge society. It is emphasized the necessity for education to develop awareness of entrepreneurship from an early age by revising the school curriculum to explicitly include entrepreneurship as an educational objective and to support teachers in incorporating entrepreneurial activities in their daily practices with students. The paper is also underlying the importance of the recently-redefined entrepreneurial competence by the European Commission and its conceptual framework that must be used in the development of curricula and learning activities. It is presented a new way of designing the educational activities and curriculum that fosters the entrepreneurial learning that will make the development of entrepreneurship competence possible. There are emphasized several approaches of designing innovative teaching and learning methods correlated with a new approach on curricular policies that should be implemented. 

No: 25
Title:  The Role of the Manager in the Succes of School Organizations
Pages 188-193
Author(s): Corina Iurea*
Open Access

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What is a manager? What does the management activity of a school organization involve? What does an effective manager mean? What qualities should a successful manager possess, what skills define a successful manager? In this paper I tried to find the answers to all these questions and portray the image of the democratic headmaster as opposed to the authoritarian headmaster. A democratic participative leadership style is more effective, people work with pleasure, fulfil more tasks, are motivated in the work they perform, they feel respected, appreciated, have a high self-esteem, which can only bring benefits to the school organization and to the educational act. What defines a successful manager are the specialized training, organizational skills and the ability to communicate, motivate and mobilize people. I tried to point out that good leaders, high achievers, are the ones who love people, not their job title. This paper emphasizes the importance of management style, the characteristics of the manager, their personality and its role in the proper functioning of the organization. 

No: 26
Title:  School Management and the Quality of the Didactic Process
Pages 194-202
Author(s): Vasile Molan*
Open Access

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Before 1990 it had often been said that school is not as important as it does not result in production. One fact used to be overlooked though namely that school no matter where from gives society the most important production, without which society could not make progress and this production is LEARNING. Starting from this idea we can say that any school is appreciated in accordance with the quality of the learning it provides, which is reflected in the level of training of its students, in the way in which the latter can integrate into society. Following the same lines it is easy to observe that this training is the school’s responsibility and by that we mean school managers, teachers, students and all the other compartments of the school. Learning as school “production” consists in students’ performance and the latter is achieved in the lesson. We think, as so do others, that these three elements: learning, results and the lesson constitute the nucleus of a school towards which the efforts of its members should be devoted. The conclusion of our research as well as the conclusion of other researchers is that the quality of the school management or the management of any training institution and the way in which the managerial functions are put into practice influence the quality of the lesson. 

No: 27
Title:  Dental Students Perceptions Regarding Practical And Management Skills And Their Career Aspirations
Pages 203-209
Author(s): Aureliana Caraiane, & Cristina Nicolae*
Open Access

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There is some evidence that dental students regard clinical skills as more important than management skills. It would therefore be valuable to investigate whether management skills are perceived to be relevant and necessary for their career aspirations. This study aimed to identify students’ perceptions regarding the most important skills (other than clinical skills) they have to learn in the dental curriculum and to relate these perceptions to their future career aspirations. The study was conducted in the academic year 2015-2016 by means of an anonymous questionnaire among second-, third-, fourth-, fifth- and sixth-year dental students at the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Ovidius University of Constanta. From the desire to improve the quality of dental education and consequently the need for graduates possess adequate and needed competences to face the challenges of the labor market, the faculty leadership requested from the psychologists from the University Center for Counselling and Career Guidance, to develop and interpret the results of a questionnaire. Clinical skills are generally considered extremely important. Leadership, communication and management skills contribute to the success of practicing as dental health professionals. Most students indicated that they would like to improve themselves by participating in continuing education courses for updating the working techniques if afforded the opportunity. Also, the results have emphasized the importance that the dental curriculum to relate with the future career aspirations. The development of management skills is therefore becoming crucial for dentists to manage their practices successfully and this will contribute to an increasing engaged workforce. 

No: 28
Title:  Selecting Materials for ESP Classes
Pages 210-218
Author(s): Costeleanu Mirela*
Open Access

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The purpose of the present paper is to analyse important aspects related to ESP materials selection and design and to prove that the success of ESP classes is closely connected with the teacher’s ability to choose materials which are in perfect accordance with the learners’ needs and aims. Resorting to ready-made courses may look much easier than coming up with new materials because it is less time consuming and it allows teachers to focus on teaching content, not on creating it. However, the use of published coursebooks involves a lot of disadvantages, such as the difficulty of finding materials which perfectly meet the learners’ needs. Additional materials and adaptations are often required in order to make the course successful. A very important question when considering the choice of coursebooks for ESP learners is whether they should contain authentic or non-authentic materials. Should they contain language which comes from the real world or language which has been adapted to focus on particular lexis and structures? The former may seem more attractive and natural while the latter may prove to be more efficient especially when time is short. The paper also aims to prove that it is vital for books to provide learners with materials that are as close as possible to their professional world. 

No: 29
Title:  Psychological Attributes Needed In The It Domain
Pages 219-226
Author(s): Beatrice Adriana Balgiu*
Open Access

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The present study aimed to identify psychological traits that can be integrated in a profile of the student in the field of I.T. For this it was selected a sample of students from the technical field (N = 175) that was assessed with the following questionnaires: Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ-2), Holland Self-Directed Search (SDS) and Questionnaire of professional guidance for career in the informatics systems field (COPSI). Methodological design used correlational and exploratory factorial analysis.The results suggests the considerable interaction between the model of vocational interests and the Five Factor modeland their close relationship to characterize the personality.The group analysed is, generally, characterized by high investigative interests, generally, and toward IT, especially. Based on the fact that interests are important predictors of performance in academics we can state that there is a match between the structure of personality of students who have chosen to study the scientific and technical field and the environment in which they operate (one aspect of the broader person – environment fit theory). Determinants factors of group analyzed, as reflected in the factor analysis, advancing the folowings definition' s attributes of this: nonconformity orientation directed to the social sphere, creativity and social responsibility, entrepreneurial and managerial orientation and  interests for technique and computer science. 

No: 30
Title:  High Performance Management Practices and Sustainability Outcomes within Higher Education Institutions 
Pages 227-240
Author(s): Elizabeta Mitreva*, Nako Taskov, Hristijan Gjorshevski
Open Access

Full Text 30
As a condition for a successful accomplishment of TQM (Total Quality Management), strategy within the higher education institutions is the presence of a contemporary management especially a strong leadership. In this paper the effort to develop a universal, integral methodology for designing and implementing TQM system for higher education. The model - methodology that is implied is integral and universal, meaning that it’s applicable to all higher educational institutions regardless of their nature, and the success of its usage will depend only if the integration with the informative technology is achieved together with the following: internal standardization, methods and techniques for quality improvement, system for costs analyses etc., but all of these along with continuing education and motivation of the employees. The integral methodology for designing and implementing the TQM system has a reflective contact as an outcome from the necessity of the permanent promoting of the education processes. Repetition or even a spiral one of such cycles could enable to see the assets of the usage of them thus the organization attitude towards those initiatives is being changed and depicts stimulation towards higher aims of perfection. This methodology would present a success into the implementation for improvement of the educational processes into Macedonian institution of higher education. 

No: 31
Title:  FromThe Pedagogy of The Oppressed to An Educational Policy Model
Pages 241-249
Author(s): Marioara Rotaru*
Open Access

Full Text 31
This article analyzes the historical, dialectical and educational aspects refering to the Pedagogy of the Oppressed by Paulo Freire (1921-1997), a revolutionary text, considered one of the fundamental texts of critical and social pedagogy in the 20th century. Related to our article subject, we will analyze the theoretical and practical implicationsofthe principles of participatory and egalitarian education methods. How can we undermine the mechanisms of a non-critic education tamed by rules and coercive measures ? Problem-posing education, as a humanist and liberating praxis, posits as fundamental that the people subjected to domination must fight for their emancipation. The world no longer something to be described with deceptive words- becomes the object of that transforming action by men and women which results in their humanization. Pedagogy of the Oppressed stands out through the fundamental objective that is employed in the social and cognitive empowerment of education that is  in critical condition, but also through developing an original educational technology which reflects an entirely metodological philosophy of the exceedingly difficult process of  adult literacy. Theoretical and practical implications of this technology is a source of historical synchronic and diachronic analysis, exploitable in present across multiple sciences of education- from the sociology of education to psychology and anthropology of education, from curriculum theory to adult pedagogy theory, from sociology curriculum to educational policies, so on and so forth. 

No: 32
Title:  The Challenge to Teach Materials Engineering
Pages 250-256
Author(s): Adriana-Gabriela Plaiașu*
Open Access

Full Text 32
Materials science and engineering combine science and engineering of creation and processing materials, and adapting their properties. Knowledge concerning materials are needed in the economic activity carried out for the production of industrial goods, such as the manufacturing processes, contributing to their rational use, energy saving and environmental protection, to the development of processing procedures simpler, more direct. The competences accomplished in the fields of engineering require knowledge in the area of materials (structure and properties) as well the requirement to permanently learning, about the progress made by the new materials and technologies. Design engineer must have an opening at new, or at least to keep up with his time, using materials with properties appropriate, affordable and with an index of use as good, in accordance with their limitations and performance. The engineer must take into account the permanent processing properties of materials and the influence of processing on the structure and properties. Only appropriate knowledge of materials, permanent taking into account the relationship composition-microstructure-property, can ensure a fair use. 

No: 33
Title:  The Impact Of Innovation On The Performance Of The Modern University
Pages 257-266
Author(s): Mihaela Diaconu*, Amalia Dutu, Bogdan Georgescu
Open Access

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In the current economic context, innovation is seen as a result of interactions between different actors of innovative systems. Through this work we aimed to illustrate the fact that fulfilling the third mission of the modern university, contributing to economic and social development is possible only by anchoring it in a new model that includes variables identified in the scientific literature. Anchoring the modern university in an adaptive strategy based on the orientation towards collaboration for permanent research and innovation is the key to competitiveness in the European economy. Achieving the European goals on the development of a smart, sustainable economy and favorable to the inclusion is possible through the involvement of the university in partnership founded on mutual interests and benefits in innovative systems where graduates have professional, scientific research and social skills to integrate quickly and effectively in the labor market and academics put in value their capabilities in research-development-innovation area. 

No: 34
Title:  Initial Training and Inequality in Scientific Research. An Exploratory Survey
Pages 267-275
Author(s): Camelia Staiculescu, & Maria Liana Lacatus*
Open Access

Full Text 34
In recent years, research has been constantly debated and represented a main public concern. Specific topics such as national and international financing of research, visibility of research outcomes, brain drain, research ethics, or recognition of research achievements have represented the main core of debates that involved not only researchers and academics, but also the wider public. The present paper analyses the issue of equality in the domain of scientific research with special emphasis on the topic of equal opportunities, respectively unequal opportunities in research based on the idea that factors such as complexity of research practices, values and axiological hierarchies established in the process of research, accreditation and recognition system, or dominant practices in education and professional research can generate inequality. The authors conducted a survey to identify the perceptions of Romanian researchers about types of inequality affecting their work, awareness of the sources generating such inequality, opinions about their own readiness to cope with the requirements of the international research market. The authors advocate for development of research skills to students during their university education. Research skills may be seen as professional skills for many students in universities or as skills that may help students in their university life. The paper clarified important aspects regarding initial training of future researchers and identified possible solutions and actions in universities in order to diminish and eliminate this source of inequality for future researchers. 

No: 35
Title:  The Place of Intercultural Education in the Opinion of MA Students
Pages 276-281
Author(s): Gabriel Albu*
Open Access

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At a time when trans-cultural human contacts have multiplied more than ever, when people move frequently from one place in the world to another, it has become increasingly important to understand and to accept multi- and interculturalism.  Intercultural education contributes decisively to this.  The study aimed to show the current role of intercultural education as perceived by MA students in Education Sciences from Petroleum Gas University of Ploiesti, Romania, the way they understand the importance of this type of education for inter-human relationships and to the evolution of one's own personality, as people and practitioners in education. The research has proven that MA students (in Education Sciences) attribute to this type of education a cognitive function rather than a communicative-interactive one, facilitating bridges between people (belonging to different cultural spaces) and - equally - discouraging possible conflicts between individuals or (large or small) groups of people. The research led to the idea that one way of forming intercultural attitudes is that of the cultural consistency of (formal) education. The mind shaped by systematic culture, cultivates in an environment of humanistic culture has the tendency towards openness and intercultural understanding. 

No: 36
Title:  Increasing The Physical Condition Of Students By Playing Handball
Pages 282-290
Author(s): Elena Balint*
Open Access

Full Text 36
Teaching - Learning – Evaluation Process of the study program Kinesiology and Special Drivability Faculty of Physical Education and Mountain Sports Brasov's main objective is training physiotherapists’ specialists, who are able to satisfy the needs of citizens from different social and economic areas of the country, with different body disorders. Therefore, educational curriculum after which this learning process is conducted has a wide range of disciplines, aiming at acquiring the necessary skills in the field, but also to provide individual theoretical and practical training for the student and to the future specialist in the art of movement, prevention, physical and functional recovery of the body. These disciplines harmoniously combine theoretical and methodological contents and practical training with the ultimate aim of developing multiple sports skills, but also to increase physical condition and overall enrichment of sports skills. Thus, disciplines like athletics, gymnastics, soccer, swimming, skiing, Pilates, aqua gym and not least the game of handball meet the solving of these goals by requiring continuum physical efforts and varied beneficial effects on the body and health. In this study, I will present the contribution of the discipline “Prevention and wellness through handball “in educating the driving ability and increase physical condition indices of freshmen students during an academic year. Through this research I am trying to prove that we can achieve a high level of physical condition as a basis for acquisition of vocational skills through systematic, methodical and rigorously planned training and specific to handball game. 

No: 37
Title:  Alexandru Macedonski's Poetics
Pages 291-301
Author(s): Elena Gagiu-Pedersen*
Open Access

Full Text 37
This paper approaches Alexandru Macedonski's poetics and the educational aims of this paper are to develop the students' skills in understanding and interpreting coded messages, their abilities of analysis and synthesis, to cultivate their aestethic values and to stimulate their creative and logical thinking, their spirit of observation and their capacity of research. After a short presentation of poetics in general, the stress is laid on the poet's poetics. First, the paper focuses on describing the social poetry and afterwards the notion of poem. Speaking abouttheessence ofthe poem, the poet points out that it can be seen as a synthesis ofhumanity. Next, Macedonski's poetry is tackled according to certain psychological values, such as illusion, mirage, elevation, ecstasy, suggestion. Therefore, poetry is pure exaltation and reading a poem will transpose the reader in a state of contemplativity and ecstasy.  Another aspect which is dealt with in this paper is related to the fact that Macedonski turns the sensorial factor into one of the fundamental conditions of poetry, becoming very receptive to the theory of correspondences between sounds and colours. This paper highlights also the role Macedonski gives to sounds in his poetry, while he rejects risky visual associations. Further on, the paper brings into relief various figures used by the poet in his symbolistic - instrumentalist program. In the end, the emphasis is laid on the poet's intention to associate symbolism, instrumentalism and wagnerism. 

No: 38
Title:  Metalogisms In Alexandru Macedonski's Lyrical Creation
Pages 302-312
Author(s): Elena Gagiu-Pedersen*
Open Access

Full Text 38
The main approach of this paper is the analysis of the metalogisms identified in Alexandru Macedonski's lyrical creation, the educational purpose of this paper being related to developing the students' creative and logical thinking, their abilities of analysis, their spirit of observation and their capacity of research. In the beginning, the emphasis is laid on a short, theoretical description of metalogisms, which are figures of thinking, connected with logic and analyzed according to the relational and substantial rhetorical operations. The first metalogism which is analyzed is the hyperbole, which is created by the poet using the symbolistic technique of synestesy.  Later on, the stress is laid on eight types of repetition: the anadiplosis, the epanode, the epizeuxis, the epanadiplosis, the anaphora, the epiphora, the epanalepsis, the refrain. Further, this paper focuses on highlighting the special stylistic effects generated by the pleonasm which is conceived by using the symbolistic process of chromatical synestesies. The last two metalogisms which are brought into relief by this paper are the antithesis and the irony. 

No: 39
Title:  Factors Affecting The Choice Of Professional Development Of Graduates From Dental Medicine
Pages 313-319
Author(s): Gheorghe Raftu*
Open Access

Full Text 39
Choosing a career is a complex process, that affect the all areas of life, and is one of the most important decisions of a person throughout life. Over the last years there has been a growing interest into the factors influencing the career choice in medical field because right choice can directly influence the academic performance.The purpose of this study was to examine the factors affectingthe career decision-making. Responses to a self-completed questionnaire of all final (sixth) year students at the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Ovidius University of Constanta were analyzed to identify factors influencing their career choice. Sixty percent planned to immediately enter private practice after finishing dental school. Data showed that women to be more likely to enter private practice than male. The influence of family members, of a mentoring dentist and the family dentists were in a positive correlation with the decision to enter private practice. 30% of participants expressed their desire to continue their professional education through participation in residency exam. Lately, as a consequence of increasing numbers of dentists in Romania, increase the necessity of specialty training after dental school. However, the large number of graduates intending to immediately practice general dentistry in private practice is directly influenced by the desire to gain financial independence. This study suggests that graduates from the Faculty of Dental Medicine, manage to fructify theoretical and practical knowledge acquired during the study period by the by varied career options and this will contribute to an increasing of engaged workforce. 

No: 40
Title:  Teacher Education In Nigeria: A Misfit In The Digital Age?
Pages 320-329
Author(s): Kingsley ChinazaNwosu*, Gabriel ChidiUnachukwu, Chimezie B. Achukwu, Gladys ObyUzoechina
Open Access

Full Text 40
The educational system in Nigeria in this 21st century is at crossroads. In recent time, the teacher education has been increasingly lampooned by stakeholders accusing it of not meeting the demands of this century. This informed the researchers to examine if teacher education in Nigeria is on course by looking at the extent 21st century skills are emphasized in teacher education and the extent student teachers perceive themselves to have acquired these skills in the course of their training. The mixed method design was adopted. 194 regular students in Faculties of Education in two state owned universities in Anambra State were sampled using a nonrandom convenience sampling technique. Data were collected using questionnaire and semi-structured interview; and were analyzed. Findings revealed that, to some extent, the 21st century skills were emphasized and were perceived to be possessed by respondents. Data from the interview helped to deepen the understanding of the problem. It was concluded that though these skills are perceived to be emphasized and acquired to some extent; that more complex ones are yet to be properly infused in the teaching and learning process. 

No: 41
Title:  Connectivism, A New Learning Theory?
Pages 330-337
Author(s): Dorin Herlo*
Open Access

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Because especially in the last two decades technology has developed new ways of communication, of learning, even of living, this paper, focused on theoretical approache, refers to a relatively new theory of learning, connectivism. It can say that in our knowledge-based society it's a requirement to connect people to the distributed knowledge made in social environment. Social environments trends, the educational life, the new needs of learning, influence the scholars from educational sciences to search new expressions of what is really important now, in the near and distant future, regarding the evolution of learning concepts. The social environments trends are to encompass the IT which lead to new paradigms of learning, among which is the connectivism. In this paper I will try to share with you some ideas about how connectivity can be related with higher education, there where we try to form and develop students' skills (fundamental, personal management and teamwork skills), required on this era by the labor market. 

No: 42
Title:  Education For Bioethics Food And For Health By Biological And Natural Sciences
Pages 338-348
Author(s): Mariana Iancu*
Open Access

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The present scientific research on education for bioethics food and for health of students was achieved mainly by “General Microbiology” and “Principles of genetics and GMO” as “Biological Sciences” and “Biochemistry” as “Natural Sciences” with students from the faculties with food profile from Bioterra University of Bucharest, starting with the 2012-2013 academic year until now, in Specialized Department with Psychopedagogical Profile. Teaching methodologies have been developed to achieve education for bioethics and health food of students, such practical-heuristic, based on laboratory experiments, i.e. for identification of counterfeit food such as some meat products and honey, for identification of old food, altered, which are toxic to the body, based on laboratory practical work, i.e. practical work of microscopy and observation, to avoid food contamination, such as honey of bees. Also have been developed interactive-heuristic teaching methodologies by discussions / debates on controversial problems as counterfeit food, GMO, i.e. potatoes resistant to Colorado beetle, genetically modified maize MON810 resistant to worm piercing, new genetically modified soybean and so on, but and food additives. Also, identified numerous examples of education for bioethics and health food, the scientific research undertaken objectives being met. 

No: 43
Title:  High Scope Approach to Preschool
Pages 349-355
Author(s): Gabriela Kelemen*
Open Access

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In my paper I would like to underline the newest methods used in preschool education. Nowadays High Scope revolutionized early childhood education with a new approach to teaching and learning. For infant-toddler teachers, High Scope provides a comprehensive curriculum that addresses all areas of children development. Child based research discover that the High Scope Curriculum uses a carefully designed process, a process that determined children to actively participate in learning. The main objectives of preschool education emphasize the development of the fundamental skills that help and determine success in adult life. Being the most dynamic period for the development of child personality, kindergarten takes the leading role in education. Researchers have discovered, that the High Scope Preschool Curriculum not only helps young children excel in cognitive learning but also promotes independence, curiosity, decision-making, cooperation, persistence, creativity, and problem solving. Over time, man has been concerned with child education. Thus, specialists have attempted to study and identify the most viable ways of intervention in children education so that they would develop according to their innate abilities. 

No: 44
Title:  Interrelatedness Between Teachers' Evaluation And Continuous Professional Development In Romanian Higher Education
Pages 356-364
Author(s): Aurelia Stanescu*
Open Access
Full Text 44
The aim of this paper is to highlight the bonding between teachers' evaluation and continuous professional development in Romanian Higher Education. Evaluation of teachers’ performance has grown in importance recently. Over the past thirty years, one of the most disputed issues in Human Resource Management has been consistency of performance evaluation taking in its entirely and the methods used in this, in particular. Such methods have been the main subject of controversy and criticism stated by specialists. By analyzing academic performance evaluation process from different perspectives the author takes into account several salient issues. Underpinned by a critical thinking approach, the paper is based on small-piece of research designed by the author. A series of informal interviews with academic staff were conducted, and the metholdology was aimed at investigating attitudes towards of the evaluation and continuous professional development. The major implication of the paper should be a proper and better focus on the teachers' performance evaluation in higher education. 

No: 45
Title:  Dental Students Attitude Regarding The Clinical Education In Dental Medicine
Pages 365-371
Author(s): Aureliana Caraiane, & Cristina Nicolae*
Open Access

Full Text 45
The quality of education can be assessed to the highest degree through the students’ perceptions regarding a aspect because they are the target group for educational programs Clinical education is an active process by which the students use in practice the theoretical notions that they have learned helped by the clinical teacher. The aim of this study was to evaluate students’ attitude regarding clinical education in faculty of Dental Medicine. The study was conducted means of an anonymous questionnaire among fifth- and sixth-year dental students at the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Ovidius University of Constanta. The results showed that the differences between the male and female students’ attitudes about clinical education were not significant and dental students have positive attitude regarding clinical education in the Faculty of Dental Medicine. In this study, evaluating the students’ perspectives towards clinical education, we have identified a number of strengths that enhanced the students’ clinical experience. Also, some weaknesses were identified and give the opportunity of improvement. Our study gives us the occasion to adjust and improve the education quality so that the perceptions of the greater number of students in future years will demonstrate a more positive experience. Also, for increasing vocational aspect and for improving the quality of the students' practical abilities, it is recommended to create confidence in students for treatment of patients during dental education. Further studies can be helpful in finding the educational problems and proper solutions. 

No: 46
Title:  Analysis of the Factors Influencing Students’ Option in Choosing a University
Pages 372-379
Author(s): Natalia Manea*, Mihaela Purcaru, Nicoleta Daniela Ignat
Open Access

Full Text 46
The purpose of this research is to analyze factors influencing the behavior of high school students in Bucharest in choosing a university. Research is a quantitative, descriptive. For this they were developed and tested five hypotheses. The instrument used was the questionnaire that was administered to 134 respondents, students in the last year. They are the major beneficiaries of Romanian higher education. After analyzing the responses it was found that the most important factors in choosing a university are tradition and extent of absorption of graduates into the labor market. High school students have the main options areas economic, technical, and medical. Also, for most high school students, education is a priority to develop professionally and personally. This study may help universities in formulation of strategies for attracting students. Research is limited by the fact that it was achieved only in Bucharest, the most important university center in the country. The sample is not statistically representative, therefore it is necessary to expand the research and to other cities in Romania. 

No: 47
Title:  The Student-Centred Paradigm and the Optimization of the Learning Process
Pages 380-388
Author(s): Liana Tăușan*
Open Access

Full Text 47
The paper aims at identifying the perceptions of students in regards to the problematic and dysfunctional aspects identified by them within the learning process in Romania, as well as identifying the possible solutions that would lead to the amelioration of the educational practice, with the purpose of optimizing the schools results of pupils/students. The target group was represented by a group of students enrolled in technical faculties which were asked to elaborate on the two mentioned aspects, referencing both their experience as students, as well as that of pupils. The results obtained following the processing and analysis of the answers converge on the necessity of respecting the requirements characteristic to the paradigm of adapting school to the necessities and particularities of the pupils.  We note the fact that the national educational policies support and promote the principle of adapting the school to the requirements and possibilities of the pupils, at the level of educational objectives and courses of action stated within certain documents of educational policy aimed at the pre-university and university level, through which the achievement of a high-quality education is endeavoured, particularly through: the reassessment of the role of the pupil, placing his needs, interests, and requirements at the forefront of the educational proceedings, and assuring equal opportunity throughout the entire educational process. The problematic aspects identified within the educational process remain, however, valid, representing a discrepancy between the documents of educational policy and the educational practice. 

No: 48
Title:  Universal Design In Education
Pages 389-399
Author(s): Simona Laurian-Fitzgerald*, Carlton J. Fitzgerald
Open Access

Full Text 48
In this study we surveyed 35 undergraduate and 24 master’s level students to gather their views about the use of inclusionary and universal design practices in primary schools. The 35 undergraduate were graduating to become certified teachers and the 24 graduate students were already certified teachers. The participants responded to 27 Likert scaled questions and 3 open ended questions in a survey related to inclusion and universal design. All participants in both the undergraduate and graduate group displayed an understanding of inclusion, while 4 of the 35 undergraduate students and 20 of the 24 graduate students displayed an understanding of universal design principles. When asked about the major differences between theory and practice all but one student indicated that although they agreed with the spirit behind inclusion and universal design, in practice there were major issues with implementing the concepts. Undergraduate students indicated that “inclusion was more difficult to apply in practice”, while graduate students described more specific issues to implement both inclusionary ideas and universal design practices. All but one of the 59 students indicated that they agree or strongly agree with the concepts of inclusion and universal design. The in-service teachers (graduate students) indicated that they want to be able to reach more of their students by being supported in their efforts to develop their skills in implementing inclusionary and universal design practices. 

No: 49
Title:  The Utilization Of E-Learning Instruments In Consolidation Activities Of The Grammar Elements
Pages 400-405
Author(s): Cristina Loredana Bloju*
Open Access

Full Text 49
In conducting Communication in Romanian/Romanian Language and Literature activities we cannot say that there is a universally valid method to ensure success. Therefore, the crucial role that accrues the Romanian language and communication teacher is to choose and adapt to the contents and to the classroom, suitable methods of teaching, learning and assessment to enable all actors of education to ability to communicate, collaborate and connect with each other, thereby contributing to school success. As can be seen from both the reality of activities that take place in the classroom, and the results of studies in recent years, the strategies based on multimedia means increases students' motivation gives them the opportunity to interact with other students or with the teacher, to take advantage of the experience and knowledge of others, in order to correct/ optimize certain knowledge or to build its own code of values and attitudes. So, to the three elements of traditional pedagogical act - student, teacher and learning content - we might add the learning situation, the resources and the technology. Virtual environments designed in this perspective will allow an individualized, interactive focused on complex activities education system. Through the use of multimedia, Romanian language activities become equal opportunities with other disciplines, allowing this field of study to enrol in the complex paradigm of education virtualization. The present study aims to draw attention to the attitude that manifests both pupils and teachers by implementing the e-learning means in the hours for the consolidation of the noun. 

No: 50
Title:  Internationalization of Higher Education from Teachers' Point of View
Pages 406-414
Author(s): Anca Luştrea, Simona Sava*, Claudia Borca
Open Access

Full Text 50
Internationalization of higher education is one of the main layers of changes in universities. Different practices of internationalization of studies can be met in any university/ faculty/ department. However, in spite of notable developments, mainly since the implementation of Bologna Process, the obstacles toward an efficient internationalization are still there (different formal procedures inside the universities, bureaucracy, resources, attitude of the staff etc.). Even the faculties/ departments/ programs being more active in international activities, and setting joint study programs, consolidated and diverse international partnerships, both for didactic and research purposes, have to cope with different levels of openness of the academic staff towards the teaching from and in international perspective. The paper will highlight some of the points of view of the academic staff regarding their internationalization practices. The data gathered from semi-structured interviews is presented with the purpose to provide a better understanding both of their needs for better internationalization of the teaching and research, but also for providing some possible explanations about their hesitations/ resistance toward a more extended international activity. 

No: 51
Title:  A Practical Performance Comparison Between 802.11n and 802.11ac Standards
Pages 415-422
Author(s): Radu Tărăbuță*, Alin Potorac, Doru Balan, Adrian Graur
Open Access

Full Text 51
It is well known that the technological performance level of wireless communications in open frequency bands has increased considerably in the last years. Today, many devices that we use is based on wireless communications. This article aims to achieve a practical comparison between 802.11n and 802.11ac performance standards. Practical determinations were made through performance measurements in a wireless communications infrastructure, built by interconnecting pairs of wireless access point equipment, located in close proximity, to ensure maximum performance. The performances of IEEE 802.11ac and 802.11n standards were studied using the traffic measurement method, observing the necessary bandwidth and the response time for different sizes of data packets generated in the testbed communication infrastructure. An important aspect that was taken into consideration refers to the constant monitoring of resources load used for communication processes (CPU load from routers used in test process), to ensure that determinations were not compromised by hardware limitations of the equipment used. 

No: 52
Title:  Need To Change In Tourism Geography At University
Pages 423-430
Author(s): Mirela Mazilu*, Mădălina Andrei
Open Access

Full Text 52
The number of tourists travelling to spend their free time elsewhere than in their country of residence has exceeded 1.2 billion, which means that one in six people on the planet travel for tourism purposes. The world economy at the moment undergoes two revolutions, one in the field of IT, and the other in the field of tourism. Tourism is a factor of economic growth; it creates and maintains workplaces, every 11themployee on the planet works in a field from the travel and hospitality industry. Tourism is a factor of social transformation, facilitating an unprecedented closeness between cultures and civilizations in history, people travelling to increasingly remote places compared to their own location, meeting other people, discovering other food, other music, other habits, and instant and always peaceful cultural exchanges take place within this cultural process. In this context, the world crisis in education determines the increase of the demand for education (despite the financial humiliations from the national education system). The establishment of the need to change in the practice of teaching, learning and evaluation of tourism geography is supported by the developments recorded by the specialized university education, by the ecological trend (launching optional subjects as well) and by the methodological enrichment, which have produced the transfer of geography from the category of natural sciences into that of social, economic, analytical, statistical sciences, shaping even “a new geography” in line with the geopolitical changes. 

No: 53
Title:  International Studies: Added Value For Professionalization?
Pages 431-444
Author(s): Ekkehard Nuissl, Simona Sava*, Laura Malita, Mariana Crasovan, Liliana Danciu
Open Access

Full Text 53
In this paper we answer the question: How do MA-Students and Postgraduates in the field of Adult Education consider the added value of internationality for their professionalization? More and more the pedagogical qualification needs to incorporate a wider, international dimension, in the interconnected world. A lot of effort is done by the European Union and the member states, to reach a European dimension in the academic qualification of their professionals. The opinion of the students qualifying as professionals in adult education helps to identify the effects of such effort. Studying with an international dimension, partly in a foreign language, to gain international competences needs a lot of motivation. In our exploration we find some plausible explanations – related to the labor market, to the personal development, the interest in intercultural communication, the widening of the horizon and the building up of international networks. We summarize with recommendations on how these views of the students can be used for a further development of international aspects in the study programs 

No: 54
Title:  The International Relationship History From The Perspective Of The Social Competences
Pages 445-449
Author(s): Carmen Alexandrache*
Open Access

Full Text 54
Generally, History of the International Relations as a discipline in the higher education reflects a scientific content dominated by events that explain certain political attitudes and actions among states in different periods of time. The historical context should be properly understood from the perspective of the relationship between different states. This perspective is developed today with aspects related by diplomatic codes and standing national or geopolitical or strategic interests. Our paper starts from the premise that this discipline of the academic curricula can develop the social competences of students. In this regard we have analyzed the curriculum and we made several systematic observations at the seminar activities. Based on the results obtained we proposed several contents that help development of the social and civic competences of the students. We proposed also some practical examples of teaching. In this way, we hope that our paper contribute to increasing the importance of disciplines that presented the relationships between states in different historical time. 

No: 55
Title:  From Community to Individual. Re-Thinking Photovoice Methodology for Education Research
Pages 450-459
Author(s): Loredana Manasia*
Open Access

Full Text 55
There are scholar opinions warning that both quantitative and qualitative methodologies share strengths and weaknesses when applied to academic learning research (Richardson, 2000; 2013). The present article aims to shed light on the use of visual methodologies to investigate learning in academic contexts. An argument is made that education and learning research can benefit from the integration of visual data. This positional article grounds on two pillars. The first is to support and emphasize the value of photovoice methodology in the field of education and learning research, specifically. The second is to provide a framework to conduct a photovoice project. Drawing upon a research study conducted by the author, the article unfolds the main phases in applying photovoice to research learning patterns in higher education. Thus, the paper discusses the essential features of photovoice in the context of learning research, presents the main stages in applying the methodology: recruiting the participants, organizing the initial group meetings, data collection and analysis. Benefits of applying photovoice in educational contexts are pointed out. 

No: 56
Title:  The Relationship Between Leadership Styles And Pupils’ School Results
Pages 460-467
Author(s): Oana Alina Bota, & Cristina Tulbure*
Open Access

Full Text 56
This study aimed to analyze the relationship between teachers’ leadership styles and their pupils’ school performances. A number of 280 teachers involved in the pre-university education and 370 students participated in this research. The data was collected by using the Blake-Mouton Managerial Grid. The results following the conducted study support the conclusion that the most efficient leadership style manifested by a teacher in the classroom, which has superior school results, is the democratic-participative style. According to the data, it was found that other two styles are also productive, namely the authoritarian and the median styles in relation with the minimal/passive and the indulgent/populist styles. Leaving from these results, the teachers are encouraged to focus their interest and attention equally towards the two dimensions: tasks and people, and thus to consciously commit to the characteristics of a democratic/participative leading style. Some special interest is manifested also in the area of classroom management during the process of instruction. 

No: 57
Title:  The Role Of Professional Learning Community In Schools
Pages 468-475
Author(s): Adela Bradea*
Open Access

Full Text 57
The teaching staff of each school should form a Professional Learning Community (PLC). This concept refers to the focus on the cooperation between members of the organisation in order to achieve the common goals of developing the school (improvement of teaching and learning practices, engaging in joint research, evaluation of results etc.). Everything must start from the existence of a clear and convincing vision of what the organization should become and from the emphasis on a culture of learning for all. This research aimed to present the teachers' perception of these learning communities within schools and the role they fulfill in reality across the organisations. The instrument used in conducting the research was a questionnaire consisting of 30 multiple choice questions administered to teachers from high schools in Bihor county. The results obtained show that most teachers believe that teaching staffs do not always work as learning communities, that more work is still required to make them truly effective, and that the role of school headteachers is essential in this process. The more active, participatory and stimulative is the school leadership, the expected results can be obtained more effectively. The better collective and individual values blend, the more stimulative is teamwork for the individual, the higher performances will be achieved in schools. 

No: 58
Title:  The Need For Autonomy Of Teachers In ”Playing With Architecture” Project
Pages 476-483
Author(s): Carmen – Gabriela Bostan*
Open Access

Full Text 58
This research is part of a broader research on education through architecture that was held at the Institute of Education Sciences in 2015. The project ” Playing with architecture” was implemented in grades III and IV in more than 100 schools, by the Association ”De-a Arhitectura”. In 2014 the schedule was approved by the Ministry of Education in Romania. The research instruments consisted of questionnaires applied to a group of 36 teachers and 43 volunteer architects. The research aims to analyze, in a qualitative perspective, the perceptions of teachers and volunteers architects on the utility of the class curriculum ”For the architecture. Education for architecture and built environment”. The interpretation of data obtained by questioning the teachers and architects volunteers for this optional discipline present in the National Base of school curriculum analyzes among others the autonomy of teaching activities within the architecture through the following directions: the desire for autonomy and the need for training. It's the kind of discipline that may be considered part of the transdisciplinary curriculum as it brings in the center of the individual with all that entails him: interdisciplinary knowledge, consciousness, creativity, imagination, skills, theoretical, practical, craft, manufacturing, sensitivity and cultural expression, empathy, team spirit. Such an approach leads to increased self-awareness, to self-valorization, the integration of the individual in nature and socio-cultural microclimate. The skills acquired through such an optional help children in life skills needed for future adult develops spatial thinking. 

No: 59
Title:  Subjectivity Vs. Subjectivism In School Assessment
Pages 484-490
Author(s): Otilia Sanda Bersan*
Open Access

Full Text 59
The paper presents a synthesis of pre-university school teacher’s opinions and impressions regarding subjective errors they made during educational activities with evaluative purpose. There are also presented the teacher’s personal reflections, gathered in some reflection diaries, and organized using the most frequent vitiation errors of school evaluation process. The paper represents a warning signal against subjectivity and subjectivism in school evaluation, but also suggests some avoidance/ diminution solutions for them. During the investigation participated a number of 110 primary, gymnasium and high school teachers from Timiş and Caraş-Severin County. Subjective assessment is based heavily on intuition teacher, on the subjective perception, or slightly deformed benefits to that which it assesses the uncertainty of achieving objective assessment. In this case a perspective on subjective assessment and errors they produce are the basics of this article. Errors of assessment depending on the specifics of school discipline or the perception of the teacher. Whatever the reasons, errors in assessment must be recognized and avoided wherever possible. 

No: 60
Title:  Tradition and Modernity in Developing Writing Skills and Technique in Primary School
Pages 491-500
Author(s): Tatiana Aurora Dina*
Open Access

Full Text 60
Nowadays, when the role of a knowledge - based society becomes increasingly significant, we face challenges on a variety of levels: cultural, economic, social and educational, as well. The traditional role played by school in society is to offer pupils a genuine useful value system, adaptable to the social and economic background.  Pre university- education system undergoes permanent changes and transformations, and the key factor of such changes is the pupil-oriented learning.  An important aspect regarding the pupil as the central intellectual capital for new modern didactic approaches is the role teachers and teaching methods help pupils become prepared for the society, for the future, by supporting them both to discover life around them to be sensitive at the same time, and to develop skills and competencies, to shape and outline their personality and character. The goal of this paper is to emphasize the importance and advantages of modern teaching aids for developing skills and techniques in primary school, especially writing skills and techniques. Analysing development of writing skills and techniques as source of innovation and novelty in didactic approach, creates a competitive advantage for further social and cultural development of pupils in the era of knowledge where people must rely on intellect, intuition and creativity. The present paper is an exploratory endeavour based on several sources of information, meant to conceptualize the terms of pupil- oriented learning, writing skills and techniques in primary school, as part of a modern didactic approach built within a redefined learning system. 

No: 61
Title:  Digital Textbooks – a False Story About Rewards
Pages 501-507
Author(s): Emil Stan*
Open Access

Full Text 61
In 2013, policymakers in Romania have suggested traditional textbooks (paper based) be replaced by digital textbooks; project began with primary education, and in 2014 publishers have released the first digital textbooks (for grades 1, 2 and 3). This study aims to discover the concepts conveyed (explicitly, but even more so implicitly) by digital textbooks of communication in Romanian regarding rewards and their influence on the mentalities and behaviours of children. Textbooks are one of the tools that translate the world (including abstractions) to the children’s understanding, and the experiences they occasioned mark them for life. Hence we have considered the importance of analysing textbook’s contents and their impact on students’ education and formation. Therefore, after analyzing 17 textbooks and 380 texts, we found that authors ignore the implications of the texts they selected on children’s personality formation and the relationship between external rewards and internal motivation of learners (children aged 7, 8 or 9) is ignored. 

No: 62
Title:  Personal Development, A New Romanian Curriculum Subject.  Request For An Innovative Approach
Pages 508-514
Author(s): Lavinia-Aniela Popa*
Open Access

Full Text 62
Taking into consideration the opportunities that the new school subject Personal development offers to all the actors involved in the educational process, we consider that the positive psychology approach provides a key to understanding and explaining a new point of view regarding this topic. In order to identify the best ways to teach and deliver the optimum educational content in the classes, teachers should have the access to an innovative approach based on updated scientific theoretical and practical support. Investigating students’ characteristics, teachers’ needs and parents’ expectations regarding personal development, in a theoretical and hands-on approach, it might provide a valid base to build a guidebook. This material should gather and describe the best practices for a new approach in classroom activities based on games and interaction, but always connected to the positive psychology and the real students’ needs. The paper focused on a theoretical approach aims to present the plan of research that will follow in the near future. 

No: 63
Title:  Looking Beyond Students’ Language Learning and Attitudes Towards Three Languages In Contact
Pages 515-521
Author(s): José M. Tomás, Silvia-Maria Chireac*, Irene Fernández
Open Access

Full Text 63
This study aims to examine attitudes towards Romanian, Spanish and English in a group of 124 Romanian native speakers from Romania, aged 15-18 years old, that were exposed to Spanish and English as a foreign language in Secondary Education. It is commonly believe that learning a third language is easier than learning a second and thus, the bilingual learners cognitively benefit from their prior language learning. Drawing upon empirical data gathered from a questionnaire with 52 items, this study advances the idea that are no significant differences between the attitudes towards the three languages: Romanian, Spanish and English. On the other hand, our results suggest that students’ positive attitudes towards English revealed a stronger trilingual identity of the participants of our study. Furthermore, results have also indicated that there are several significant differences in Romanian and Spanish attitudes between the learners (n = 22) who have studied for several years in Western countries or with parents working there, than their peers who have never been in interaction with other cultures. 

No: 64
Title:  Four Key Skills - Reference Framework For Integrated Curriculum
Pages 522-531
Author(s): Cristina Tripon (Țîmpău)*
Open Access

Full Text 64
Our job as educators is not to manage an education system that trains our children to cling on to our world, it is to create a system that frees them to seize their own.What kind of people will our children need to be for adapting at new this world?They will need, above all else, huge levels of self-confidence; they will need to be adaptable, utilize their natural creativity and understand their own strengths and weakness. They will need to be increasingly self-aware emotionally and intellectually and  to be capable  of building relationships quickly. Does our system explicitly seek to develop these soft skills in its current state? Is it preparing our children for the challenges of their future?. How  school subjects are taught largely influences the attitude and motivation of students to study and consequently their results in learning? From our point of view four transversal skills are vital to the school education curriculum change: critical thinking, problem solving, effective communication and social interaction - cooperation. Clarify meanings, the composition and role are preceding any attempt to develop training programs in integrated learning direction. In the following we review each jurisdiction provided above as the basis of experimental training programs of the four cross curricular skills. 

No: 65
Title:  Using Gamification For Teaching Economics In Technical Higher Education: An Exploratory Research
Pages 532-541
Author(s): Violeta Simionescu*, & Simona Mascu
Open Access

Full Text 65
This paper presents the results of an exploratory research conducted by the authors with the support of students participating in Economics classes within a Technical University in Bucharest, Romania. At the core of the exploratory research are (i) the perspective of „Y” generation students on gamification and (ii) the ability of gamification to influence students in technical higher education in order to achieve better learning performances during Economics classes. Quantitative and qualitative research methods were employed to perform this exploratory research around two main construct: enjoyment and perceived usefulness of gamified learning activity. The exploratory research reveals that gamification in the described context has potential to increase students motivation in learning Economics. The results of the exploratory research boosts the understanding of the gamification phenomenon as a persuasion tool in teaching non-technical disciplines - such as Economics - in a technical higher education environment. However, introducing gamification can be difficult within an inertia context, even if macro environment factor (4th Industrial Revolution accompanied by „Internet of Things) places gamification on learning as a theme that requires attention at the level of Romanian higher education system. Thus, implications and future research are also included in the paper. 

No: 66
Title:  Development And Evaluation Of The Pupils’ Personality Traits, In The Physical-Education Lesson
Pages 542-551
Author(s): Raluca Mijaică*
Open Access

Full Text 66
This research, by its methodology, designed for and implemented at upper secondary-education level, offers new variants of learning contents, meant to ensure an efficient action, oriented not only towards human biology, but also towards the aspects related to the formation of behaviour adequate to contemporary Romanian society’s expectations. The study was conducted over two school years, at the level of the 9th and 10th grades, resorting to both an experimental and a control class; in the control class, the physical-education classes covered a traditional methodology, focused on the pupils’ motor-actuating performance. The teaching methodology consisted in six categories of motor-actuating games, taken from non-formal education, amounting to 112 games / activities. With a view to assessing the specific skills enunciated by the specialized curriculum, at the content “Development of Personality Traits”, within the same methodology, we resorted to the process of their operationalization, which materialized in the elaboration of several skills to assess, for each learning unit allotted to the relevant thematic category. After going through the testing stages, calculating the average scores for each skill to assess within the four personality-development units, the obtained and statistically processed data highlighted that, in the experimental class, in terms of targeted skill acquisition, a significantly higher evolution to that of the control class, was registered. 

No: 67
Title:  The Perception Of Students’ On History In Non-Educational TV Series
Pages 552-557
Author(s): Evren Şar İşbilen*
Open Access

Full Text 67
Television watching rates are increasing day by day in Turkey and television series are occupying a large part of everyday life in rush. Obviously this brings many problems as undermining reading habits of elementary school students. However, children will continue to be exposed to television series without certain precautions and therefore it is possible to think utilization of the existing television programs in the framework of education. In this connection, in the present study, the most popular historical TV series of recent years in Turkey, “Muhteşem Yüzyıl” (The Magnificent Century), was selected as the sample for the data collection in order to explore the perception of history of elementary school students’. The data collected was analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The findings discussed in relation to the possible educative effects of historical non-educational TV series and movies on students’ perceptions related to history. Thus, this can be a sample step to turn positive many of the negative effects of television. 

No: 68
Title:  Teaching Architecture to Children. (In)Between Metaphor and Pragmatism
Pages 558-565
Author(s): Daniela Negrișanu*, Brîndușa Havași, Delia Florescu
Open Access

Full Text 68
Architecture, seen through the lens of children involves a remarkable duality between metaphor and pragmatism and implies a continuous dialectic between the two. For a child, experiencing a space, along with its purely physical evaluation has an intense intrinsic value, thus allowing spatial judgement and appropriation from both a symbolic and pragmatic point of view. In order to detect children’s unique and fascinating way of approaching and internalising notions related to architectural experiences, a study has been initiated during architecture classes. All these methods of space perception were employed in order to evaluate which method represents the most effective instrument for teaching and introducing architecture notions to children in primary school, between the ages of seven and twelve. The study, through these comparative learning tools, is representing an important reference for teaching methodology in architecture classes. 

No: 69
Title:  Living And Learning Together
Pages 566-571
Author(s): Monica Cuciureanu*
Open Access

Full Text 69
This article relies on a study, which investigated the impact of students' culture upon learning. In Romania, due to the socio-economic realities of the country, the way of organizing schools and formal learning is still quite impersonal and inflexible. Students find their own way of balancing this reality. They find school an important place to communicate, to socialize and to express themselves and no longer the only way to acquire knowledge. School frequently competes with other means and sources of information, which students perceive as less restricting and, therefore, more tempting. Regarding their age-specific traits, students name some of them: originality, creativity, autonomy, curiosity, adaptability, sociability. Other traits are determined by the post-modern society, in which we are living. They are resourceful, well-informed, alert, confident in using new technologies, but also sometimes stressed, nervous, shallow. These traits are recognised by their teachers, too. The latter regard them less optimistic, than students do. What students see as challenging, mobilizing and motivating experiences, teachers regard as risky and dangerous situations for young people. In this context, learning is regarded differently by both categories, too. Teachers promote more formal learning, while students prefer natural learning and informal learning experiences. They appreciate learning outside the school and e-learning. The borders between living and learning are for young people not as sharp as for their teachers. The main focus of the article is on the ways in which teachers can make use of students’ culture in order to enhance learning motivation and learning as such. 

No: 70
Title:  The Influence of Educational Activities During School Trips in Teaching Young Children
Pages 572-578
Author(s): Anca Simion*
Open Access

Full Text 70
The learning process involves mediation components such as: language, body language, use of socio-cultural means, symbols, observation. All these components are layered by common values ​​and socio-cultural characteristics. The learning process in school, also the one used in school trips/museums/spectacles, is influenced by theories that argue that learning is not a linear process, but whose success rate is due to a personalized and adapted curriculum. The relationship between museums and schools is a long-standing traditional friendship. Visits to the museum form links between learning content, such as: the introduction of students and motivating them when they are presented with a new learning task, visits offer students the opportunity to use previously accumulated knowledge to develop further discussions. Thanks to this partnership between museums and schools, museums have adapted their exhibitions for taking into account the educational approach. The teaching methods used frequently in the context of carrying out teaching activities in mathematics and explore the environment at the level of primary school age are enquiry, observation and demonstration method (demonstration with substitutes). Curators are trained to assist visitors – students to perceive a different kind of learning. The current study tries to show the development of knowledge of a group of children from the first grade in the field of mathematics and sciences after a series of visits in various museums, exhibitions and spectacles. 

No: 71
Title:  The Role of Integrated Activities in Building Communication Skills in Primary School
Pages 579-588
Author(s): Adela Jidveian*
Open Access

Full Text 71
At present, we are living in a dynamic society and changes come at high speed. The reform programmes implemented at the level of the European education system have aimed at weighing the relation between society and school in order for each to become the other’s impulsive force. In order to easily adjust to the dynamic and continuous changes the present society is passing through, it is useful and necessary for pupils to experience situations which can build their skills, attitudes, abilities and aptitudes. Referring to the general education, C. Delory (p.23-24) gives the following definition of the skill: it is an integrated whole of knowledge, habits and attitudes which allow the subject, facing certain categories of situations, to adjust, to solve problems and to make projects. The integration of the curricular contents into the primary school, and not only into it, results from the complex dynamic property of the skills necessary to solve an issue in a specific situation. In the compulsory education school must aim at building the pupils’ communication skills because they are the basis of other skills but at the same time they depend on them. In the context of the National Education Act, the aptitudes and the communication skills in the mother tongue represent the basis of the whole activity of learning and receiving cultural and scientific values. 

No: 72
Title:  Axiomatic Foundations of Russian Modern Pedagogy. The Contribution of Social Pedagogy
Pages 589-597
Author(s): Aura Hapenciuc*
Open Access

Full Text 72
The paper aims to identify the epistemic structures of modern Russian pedagogy, with its two current branches: social pedagogy and psychological pedagogy, represented by the world-renown educational theorists A.S.Makarenko and L.S.Vîgotski. We focus on the treaties of A.V.Lunacearski and A.S.Makarenko, representatives of the socio-centrist paradigm in education, initiated by Paul Natorp in Germany (Social pedagogy, 1999) and by Emile Durkheim in France (Education and Sociology, 1922). Our diachronic analysis envisages fundamental concepts and axioms of education in terms of curriculum paradigm and identifies Russian’s educational theorists’ contribution to the clarification of issues related to: finalities, methods in education, methodical organization of the collective educational process, educational action etc. The involvement in the community problems and the writings of the theorists that are representative for social pedagogy developed in a specific historical setting and in an exceptional cultural model in which contents prevails over the forms. If their writings have been ideologies and ignored for a long period of time, recently, Russian pedagogy attracted scholarly attention in the Western space, proving the actuality of these theoreticians. Trying to avoid the risks of subjective approaches, we have reanalyzed the writings of Russian pedagogues. More exactly, our use of educational axioms in the interpretation of the chosen writings has emphasized the epistemic valences of the Russian social pedagogy. 

No: 73
Title:  Relevance Of Training Profiles For High Schools In Relation To Student Motivation
Pages 598-607
Author(s): Laura Elena Căpiță*, Tim Huijgen, Carol Căpiță
Open Access

Full Text 73
The paper explores the answer formulated by Romanian High School students to a questionnaire aimed at measuring the interest in studying History. The instrument was developed within the framework of a European research, co-ordinated by the Groningen University and which includes five countries. We  analyzed the answers of the Romanian students starting from the working hypothesis that a potential corelation between the answers and the training profile of the specific High School in which they learn (in our case, theoretical and vocational) can be identified. Starting from the initial research instrument, students' answers were organized in eight categories within  three clusters, organized around their perception of the utility and interest of studying History for their professional life, for general learning, and for their personal development. In more technical terms, three testlets were developed in order to better pinpoint their attitudes towards History as a subject. The comparative analysis is useful in the context of the debate concerning the training profiles provided by High Schools (as specific stage in their compulsory education), and over the ways in which the History curriculum might be better developed. The null hypothesis, that is, there are no significant differences within the target group, will enable a debate concerning the relevance of training profiles for High Schools in relation to student motivation. 

No: 74
Title:  The Assessment Culture In Romanian School - Between Innovation And Tradition
Pages 608-613
Author(s): Mihaela Voinea*
Open Access

Full Text 74
School assessment is still a hot topic in education, because the evaluation of students’ competences is a process with a major social impact (especially on the labour market).In the digitalized world, school evaluation must be rethought in a new way: to become an innovative, personalized and pragmatic assessment.This article is focused on the study of the assessment culture in the Romanian school – teachers’ and students’ beliefs about school assessment, values and behaviours regarding school assessment.  The theoretical premises of the research are to be found in the studies and theories of school assessment and in the model of the national culture – Hofstede. Are teachers prepared to implement a new culture of assessment? Can students, parents, managers and social community adopt a new mentality of school assessment?In this case, the key factor are the teachers who are the agents of change in behaviours, attitudes and values of school assessment, according to the new social and economic trends. 

No: 75
Title:  Learning To Learn – The ʺShadow Competenceʺ
Pages 614-621
Author(s): Daniela Roxana Andron*
Open Access

Full Text 75
For the human being, learning is a natural need, not only a social activity – children learn instinctively, while playing and interacting, and our role as teachers is to feed their need for learning and direct it towards fulfilling their adaptation needs. When it comes to cognitive development and when academic evolution is concerned, a different approach should be considered and our role as teachers should also include development of a vital competence that the students will need along their academic route – learning to learn.A research conducted in Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, observing future teachers and their learning styles, techniques and habits shows that we still need to improve in making learning to learn a shadow competence by its permanent development, doubling instructional goals and routine, and not by keeping it out of the light. The research aims to identify the learning patterns of the future teachers and the most surprising finding of this research is the fact that the teachers of tomorrow do not have, themselves, clearly defined learning strategies, they have never been taught how to learn thus proving the lack of competence in providing their future students the most important of the academic life competences – learning to learn 

No: 76
Title:  A Study On The Quality Of The Initial Teacher Training Programs
Pages 622-627
Author(s): Mihaela Badea*, Mihaela Suditu
Open Access

Full Text 76
Initial teacher training is the guarantee of effective adaptation of future teachers to the particularities of the students’ psychological specific age stages, their desires, adaptations, motivation on the one hand, and the dynamics of the pedagogical, psychological and sociological theories literature, on the other hand. The paper aims to capture – based on a follow-up study – the impact that the initial teacher training conducted in a specific manner (it is a postgraduate course, the classes taking place during weekends) has on trainees who intend to become teachers. The following aspects are taken into consideration: the assessment of the way of harmonizing the time available to teachers and students and the amount of knowledge required; understanding the fundamental concepts and explanatory mechanisms of learning and teaching; the ability of managing specific situations occurring in classrooms; the way in which trainees developed during the training stage attitudes and special motivation, close to the requirements of the teaching profession. By means of a brief investigation at the end of the course - opinion survey and observation grid - applied to a sample of N = 80 students, we aimed at synthetizing and interpreting the data collected from the students, most of them being graduates with different training profiles. Their assessment constitutes a good feedback for us in order to continue upgrading the quality of the courses we offer within our university. 

No: 77
Title:  Psychological Development Program: Upgrading Personal And Professional Skills, At Teachers
Pages 628-635
Author(s): Andreea Laura Bădulescu*
Open Access

Full Text 77
Nowadays, the need for broad horizons to a better understanding human development is increasingly more evident, for identifying those key points that could positively influence personal development and thus optimizing professional practice of teachers, meaning obtaining personal balance and professional optimization. By the present study is intended to present a track record after a semester working with teachers from pre-university system, high-school teachers enrolled in professional conversion program organized by the Faculty of Psychology and Human Social Sciences, of the University of Pitesti, Romania. Among the existent courses in the curricula’s training program was also a personal development course named "the communication laboratory", a course which involved working with groups of teachers, for 2 hours per course, with weekly frequency. The work activity premises were centered on the specific bond existing between the person’s inner world and his professional context of belonging, knowing that, most often, professional act is influenced by personal traits and dispositions. These study findings highlight the very positive results easily observable and assumed by the participants in this program, with direct effects at their personal balance and professional performance, drawing attention to the need to promote such programs of personal development with a deep psychologically specific. As a desideratum, these personal development programs should be implemented a large scale, offering to as many teachers from all educational systems, the opportunity to participate at such alternative learning activities. 

No: 78
Title:  How teacher trainees' defines Moral resilience throughout their teacher educators?
Pages 636-643
Author(s): Lea Baratz*
Open Access

Full Text 78
The current study aims to present how teacher trainees' defines Moral resilience of their teacher educators while teaching processing. A total of One-hundred-and-twenty-three participants (11 men and 112 women) completed a questionnaire that has been designed especially for the current study. The questionnaire was administered online. Two major themes emerged in trainees' conceptualizations of the notion of moral resilience: The first theme connected to the place of curriculum and programs, which create knowledge during the process learning. The second related to the lecture as a model type while noticing his behaviour and his attitude as a persona to be imitate. Attaining an understanding or a conceptualization of the notion of moral resilience could serve as an instrument for constructing a model of the process of building the lecture's resilience and then integrating the individual within the broader system (the meso level) of the school, as a way of creating (macro-level)community resilience. 

No: 79
Title:  The Importance Of New Technology In Rehabilitation Of Pupils With Special Needs
Pages 644-651
Author(s): Valentin Cosmin Blândul*
Open Access

Full Text 79
In recent years, computerization has gone increasingly stronger and to recover pupils with different disabilities, helping them to create optimal conditions for living and working. It was appeared, in this sense, numerous computer programs dedicated to people with mental, sensory, motor or other disabilities. Unfortunately, very few teachers are those who have heard about these programs and, especially, know how to use them in direct work with the student in difficulty. Based on these facts, the present article aims to identify the teachers' attitude towards computer penetration in special education. To achieve this goal, we conducted a scientific research, part of European project much broader, applying a questionnaire with over than 75 items on a sample of 185 students who are preparing for future teaching career. The research results are extremely interesting and prove that most research subjects have a positive attitude to the problematic NTIC using in special education, considering that it facilitates the scholar and social integration of people with disabilities. On the other hand, very few respondents who have heard of various computer programs for pupils with SEN and even fewer are those who use them in concrete situations. In authors’ opinion, the training of teachers and students in using new technology in special education or acquisition of the software for therapy of different types of disabilities become very necessary. 

No: 80
Title:  Comparative Study On The Identification Of Teachers' Need For Inclusive Education Training
Pages 652-662
Author(s): Venera-Mihaela Cojocariu*, Nela Tatiana Balint, Mihaela Anghel, Cristuţă Alina – Mihaela
Open Access

Full Text 80
Inclusive education is one of the components of today’s education defined by its inter- and trans-disciplinary features. Observing the implicit demand to train teachers for inclusive education in Romania, this study aims to raise awareness of this need and verify its intensity in teachers. The general hypothesis of the observational study states that as teachers climb the steps of the educational system, their need to prepare for inclusive education diminishes. The method used was the questionnaire-based inquiry. The questionnaire comprised 18 items with open and closed questions. The sample consisted of a total of 400 teachers, 100 for each of the 3 stages of the pre-university educational system (preschool, primary, middle education, respectively 50 from the urban and 50 from the rural environment in each category) and 50 teachers each from high-school and the university educational system. The recorded data and conclusions of the study could constitute an analysis of the needs for future research-development projects. They will allow the creation of inclusive education modules/programs in the university environment. 

No: 81
Title:  Axiological Options of High-School Teachers – a Comparative Analysis
Pages 663-671
Author(s): Venera-Mihaela Cojocariu*
Open Access

Full Text 81
The quality of human model represented by every teacher is closely connected and determined by the teacher’s implicit axiological system, deeply rooted in his character structure, which he explicitly manifests in action, through his entire conduct. Both forms of manifestations are essentially determined by the education received.The aim of our study was to develop an axiological model for the set of values ​​that express high-school teachers' pedagogical ethos.The research uses the questionnaire-based inquiry method. The research group comprises 300 high-school teachers, representing two counties of Romania, Bacău and Prahova. To achieve its purpose, there was applied a double comparative analysis: 1st order comparative analysis, interregional comparative study between the axiomatic sets identified for each subgroup of teachers to establish the relations between the values ​​identified for the two groups of teachers; elaboration of the axiological model for the set of values ​​that express the high-school teachers' pedagogical ethos; 2nd order comparative analysis, educational intra-system comparative study on the axiological system of secondary-school teachers (highlighted by us in a previous study) and that of high-school teachers (to see if there are significant differences between the values ​​shared by teachers at the two stages of the pre-university educational system). 

No: 82
Title:  Fostering 21st Century Skills For Future Teachers
Pages 672-681
Author(s): Daniela Cretu*
Open Access

Full Text 82
Life and work in the 21st century demand specific skills from students in order to be successful. It is the school’s and the teachers’ responsibility to prepare all children for the educational demands of life and work, in a rapidly changing world, by equipping the students with the required skills. This study focuses on four skills: creativity, critical thinking, communication and collaboration, which are part of the 21st Century Skills.  If teachers are expected to enable the students to use such ways of working and thinking in the 21st century, then teacher preparation programs should offer multiple opportunities for teacher candidates to learn, develop and practice these skills. The article reveals ways of integrating the four mentioned skills during a Theory and Methodology of Instruction course, provided within a pre-service university study program for pre-primary and primary school teachers. The teacher candidates experienced training situations associated with each skill, and then, they were challenged to design such learning situations themselves, within an environment provided by interaction with peers.  The teacher candidates’ perceptions of their teaching and learning activity related to the four skills are analyzed. 

No: 83
Title:  Historical Research - Promoting Critical Thinking To Future Teachers
Pages 682-689
Author(s): Diana Csorba*
Open Access

Full Text 83
Without any doubt, the role of the study programs promoted at academic level consists in promoting and developing the critical thinking among students. Recent studies designed worldwide prove the fact that the issue remains mainly a goal and a challenge for formal education than an undoubtful reality. This educational goal can materialize in exercising and valuing critical thinking among students, at the level of each subject of study, mentioned in the curricula. There are numerous motifs to follow with even more rigour the intellectual formation of our students, in order for them to become not only highly qualified in an area, but also potentially capable to develop and innovate/ reform within the respective field.  The proposed study argues on the necessity of rethinking the formation programs of the teachers from the perspective of valuing the methodology of critical thanking. It involves the formation of new professional, dynamic and critical skills, by means of objective reference to the history of pedagogy, approached in a synchronic and diachronic way. The new skill profile will be demonstrated in the area of critical interpretation of the problems which the contemporary school is confronted especially in adopting the strategies of educational, convenient and flexible strategies. 

No: 84
Title:  The Teacher of the Generation Z
Pages 690-697
Author(s): Carmen Sonia Duse*, Dan Maniu Duse
Open Access

Full Text 84
A problem discussed more often nowadays is the one of the characteristics of the generations, given the decreased interest of the student for the school as an institution itself and for formal educational act it brings with itself. This paper aims to bring an answer to the questions why students are preoccupied reading more from a tablet and less from the board, why their attention is very little focused and dissipates in small things compared to us, educators and what we can do as teachers. In the paper there are presented the characteristics of teachers and students from the generations perspectives. This study can help professors to understand the needs of the young generation and how to deal with this new model of students. Teaching the Generation Z will be a big challenge for the future because this will required more competences to the professors, not only related their teaching discipline, but especially to their ability to handle with technology and to use the technology at the expert level. 

No: 85
Title:  The WebQuest Technique – How To Exploit New Technologies In Training Teachers
Pages 698-704
Author(s): Ilie Vali*
Open Access

Full Text 85
The information technology affects the way we learn and live. Through the new technologies the range of means of access to information can be enriched. By preferring experiential learning, the current generation of students explores the potential of different training environments, and use learning methods that rely on technology. The expectations of the society and of the educated have changed quite a lot in recent years and the digital environment favors the formation of new skills in students. We believe that the educational software that is available in cyberspace provides means for a genuine education in accordance with the requirements of the information society. Having a formative character and applied valences, exploiting new technologies and coming towards the needs and interests of students, the WebQuest technique is increasingly used in the Romanian education. The research sample includes a number of 119 subjects (students – undergraduate and master – and preschool teachers). We have decided to record and interpret qualitatively the responses of the subjects included in the research and also issue some suggestions and proposals for the future use of this technique. 

No: 86
Title:  How Do Children Read Before Being Able To Read? Tools For Research
Pages 705-712
Author(s): Mariona Masgrau Juanola*, Karo Kunde, Margarida Falgàs Isern
Open Access

Full Text 86
This research focuses on initial literacy. We conceive reading as a complex cognitive process that involves many skills; it does not only include the capacity of decoding letters but also the ability of selecting, understanding and interpreting a text critically and taking into consideration pragmatic factors. Our study is based on literature about reading acquisition in early childhood and Frith's description (1985) of the steps that the child follows when they learn to read: the logographic, the alphabetic and the grammatical phase. We realized that there are lots of abilities required before children enter the first phase (the logographic, in which they already show interest for letters). In order to study this previous learning process, we have been observing and recording two-year old children interacting with books and we have designed a specific methodology to analyze the evidences of this early literacy. Our main hypothesis is that children acquire lot of relevant competences related to reading (and writing) before they really start decoding letters, words and sentences. We will describe these skills grouping them in three categories: mechanical skills, symbolic skills and narrative skills. 

No: 87
Title:  The Individual Study – Competence Specific to Students of the Teacher Training Program
Pages 713-721
Author(s): Dana Jucan*
Open Access

Full Text 87
The initial and continuous formation of the teaching staff implies the development of certain professional competences, but also of certain transversal competences. In this present study, we are interested in the way in which the competence for individual studying is developed in the students enrolled in the teacher training program and we aspired to establish the sub-competences relevant in this context, to which we have subsumed their characteristic activities as well. Following that line of thought, we have initiated a research through which we endeavored to determine the opinions of the teaching staff (those that teach the students of the teacher training program) in what concerns the manner in which they strive to develop this competence in their students. Thus, we were concerned with finding out the methods through which the teachers process and systematize the information during lectures and seminars with the purpose of facilitating the individual study of the students, in what manner the students’ reflection is being stimulated during said lectures and seminars, and the modalities through which the retention of information by the students is facilitated with the aim of enabling their individual studying. The present study encompasses the results of this research, and these results determine us to consider that the self-study of the future teacher must involve didactic activities through which reflection becomes one of the primary elements, as we consider that through reflection the student achieves control over his own learning process. 

No: 88
Title:  A Challenge for Teacher Training: Economic Education in Middle School
Pages 722-729
Author(s): Maria Liana Lacatus, & Corina Cace*
Open Access

Full Text 88
This paper reports on challenges that teacher training departments of economic universities in Romania have to face nowadays, at time of changes in national school curriculum. As it is expected, economic education will be extended at national level as consequence of introducing economic education programs in middle schools, in addition to exiting programs at high school level. Among challenges that this process will generate we identified the need for teachers especially trained to teach economics at middle school level. The paper is structured in two parts. The first one is focused on the need for qualified teachers to effectively deliver economic education in Romanian middle schools and on the role of universities in supporting pre-university economic education. Information collected from students and teachers in respect with their competencies to teach middle school students are presented in order to advocate for new pre- and in-service teacher training programs focused on teaching middle school economics. The second part of the paper presents information regarding a program for middle school developed by Romanian Center for Economic Education - CREE that gives orientation on what economic education at middle school level could be and about the competences needed to be developed to middle school teachers. The important conclusion of this paper is that the change in economic education has to go together with a change in pre- and in-service teacher training and educational organizations such as schools, universities, or NGO-s can work together to successfully develop and implement new educational programs for middle school. 

No: 89
Title:  How Is Childhood Changing?
Pages 730-736
Author(s): Alina Georgeta Mag*
Open Access

Full Text 89
In recent times we have seen the growth of new attention to childhood. Radical questions are challenging long-held attitudes and beliefs about children. This article looks at the way students from the second year of training to become early childhood teachers interpret the way attitudes towards children are changing. The aim of the study is to involve a group of 22 students from the University “Lucian Blaga“ of Sibiu into a practical investigation, in which they analyze the cases of different children. During their practical activities in the kindergarten, each student chose a child of 4 years old in order to study the attitudes held about him from three perspectives: the teacher, the parents and the child perspective about his behavior and educational needs. The methods used during the study were: observation, interviews and study case. The qualitative analyses of the data collected allowed to students to understood what are the use of looking at attitudes towards children. Children are often seen by adults in terms of stereotypes based on them being vulnerable or dependent. If children’s voice is heard, new ways of understanding come to life. Findings revealed that student’s efforts are crucial in order to understand how today’s childhood is changing, in order to become professionals in early childhood education. The change in attitude and practice involves seeing children in their own right and as having rights, and that should be at the bases of any educational modern department that trains future educators.

No: 90
Title:  The Continuing Education of Teachers - Present And Perspectives in Romania
Pages 737-745
Author(s): Nicoleta Elena Mircea*
Open Access

Full Text 90
The continuous training is the spring of change, of the career progress, of a quality education at European standards. The concerns for the teaching career, determining the status, roles and skills associated with the teaching profession is a prerequisite for developing a coherent system of initial and continuous training of teachers, compatible with European and national requirements.In Romania, currently training system of teachers in secondary education is organized in accordance with European strategies.The basic features that it classifies as a competitive system are: accredited training programs, skills training according to the needs of training but also with the European  demands, the current curricular construction,  modular organization of training programs, allocation of transferable professional credit, international mobility equivalence, accreditation of training providers for a free, competitive market. So in 2016, the National Register of accredited providers, brings together a number of 154 accredited providers, both in public education and private sector. The main suppliers of continuing trainig for teachers are accredited teacher training institutes, the number of 38, 17 universities, and associations, NGOs, companies, 40 private sector. The accredited training providers offer various attractive programs in line with the training needs of teachers. Naturally the system involves adjustments in order to eliminate weaknesses, obsolete. Are considered, from this point of view, the evolution in the teaching career by teaching degrees, career advancement based on seniority criterion, the absence of flexible career progression routes or reconversion programs for the  teaching career. 

No: 91
Title:  JOBS Project – A Task Based Learning Approach To Teachers` In-Service Training
Pages 746-755
Author(s): Cosmina Mironov*, Anca Popovici, Elena Ionica
Open Access

Full Text 91
The present article focuses on presenting a study case and the related qualitative methodology research of an in-service teacher training based on a task-based learning approach within JOBS Project - Job Orientation training in businesses and schools. The project has been developed in joint co-operation by the Ministry of Education and Scientific Research, the National Centre for the Development of Technical and Vocational Education, the Centre for International Projects in Education of Zurich University of Teacher Education and the University of Bucharest. Its implementation started in 2012 and will end in June 2017 and covers 4 regions at national level. In recent years some of the debates in the instructional field focused on which approaches to structuring, planning and implementing lessons are more effective. Some responses focused on TBL offering specific advantages of the approach: a natural context developed from the learner’s experiences that is personalized and relevant to them as well as problems that lead to something useful and meaningful. This premise tested first on students, was further extended to teachers’ training program with promising perspectives. 

No: 92
Title:  Teaching For Diversity And Inclusion: An Exploratory Approach To Understanding Teachers’ Perspectives
Pages 756-763
Author(s): Mihaela Mitescu Manea*
Open Access

Full Text 92
A critical discussion of the first findings in an exploratory study of learning to teach for diversity and inclusion is proposed. The analysis of language data from semi-structured interviews with teachers, in the early stages of the proposed exploratory study, employs the conceptual tools of chronotopical analysis (Bakhtin, 1981; Bloome et al., 2009) and those of positioning theory (Davies and Harré, 1990). Findings indicate the emergence of common practitioners’ narratives on learning for diversity and inclusion. Holding on to the existing narratives appears to be the practitioners’ preferred strategy in finding and affirming a position regarding the common discourse on teaching and learning for diversity and inclusion in the space of the schools’ common practices. The production and deployment of new mental or material tools to learn and teach for diversity and inclusion is obstructed by what teachers name a lack of relevant information on specific educational needs of learners in their classrooms, a sense of isolation in the classroom practice and an impermeable boundary structure of the timely delivery of disciplinary contents expected of teachers in mainstream education. The implications for research and for educational practice are discussed here. 

No: 93
Title:  Application of The Geographical Research Competency with Students using Interactive Didactic Techniques
Pages 764-771
Author(s): Florentina Miu*
Open Access

Full Text 93
The present paper has been elaborated as a motivation to support the development of students’ brainwork competencies (formed in the high school cycle) which, during the university years become scientific research competencies. In order to achieve the objectives of the paper, I have performed a didactic experiment with 10 students involved in the elaboration of their graduate theses and articles for the Students’ Scientific Conference who used interactive didactic techniques such as: the Venn diagram, brainstorming, the algorithm, SWOT analysis, etc. As a result, the paper focuses upon practical and methodological aspects of the research activity performed with students. I shall present selectively, in this article’s contents, the methodological- practical concept of the research activity on students. The research activity’s practical model refers to: research technique’s application algorithm, competency to select theme-suitable research methods by applying interactive techniques, competency to process information sources, set out relationships between objects, correlate geographical processes or phenomena. Also, competencies to draw conclusions, manner of drafting and presenting a paper can be achieved during research. By using interactive didactic techniques I have constructed the basis to develop students’ professional activity, including in the field of education, research and innovation. 

No: 94
Title:  The Importance of Mastering Pedagogy Knowledge in Initial Teacher Training
Pages 772-780
Author(s): Adriana Nicu*
Open Access

Full Text 94
In the context of this article we present some experiential learning paths that we have done in our department. We organized several workshops with different themes, attended by students from the Preschool and Primary Education specialization. Workshops were held under the paradigm of project based learning and were focused just on practical topics from the kindergarten and primary school curriculum: exercises on communication, intercultural education methods, how we calculate the age of a tree (without cutting it), team building games, vocal improvisation, techniques of drawing, creative writing exercises and exercises for personal development. The workshops were focused on student learning goals and achievement of professional and transversal competencies (critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, and self-management). The projects proposed for students, future teachers, were authentic, detached from the world of school. Participants received clear tasks and appropriate tools of work. The projects had an impact on students because they presented situations of personal and professional interest. Students' voice and decisions were listened during the workshops. Students who are preparing to become teachers for preschool and young school children reflected on their learning, on the obstacles encountered and how they could be overcome. The article tries to demonstrate that by mastering knowledge of pedagogy the teachers acquire their professional identity. By purchasing pedagogical knowledge during the initial training, teachers are transformed into genuine intellectuals. Thus, teachers can launch interdisciplinary researches which will legitimize and will validate the future educational practices. 

No: 95
Title:  Valued Education For A Good Society And A Better Life
Pages 781-789
Author(s): Crenguța Lăcrămioara Oprea*
Open Access

Full Text 95
In initial and continuous training of teachers, requirements growing are about the need of integrate new technologies in education, to enhance interactive learning using strategies collaborative learning and assessment that constitutes the imperative of development of a society and a modern education and postmodern. This does not mean total abandonment of the traditional strategies, but blending effective with those that require a deeper involvement in the student's own training and development. This is due to the evolution of digital society, the emergence of new areas of knowledge and new individual and social needs of adapting to the flow of information which are in a constant effervescence. Teachers must learn how to motivate students to go through learning experiences proposed to apply the acquired acquisitions in new situations, building their new knowledge. If learning is a constructive process, then teacher training should be so designed to create opportunities for this construction. The education made with love is the highest form of training. 

No: 96
Title:  Blended Learning and EFL Secondary School Teacher
Pages 790-797
Author(s): H. B. Patel*
Open Access

Full Text 96
Blended learning is a quite debatable mode of learning in the world. The researcher aims in this study to investigate the views of EFL Secondary School Teachers on Blended Learning. In the present study EFL is an abbreviation for "English as a Foreign Language". EFL is defined as the language of students learning English as foreign language. In India Gujarati language speaking students learning English language then for them its known as EFL(English as a Foreign Language). It also aims to investigate the views of the EFL secondary teachers on blended learning. Total EFL teachers of HimatnagarTaluka, Gujarat State, India are included in this study. The sample will be selected randomly. The sample will be provided hard copy or soft copy of the questionnaire. India is an orthodox type of country where tradition matters a lot. In some part of India male dominates the social system hence EFL teaching from gender perspective may have different impact. In such a developing country, women are gaining good position in the education field in metro cities. India has a strong social, caste and creed system hence women from different strata may not have equal opportunity in small town and rural part. It is very interesting to study the views of EFL teachers on blended learning in the context of gender and category and the interactive effect of gender*category. Indian social system is based on categories like SC, ST, SEBC and Open/General. 

No: 97
Title:  Independent Learning And Reflective Thinking Of The Future Teachers
Pages 798-806
Author(s): Lorena Peculea, Daniel Andronache*, Muşata Bocoş
Open Access

Full Text 97
The paper aims to achieving an exploratory and correlational study between independent learning and reflective thinking of the future teachers. For the substantiation of this study, analysis of the specialized literature were made. The independent learning involves a high level of self-awareness, the development of cognitive and metacognitive abilities and, in the same time, it involves the self-regulating personal effort to learn (Ștefan, 2010). Reflective thinking, on the other hand, has benefits for learning as it assists in integrating theory with practice, promotes intellectual growth because it is cyclical rather than linear, develops skills that makes students more confident, more independent and fosters responsibility and accountability (Kuiper and Pesut, 2004). Thus, basing on the theoretical data as mentioned above, the aim of this study is to identify the level of the development of independent learning and of the reflective thinking of students, as future teachers. Also, we identify existing correlations between independent learning and reflective thinking. The sample of subjects involved in this study is comprised of students in pre-service teacher education (N=212), which are studying the program for teacher training (I-st year). To measure independent learning we used the shortened version of the AILI questionnaire (Elshout-Mohr, Van Daalen-Kapteijns, & Meijer, 2004). On the other hand, reflective thinking was measured by QRT questionnaire (Questionnaire for reflective thinking, Kember et al., 2000). Data obtained were statistically descriptive analyzed by calculating means, and Pearson r correlation coefficient. 

No: 98
Title:  The Operationalization of Learning Objectives. An Alternative Interpretative Scenario
Pages 807-817
Author(s): Cristian Petre*
Open Access

Full Text 98
The challenge of this paper is to provide a comprehensive picture not only of the most important ideas on operational learning objectives technique, but also to propose an alternative scenario to it. A set of premises which assumes the status of arguments should be specified. First, there are two major drawbacks associate to the current scenario practiced for operationalization: it nurtures the backwash effect, implicitly validates a learning for evaluation. Secondly, the operationalization of objectives must be understood in relation with its essential function, that to specify the desirable performing that had a specific nature: are the result of learning associated with a sequence didactic called lesson. As a result, the statements must contain specific performing of the lesson, which generates a natural consequence: different lessons may not have identical finalities (objectives). Thirdly, in a learning regulated by the skills centered paradigm, the operationalization of objectives should be achieved at the level of competence’s components: knowledge, skills / abilities and attitudes. Because the homework should be considered part of the lesson, the teacher is entitled to exploit the homework as a student's opportunity to continue learning in the classroom, and this can and should be reflected in operationalization philosophy. Finally, it should not be ignored a reality: the most impressive statements which claiming to be operational objectives have not this quality, being incomplete. But they set up a real spider web which causes many negative effects, one of them being diminishing the quality of learning. 

No: 99
Title:  Beyond The Limits Of Professional Development For Teachers: The Romanian Case
Pages 818-826
Author(s): Oana-Rica Popa*, Norica-Felicia Bucur
Open Access

Full Text 99
The teacher, one of the essential resources in the teaching-learning process, is expected to permanently attune to latest professional developments, and in-service training is supposed to serve this purpose. Moreover, teacher education, as a whole, directly influences the results that students might achieve. Starting from these assumptions, as well as from the international reports focusing on these variables, we noticed that the Romanian educational system is characterized by an obvious discrepancy: (very) well trained teachers, according to their own perceptions, and (very) low prepared students, according to the results they obtained in international assessments. Thus, our paper aims at analyzing the causes lying beneath this gap, in order to get some further insight into the current situation. Our conclusions point to the weaknesses, the shortcomings and the deformations of the Romanian professional development system for teachers (part of the Romanian in-service training system). We suggest that both legislative and methodological changes are badly required so that all Romanian stakeholders (training providers, teacher educators, teachers etc.) could fully benefit from qualitative and effective professional development, which could indeed ensure long life learning. 

No: 100
Title:  Why Do We Mind the Gap between Theory and Practice in TE?
Pages 827-834
Author(s): Camelia Rădulescu*
Open Access

Full Text 100
The gap between theory and practice has been adressed in many studies related to teacher education programmes, all proposing different solutions to bring closer the training student teachers receive during courses to the reality of the classroom they face once they start teaching, with a focus on more teaching practice opportunities and changes in the course content. Continuous changes in the last quarter of a century affecting the Romanian educational system in general also influenced the structure and the philosophy of teacher education and changed the focus on human resources as the key of making TE more efficient. There is a general tendency among educational programmes to explore with new learning models that can ensure expert-like competencies before graduation and with the appropriate instruments to be employed by all teachers in order to make them able to adapt to all the changes they face. This paper expands on the influence of external factors such as beliefs, opinions, attitudes, professional models, towards teaching and teachers, on the way training received or delivered is perceived. It draws on previous research I conducted on an interesting manner of accomodating in an individual innovative way, the gap between old incremented beliefs and the new theories  and practices presented during the teacher education programme, as an empowering tool for all teachers to use in a variety of educational contexts. 

No: 101
Title:  Mathematical Modelling in the Teaching-Learning Process in Romania
Pages 835-840
Author(s): Nicoleta Samarescu*
Open Access

Full Text 101
For an alignment with the international teaching-learning methods, for achieving new competences and for obtaining better results in the PISA tests, we debate the Mathematical modelling which represents the connection between the processes in the real world and Mathematics. Modelling, as a teaching-learning process of Mathematics, has a highly developed theoretical context, researched and sustained even through the curriculum in different countries. Modelling helps the concret-intuitive thinking, and also helps someone keep in mind the information for a long-term. The present study answers to some basic questions: How much and how is the Mathematical modelling implemented in Romania? Which would be the plus value of the implementation in the teaching-learning process in the primary school? In the second part of this paper there are developed some examples of problems which could be the basis of the application of mathematical modelling in the primary school. We consider  that these changes are quite necessary for the Romanian schooling system because they have been tested, successfully implemented and recommended to the teachers by the ministries which deal with education in many different countries-after a careful research, international projects.Even if this method is not developed in Romania, it could be successfully adopted if their results upon the students prove to be useful for their training and for a fast integration in the European labour market and so on. In this way, the alignment with efficient international standards could be done in a rhythm which is favourable for the human resource in our country. 

No: 102
Title:  Science Teachers’ Feedback Expressed After Participating in Two Continuous Professional Development Programs
Pages 841-846
Author(s): Ioana Stăncescu*, Gabriel Gorghiu, Ana-Maria Aurelia Petrescu
Open Access

Full Text 102
The paper presents an analysis on the science teachers’ feedback related to the efficiency of two training programs: PROFILES and ForEdu. The research methodology is based on dedicated feedback questionnaires filled in by 156 science teachers, enrolled in both programs. The questionnaire included items with predetermined answers offering multiple choice. To some items, the teachers wrote a descriptive phrase that corresponds to the situation in which they are, following the graduation moment of the related training program. There are several aspects taken into account: the usefulness of the training program, the novelty of the training materials, their applicability in the didactic process, the reason for participating in such programs etc. Other items are direct related to the skills that have been acquired after participating in the training programs. The whole analysis led to the idea that teachers are aware of the necessity of being permanent involved in continuous training programs, which targeted to both direction: scientific preparation, but also psycho-pedagogical / methodical training. Even there are a lot of similarities in terms of teachers’ answers, collected from the mentioned training programs, it can be noticed that in the “Profiles - Education through Science” program, where the activities were clearly focused on developing teaching strategies (IBSE - inquiry based science education), positive effects at the level of formative and informative acquisitions were more evident. 

No: 103
Title:  Metaphors About Teachers' Role and Didactic Interactions in Primary School 
Pages 847-855
Author(s): Ioana Todor*
Open Access

Full Text 103
In a major book in cognitive linguistics, Metaphors We Live By, Lakoff and Johnson (1980/2008) argue that metaphors are a common presence in every-day language, as well as fundamental mechanisms of the mind, shaping our understanding of experience and giving sense to the word. Arguing for the metaphorical nature of our conceptual system, the authors point out that our ordinary language is filled with metaphors even if we are not aware of their use and these metaphors shape the way we perceive the surrounding reality, the way we think, the way in which we relate to others and the way we act. Metaphors about education are present in the didactic discourse in schools and in the discourse about education in various contexts (teacher-parent interactions, media, literature). The presence of metaphors in classroom discourse, as well as their socio-cognitive functions and educational implications, have been illustrated by Badley and Brummelen (2012) in a book entitled, by analogy: Metaphors We Teach By: How Metaphors Shape What We Do in Classrooms. Starting from this theoretical background, the present study aims to investigate the presence of metaphors, as mental representations of primary school teachers, on two dimensions: teachers' role and teacher-student classroom interactions. The study sample includes 105 primary school teachers, selected on a voluntary participation basis from Romanian public schools (Alba and Hunedoara counties). The results are discussed in relation to their potential relevance for creating more reflexive teachers and for the optimization of the teaching practice. 

No: 104
Title:  The Transdisciplinarity – A Model Of Experiential Learning
Pages 856-861
Author(s): Sofia Loredana Tudor*
Open Access

Full Text 104
Starting from a basic dimension of  current educational policies,  education centered on child/ student, the present paper proposes the approach of the two key themes in the organization of the teaching: organization of integrated learning (transdisciplinary teaching) and development of  authentic learning contexts (experiential learning) . The purpose of this paper is to clarify the interrelation between the two concepts, starting from the following premises: the pupil is unique, has individual training needs, and the school must offer him adequate learning contexts; students educational global approach by almost all areas of human development; formal learning should approach everyday life, schools role is to build authentic learning contexts, starting from students personal experiences. Another aim of this paper is to develop an experiential learning model through teaching contexts transdisciplinary organization. The created model starts from the formation of the competence to talk in student native language, aiming the oral expression ability, respectively the written expression ability. Transdisciplinarity analysis as a dimension of the experiential learning contexts organization, is done by presenting a thematic project in the extracurricular activities program The Different School. The thematic project shows formal and non-formal educational activities organized over a week starting from a central theme (literary trip, real life trip). This paper conclusions show the formative value of the formal and non-formal learning activities organization by extrapolating a trip. 

No: 105
Title:  The Specific Of Using Open Resources In Formal Education
Pages 862-867
Author(s): Sofia Loredana Tudor*
Open Access

Full Text 105
Current trends of development of the educational framework evoke the support of the innovative methods of integrating open educational resources and formative resources in learning process. In this study we aimed at developing the coordinates of an educational design cantered on using pen and formative resources. As a study methodology, the cascade analysis was used, with groups of specialists for each level/ education form, the variables of an integrative educational approach being set. Conclusions show the innovative dimension of this educational design model (communication abilities, understanding capacity, the degree of interaction between students, the level of interactivity with the content of learning). The weak points of this design are the learning environment objectives created by the educator, and they refer to: the unavailability of certain analysed types, teachers lack of experience in using them, and not valuing these resources potential in educational context, the ungrateful attitude of some specialists and parents regarding their use in school, in teaching situations, in the first levels of schooling. An open learning design is shaped on the base of the socio-constructivist paradigm that promotes the idea of building knowledge through individual effort in interaction with the content. 

No: 106
Title:  Competencies and Educational Objectives in HR Management Education: the Ukrainian case study
Pages 868-875
Author(s): Nataliya Pylat, & Maura Striano*
Open Access

Full Text 106
In order to analyze training needs and educational objectives for HR managers this paper examines current expectations concerning the HR effectiveness: which notions about the HR effectiveness are common among the experts. The result of the group discussion indicates the most expected areas of HR competencies perceived by HR professionals in Ukraine: personal competencies dealing with the self and social competencies dealing with others. Also important feature is the transformation of HR manager into the strategic partner. However, there are very few expectations about cognitive competencies, as workforce planning and analytics, business knowledge, mastering HR processes and talent management. In other words effectiveness of HR manager depends mostly on relationships with colleagues and management, on social approval of his/her works by the chief rather than on indicators of the company success in the market. That indicates an insufficiency of systematic development of the HR profession in Ukraine and the lack of clear vocational standards of work performance and a nation-wide unified system of work-based qualifications. 

No: 107
Title:  Study On Improving The Technical Level Of Athletes Practicing Ju-Jitsu
Pages 876-882
Author(s): Doru D. Galan, Gloria Rață, Doru P. Galan*
Open Access

Full Text 107
Developing the technical level of aspiring athletes in Duo-demonstrative system represents a permanent requirement in competitional ju-jitsu. This paper represents an experimental study of ascertaining type through which we aimed to highlight the possibility of improving the technical level of competing athletes in duo-demonstration system. To establish the progress of the technical level we applied an initial test with an ascertaining character and a final test with a demonstrative character. In order to improve the athletes' technical level during the 14-week experiment that included 4 specific trainings per week, we added 30 minutes to each training using the following methods: Monday- slow work method and technique segmentation method; Tuesday- working with the shadow and working in special conditions methods; Thursday-countertime method and remote working method; Friday- we approached the method of techniques execution using unconventional means. The results of the 10 subjects of the experiment showed higher rates at the final test. The progress showed by the average values emphasizes the efficiency of the applicative intervention directed towards improvement of the technical level. The results revealed that, after the 14 weeks experiment, the level of the subjects' technical training has improved considerably. 

No: 108
Title:  Correlation Between Speed and Height Jump in Junior Football Players
Pages 883-889
Author(s): Carmen Gugu-Gramnatopol*, Ștefan Ochiotan, Anca Ionescu, Dragoș Dăncescu
Open Access

Full Text 108
Great performances depend on the physical structure of the athlete, on one side and on the other side on the high level of psychomotricity, resulting from correct progress on basic and specific motor skills. Strength, agility and quickness are the key qualities that ease the vertical jump for players', whether it is on the attack or defence phase. In the present work we plan to do a scientific study on the indicators of the vertical jump and the efficiency of the football game for 13 year old players, on football positions. For this we achieved high precision measurements on vertical jump indicators, using the Myotest, we quantified technical actions individual positions. We have been interested to see the importance that the velocity, during the vertical jump, mean in achievement of individual technical actions at defenders, midfielders, and strikers football players. For that we realized a correlations between individual jumps and the individual technical actions from a group of 16 junior footballers, from „Brașovia” Sports Club from Brașov. 

No: 109
Title:  Experiential Learning Through Training Firm - Formative Valances and Personal Development Opportunities
Pages 890-896
Author(s): Andreea Luciana Ion, & Mirela Cristina Negreanu*
Open Access

Full Text 109
Experiential learning, the learning process for which John Dewey argued, it is now seen as a pressing need in the efforts to boost growth and employment in Europe, noting that Europe needs more entrepreneurs. Integrating entrepreneurship has demonstrated its success for the American culture and successfully has been transferred in the Chinese culture. At the European level, integrating entrepreneurship is seen as one of the possibilities that could respond to issues of absorption and labour market integration. Thereby the education in Europe is required to implement learning models based on practical experiences. The content analysis conducted on the curricula of initial vocational education and training (VET) in Romania revealed the fact that entrepreneurial spirit within initial VET is provided through the entrepreneurship education curriculum, integrated in the curricula frame for secondary education, for the 10th grade, to all pathways, profiles and specializations, with a budget of one hour per week. For the qualifications for the services profile, the modules applicable for the training firm is part of the national curriculum, leaving open the way for expanding the applicability of this component for the other profiles within the local-based curriculum development. Investigative approach analyses the ability to form entrepreneurial skills in the mentioned context, feeling the need to introduce training firm for initial VET regardless of the economic sector for which the student qualifies, in a context with a higher degree of concreteness such as the training firm is. 

No: 110
Title:  Students' Perception Concerning the Career Counselling Programs
Pages 897-907
Author(s): Claudia Crisan, Ion Albulescu, Alexandra Oltean*
Open Access

Full Text 110
Students' perception concerning the career counselling programs is determined by the extent to which these programs are adjusted to their counselling needs. The present study is based on a constatative and correlational design and is conducted on a population of 257 students (N=257).  These participants were aged between 19 and 21 years. 77 were males and 180 females.The research aims to investigate how the career counselling activities, conducted during the SOPHRD program SOPHRD/161/2.1/G/137510 entitled Professional counselling, internships and simulated enterprise: an extra chance in finding a job for students specializing in public administration and communication, public relations and advertising, responded to the recipients ' needs and also if there are gender differences at the level of their perception. After attending different activities within the counselling program, the students were asked to fill in a feed-back questionnaire. The obtained findings show that the career counselling activities have significantly responded to the students' expectations. Gender differences in the students' perception concerning the career counselling program were also found. 

No: 111
Title:  Tendencies In The Career Planning Of Students
Pages 908-915
Author(s): Cristian Vasile Doicin, & Sorina Chircu*
Open Access

Full Text 111
Any career is built in time, through consistency and effort, based on a solid training, in a correct relationship with who we are and what we can do with the opportunities we identify at some point. Our career path starts with the course of studies, when we clearly distinguish between our knowledge interests to be well prepared in a certain area of specialty, with a mandatory choice of a route/specialization out of the educational offer of a faculty. Therefore, we should make the right decisions and constantly plan our career development. This career planning process may be acquired and applied throughout our life by covering a few main stages or it may be achieved spontaneously, under the influence of chance. This paper aims at highlighting the habit of three hundred 1st, 2nd, 3rd year students of POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, regarding their own career planning, and we expect that planning model of the self-oriented type based on awareness, rigorous analysis and proper information should undergo variations from one year of study to the other. The research method used was the questionnaire-based survey and the data processing of the two questionnaires used during the research confirmed the working hypothesis. 

No: 112
Title:  Competences needed by Class Masters in Counselling the Students
Pages 916-923
Author(s): Dumitru Georgiana*
Open Access

Full Text 112
In the present study we aimed to investigate the perceptions, attitudes and expectations of school counsellors towards minimal competences needed by class masters in the field of counselling students. The methodology employed in-depth interviews based on structured guide with active school counsellors in the field within Arges County. The qualitative analysis of the responses aimed primarily to identify a minimum set of competences in educational counselling that class masters should possess. The second aspect focused on the class masters’ ability to carry out counselling activities in class, during the counselling classes. According to the results, school counsellors say that class masters should „have complex competences in the field of psycho-pedagogy, that of group management and, at the same time, to know thoroughly the particularities and specifications for each school age, to have a good ability of self-analyse, self-control and organizing”, while having regard to their own development through self-knowledge and personal development in order to improve our own communication style. The counselling activity accomplished in class by class masters is evaluate by school counsellor as rather weak, for two reasons: firstly due to time reason, only one hour/week allocated of the counselling and guidance in the case of secondary education institutions and without this hour schedule in the case of high school institutions, and secondly insufficient time for class masters from secondary schools to approach counselling and guidance activities in the context that the curriculum has a reach contents. 

No: 113
Title:  The Relation Between Fundamental Emotions And Occupational Stress In Educational Settings
Pages 924-931
Author(s): Ion Dumitru, & Otilia Sanda Bersan*
Open Access

Full Text 113
This research analyses the relationship between fundamental emotions and occupational stress in educational settings, the nature and dynamic of this relation, as well as individual (physical health and psychological wellbeing) and organizational (efficiency and effectiveness) consequences in educational settings. From a Narrative Interpretive Perspective (Lazarus, 2006) and the Integrative Approach to Occupational Stress (Cartwright and Cooper, 2003), the relation between fundamental emotions and occupational stress in teachers is analyzed both in terms of general dimensions of affectivity (positive and negative) as well as fundamental emotions related to sources of occupational stress in educational settings, both from an individual and an organizational perspective. Teachers consider as sources of stress (with consequences on their activity): control; professional relationships; workplace certainty; work-personal life balance; work overload; particular aspects of working place; payments and benefits. Negative affective states manifestation is associated with occupational stress in teachers. An increase in stressors’ impact does not necessarily lead to a wane in the manifestation of positive emotions. 

No: 114
Title:  An Approach Of Parenting Styles From The Perspective Of Transactional Analyze
Pages 932-937
Author(s): Monica Moraru*
Open Access

Full Text 114
This study presents an approach of parenting styles from the perspective of transactional analyze. Based on the theoretical system developed by psychologist Eric Berne (1961), transactional analyze (TA) as experiential approach modern counseling and psychotherapy, was conceived as a means of development and personal evolution to improve communication, of interrelation. Transactional analyze identifies how the social environment, especially family, school, and, more recently, media, influences the formation of particular patterns of communication and interrelation, with positive/negative effects, personal and social. The theoretical study  reveals the correlations between the different parenting styles and states of ego expressed by parents in their relationships with the children and their effects in terms of developing condition of Ego responsible for certain emotions, beliefs and behaviors of children and adolescents (Normative Parent, Benevolent Parent, Adult, Free Child, Adapted Child,  Rebel Child). We believe that for parents and counselors/psychotherapists this analysis is useful. The adoption a correct parenting style is essential for the harmonious development of children's personality. 

No: 115
Title:  Impact of the Career Counseling Services on Employability
Pages 938-945
Author(s): Camelia Staiculescu, & Razvan Catalin Dobrea*
Open Access

Full Text 115
Entry into the labor market of higher education graduates is a major concern both for universities and graduates, but especially for organizations coordinating domestic and international education policies. The European Commission supports education reform structural policies, particularly at university level, that ensure the professionalization of graduates, the development of occupational competences as well as transversal competences with a view to enhancing, developing and capitalizing on their potential. In this context, universities supplement their student offers not only with educational services but with counseling as well as orientation services that help students manage their potential and define their educational and career path. This paper analyzes a positive experience within the project “Practice today to become a manager tomorrow!” financed through the Human Resources Development Operational Program and carried out at the Bucharest University of Economic Studies. In this project, students benefited from complex psycho-pedagogy orientation and counseling services as well as from internships offered by potential employers. This paper provides a threefold view of the outcomes of this extensive study with respect to the impact that these services had on the students involved: from the point of view of the students, the employers, and those that coordinated the students’ activity at the level of the university. The study provides tangible data on the employability of the students involved in the case study, the relation between the specialized training received and its correlation with the labor market, the major factors contributing to the efficient entry into the labor market of graduates. 

No: 116
Title:  Creating Mosaics: How Professional Identities Can Emerge From Fragmented Careers
Pages 946-953
Author(s): Silvia Zanazzi*
Open Access

Full Text 116
In Italy today, as in most European countries, young college graduates start their careers facing very fragmented professional paths, often characterised by short contracts and many transitions. In the current socio-economic situation, where career transitions have replaced job security and individuals struggle to search for meaning and purpose in a ‘puzzle’ made of multiple work and life experiences, social institutions no longer provide the norms with which people used to answer the questions of ‘How shall I live?’ and ‘How should I design my life to achieve my aspirations?’ (Savickas, 2015). Today individuals are bound to answer these questions by building their own life and career projects, trying to give a sense of purpose to the many choices that compose a career. This process can generate anxiety and a sense of uncertainty. It demands that workers learn how to adapt to fluid societies and flexible organizations without losing the ‘thread’ that connects many episodes into their unique career story. How can a counselor effectively support young graduates to navigate our ‘liquid modernity’ (Bauman, 2000) and fluid job market, guiding him/her towards educative experiences and continuous learning? This paper comments data collected during career counseling meetings with Italian university students and graduates in the first half of 2016 and describes the approach adopted by counselors to help them build a professional identity from many and different work experiences, as if they were the tiles of a mosaic. 

No: 117
Title:  Using Moocs As A Way To Enhance Learning
Pages 954-961
Author(s): Sorina Chircu*
Open Access

Full Text 117
Although they appeared not long ago, MOOC type courses have soared remarkably, judging by their huge number of users. Today there are several MOOC Providers, a few of them working with well-known universities while others work with companies practicing in that field of specialty. The first part of the present paper presents in a descriptive way two of the top MOOC providers, answering the following questions: Who is learning? What is being learnt? Why is it being learnt? How is it learnt? When does the learning take place? The second part of the paper contains a research based on 230 students from the second year of study from the Politehnica University of Bucharest, which aims to emphasize the way in which two MOOC providers assure a consistent learning among students. We want to see to what extent the quality of the learning content of the two online learning platforms influences the course completion rate among investigated students. We are using as research method the social document analysis and the survey based research. The results obtained from data processing indicating the fact that the quality of the learning content influences to a moderate degree the completion rate, most often other contextual and personal factors of users being known to intervene. 

No: 118
Title:  The Formative Value Of Literary Texts To Students With Mental Disabilities
Pages 962-970
Author(s): Margareta Cîrligeanu*
Open Access

Full Text 118
The formation of mental disabilities students' communication competence by means of literary texts constitutes an important stage in the becoming of human being as receptor of literary works and phenomena. The development of student's aesthetic and moral attitude towards classes of Romanian language and literature in general, and especially towards the literary work requires the selection of different technologies and didactic activities. The main directions that are discussed in the research from communication domain, especially of texts formation/interpretation at students with mental disabilities, are targeting the formation of communicative behaviour through various strategies of educational interaction. This situation generates the research problem that consists in analysing the communication competence at students with mental disabilities by means of literary text more exactly in determining the level of vocabulary development and enrichment, their training into free discussions, but also their written and oral expression during the Romanian language and literature classes. Among the main objectives of the research, we enumerate: the determination of initial level of students’ preparation as starting point for psycho-pedagogical organisation of the experiment; the utilisation of specific didactic strategy in order to form the communication competence by means of literary text at students with mental disabilities; elaboration of curricular demarche of formation of communication competence by means of literary text at students with mental disabilities. 

No: 119
Title:  The Fulldome Documentary Film In The Contemporary Media And Education Context
Pages 971-977
Author(s): Remus Petre Cirstea*
Open Access

Full Text 119
The Contemporary educational context cannot be defined and understood without to explain what is new media and, in this regard, Lev Manovich, first of all, list the categories of products and media often discussed and related to this topic in the popular press: ' Internet web sites, virtual worlds (interactive 3D environments, computer-generated), virtual reality (VR and Virtual Immersive Environments: IVE), multimedia, computer games , computer, video, digital cinema, digital interfaces and human-computer'. Visually, we communicate already in a language that only a century ago one can dream of: the language of the fulldome documentary film. Moreover, photograms seems no longer to be the molecule of the Visual communication, but just an extension, according to the benevolent aesthetics, grace to the new vectors of communication in the immersive fulldome world (capturing attention, volume projection, defining ocultation of a visual aspect, channeling the emotions and even the impression of ' live ' participation ' in real time ' up to ' how the movie ends’ feeling). The Fulldome film is often used as a way to open educational and entertainment institutions in the digital world and to the real world is a recurring topic of discussion about updated information in museums and visitors experiences with the cultural media. After the Web 2.0 and social media boom, by overwhelming access to digital information via portable devices, it appears that 

No: 120
Title:  Methodological Issues Concerning the Use of Smart Board within the Biology Lessons
Pages 978-985
Author(s): Gabriela-Paula Petruţa*
Open Access

Full Text 120
Within the biology lessons, knowing the secrets of nature by the secondary school and high school students can be realized through direct observation of processes and phenomena in the laboratory or in the natural environment near the school, and with the aid of computer. Interactive presentation of new knowledge by means of an educational software can also be achieved if the interactive electronic board (also called “intelligent/smart board”) is used. The paper will present how to use some 3D models andvideos existing on the Platform mozaWeb within the biology lessons. It also proposes the mode of performing a didactic activity within some biology lessons in the secondary school school. Thus, at the6th grade will be exemplified how to usevideos, when applying heuristic conversation and learning through discovery, within some lessons regarding various bird species. At the 7th grade will be exemplified how to use the 3D models at different moments of lessons on the skeletal system and respiratory system, by applying various methods such as observation, heuristic conversation, demonstration, problem solving, etc. 

No: 121
Title:  Metaphors in Foreign Language Teaching: English and Romanian Business Metaphors
Pages 986-991
Author(s): Giacomo Ferrari, & Liana Boca*
Open Access

Full Text 121
The use of metaphors, far from being a literary decoration of a text, is instead a part of our everyday language. This feature has been pointed out and extensively studied by Lakoff and Johnson (1980), who stressed the cognitive nature of this linguistic device. Thus, learning a foreign language implies to learn not simply grammatical facts, sophisticated as they can be, or idioms, but also the metaphors such language uses or, more appropriately, the conceptual system of metaphors employed by the speakers. Using a metaphor in a cognitive view means to express a concept, belonging into a structured system, in terms of another concept also structured in another system. Despite many conceptual metaphors are grounded into universal domains of knowledge and universal correspondences, their use may differ from culture to culture and, therefore, from language to language, making the learning of a foreign language more difficult, especially in certain domains. In order to facilitate the task of the students it is useful to prepare repositories of metaphoric expressions in different languages and establish correspondences between them. This paper will present the project UvaBuMet, carried out at the University “1 Decembrie 1918” in Alba Iulia, which aims at the building of two corpora of business language both English and Romanian in which metaphors are highlighted by annotation. These will be immediately ready to carry comparison, but also to derive an ontology of business metaphors that allows cross-cultural comparison in the light of the categories proposed by Hofstede (1997). 

No: 122
Title:  The Role of ICT in Education – Romanian Experience
Pages 992-999
Author(s): Maria Goga*, & Ana – Maria Grigoraș
Open Access

Full Text 122
The rapid evolution of ICT in recent years has an important impact on the whole society, and also on the education system. The current article aims to look to the current state of integration of ICT in the school education in Romania in order to determine its role in educational activities. The research was conducted on a sample of 538 people (school principals, teachers and students) selected from four schools in Ilfov county, Romania, two urban and two rural. The methods and data collection tools were: survey-based questionnaire, interview and analysis of documents. The results of this research provides insights into the opinions of teachers and students regarding the use of new technologies in education, the extent to which the new technologies are used in the education process, the training of teachers and students in the use of multimedia, the modalities of integration of new technologies in teaching, the degree to which teachers and students use online sources of information and educational software. The conclusion is that although the use of new technologies in teaching is beneficial for both students and teachers there is no relation between 1) the level of how much IT equipment exists in schools (in Romania this level varies significantly between schools) associated with the level of the training of teachers in informatics (not every school in Romania has well trained teachers) and 2) the willingness of students to use new technologies in their learning activity. 

No: 123
Title:  Educational Use of Games: A Mobile Serious Game For History Education
Pages 1000-1007
Author(s): Gamze Inan Kaya*, & Evren Şar İşbilen
Open Access

Full Text 123
Digital media devices and use of Internet have become indispensible parts of our daily lives. We are getting more dependent to use of these technologies and new cohorts are born into digital world. Turkey is populated 79 million, and according to the January 2016 report of “We Are Social Research Institute”, 71 Million mobile phones are in active use. The 56% of mobile phones are smart phones and the average duration spent on Internet via smart phones is 2 hours and 35 minutes. In the literature, negative effects of digital media and Internet use on children such as cyber-bullying and addiction were frequently reported. However, it is not reasonable or possible to raise our youngsters in isolated environments. In Turkey, it was reported that 48.5 % of children under age of 10 use Internet for searching educational materials, playing games and chatting. So it is obvious that, in general adults and in special the educators should focus on adaptive uses of digital media in daily lives of children. In the current study, based on the analysis of Internet and digital media use of children specifically in Turkey, a model mobile game on history education was introduced. Educational implications on use of this history-themed serious game were discussed. 

No: 124
Title:  Project Management Information System Based on Web Technologies
Pages 1008-1015
Author(s): Adrian Lupaşc*
Open Access

Full Text 124
Information systems are considered essential for project managers, being of great support to planning, organizing, controlling, reporting and taking decisions. The purpose of this paper is to describe the positive effect of using web technologies on the development of project management software tools and the impact of this software on individual and organizational levels. Therefore, a project management information system based on a client-server architecture is implemented and described. The system uses Java Web Technologies, as servlets and JSP, on the server part and JavaScript scripting language to provide enhanced user interface and dynamic web pages on the client part. This project management information system is meant to provide managers with the decision-making support needed in planning, organizing, and controlling projects. Advantages obtained from project management information systems use are not limited to individual performance but also include project performance. These systems have direct impact on project success, as they contribute to improving budget control and meeting project deadlines as well as fulfilling technical specifications. 

No: 125
Title:  Games As Student Groundwork For Business Management Training
Pages 1016-1024
Author(s): Ionel-Bujorel Păvăloiu*
Open Access

Full Text 125
Digital games are employed with excellent results in teaching because they use to create strong connections between the student and the subject to be learned. On the side of the learner they benefit from interactivity, challenge, immersion and fair assessment of the results, while on the studied subject side they offer repeatability of the notions, fast adaptation to the domain changing, compliance with the student profile and risk free simulations for notions that require experimentation. The paper shows the importance of serious games in education with accent on the business area. It is presented a case study regarding the use in the academic curricula of the IBM INNOV8 serious games, developed by IBM as part of their Academic Initiative program. The study reports the results of master students playing the game and their opinion about its usefulness as training for business activities. There is investigated the perceived connection of the simulations to business process management aspects like process discovery and process modelling, problem recognition, problem solving, iterative process improvement, analytic and strategic thinking, decision making, real-time business management, proactive thinking, defining goals, team work and time management. The paper investigates the possible ties between the business process management encountered in games, the academic background of the students, as well as the profession and position in the company for the employed ones. 

No: 126
Title:  Leap Motion Technology In Learning
Pages 1025-1031
Author(s): Ionel-Bujorel Păvăloiu*
Open Access

Full Text 126
The paper presents the Leap Motion Technology, the dedicated software development environments, as well as some results in using it for learning and training. The Leap Motion Controller is a Human Interface Device (HID) that is connected to a computer and enables the user to interact with the digital system using hand movements, allowing the interaction by simply making gestures above the device, without physical contact with the digital system. The captured information is sent to the software on the host computer and 3D information is reconstructed with sub-millimeter precision from the 2D images sent by the cameras. The development of dedicated applications benefits from APIs for JavaScript, Unity, C#, C++, Java, Python, Objective-C and Unreal engine. The Leap Motion can be thus easily used in Virtual Reality applications, in games or just as a touch-less interface for various software products, adding a new way to interact with the digital environment. The designed applications use the gestures to play games, create art, practice exercises and learn using the ‘hands on’ experience. The device is a great tool for experimentation and learning, allowing the students to have natural 3D interactions in domains like sculpture, painting, design, music, medicine, natural sciences, engineering, etc… With Leap Motion, students can have immersive experiences in Virtual Reality environments or control intuitively digital devices in the real world using a simple and affordable interface. 

No: 127
Title:  Ontology Learning Applied In Education: A Case Of The New Testament
Pages 1032-1039
Author(s): Ramona Popa, Andrei Vasilateanu, Maria Goga*
Open Access

Full Text 127
The objective of this work is to show how ontology learning can be applied for the semantic analysis of text, in order to extract concepts, relations, which can be further used for automated summaries or critical comparison. Such activities are very important in education as they can allow dynamic creation of content or analyses that can be further used in the educational process. Since ontology-learning methods require large corpus of unstructured data, we have chosen the Bible as source for the text. Another reason for the choice was that the Bible is one of the most studied texts by scholars and we can test our conclusions, such as importance of some terms, with existing knowledge. In this way, the new developed methods are validated and they can be used successfully in other educational domains. The Bible is the religious text of Christians and Jews. The Bible contains a collection of scriptures that was written by many authors, at different time and locations. Computationally, the Bible contains semi-structured information due to its organized structure of scriptures and numbered chapters. We have used Text2nto as the main tool in order to obtain the most relevant concepts from the New Testament.  After that we analyze extracting the most relevant concepts and the range of similarity for each domain identified in the New Testament. Those methods can be employed for automatic generation of content that can be further used in the educational process. 

No: 128
Title:  Culture-Bound Metaphors. A Corpus-Based Comparative Approach To English And Romanian Journalese
Pages 1040-1050
Author(s): Teodora Popescu*
Open Access

Full Text 128
The aim of this paper is to get an overview of the metaphorical language used in both Romanian and British business press, in order to identify similarities and differences in the way in which work is conceptualized in the two cultures. The research was carried out on two self-made corpora, of approximately 500,000 words each. A first step was an analysis of work related proverbs, especially found in English and Romanian, in order to establish some proto-categories of cognitive metaphors. The instruments used were the automatic concordancing software ConcApp, various dictionaries and lexical datasets available online. I also resorted to manual identification of metaphors, which were analysed and compared against the anthropological framework of cultural categories, as defined by G. Hofstede and T.S. Hall. The results obtained revealed certain differences between Romanian and British cultures, in particular in relation to attitudes towards work, and especially towards laziness, which is especially sanctioned in the Romanian corpus. 

No: 129
Title:  Improve Your Oral Communication Skills In English by Using Informal Synchronous Chat
Pages 1051-1058
Author(s): Doina Popescu*, & Mustafa Kurt
Open Access

Full Text 129
This study was conducted to find out how effective implementing a Skype Informal Synchronous Chat (ISC)  outside the classroom component into the learning process of an English as a foreign language (EFL) oral communication skills (OCS) course at Near East University (NEU) was to improve the oral skills, natural fluency and confidence of participants. A quasi-experimental study was carried out. The participants were 24 students from NEU taking the OCS course, divided into an experimental and a control group. Data was collected from a pre- and post-speaking test and from semi-structured interviews, analysed, and the findings discussed. The results of the study show that after the intervention, the experimental group improved their speaking skills more than the control group. According to the research participants the practice of ISC was very effective, useful, and enjoyable and reduced their speaking anxiety. It is therefore recommended that the ISC be integrated into theEnglish oral communication syllabi. 

No: 130
Title:  Avoidance of Ambiguity in the Process of Discourse Creation
Pages 1059-1066
Author(s): Lesia Soldatova*
Open Access

Full Text 130
The research paper is motivated by necessity to avoid misunderstandings and necessity to create a technology that could prevent ambiguityin the process of discourse creation in “Language of primary socialization”and “Language of secondary socialization”. The process of communication is bilateral. Each language has its own language means of the same information expression.The ability to recognize, understand and convey the information too close to the original and the ability to properly usage of idioms are very important. One of the main requirements for successful interlanguage transformations is knowledge of “the shared code”. The problem of lexical words combinatory is one of the most difficult. Idioms in different languages look deceptively equivalent. The important task of the modern foreign languages learning and teaching is a description of the technology of removing the ambiguity of idioms and the idiom competence formation. The technology is based on the creation of the explanatory formula idiom’s meaning  and finding informational arrays. It could be useful in the theory and practice of translation, teaching, learning and increasing the effectiveness of communication.

No: 131
Title:  The Identification Of The Needs Of Teachers` Training For ICT
Pages 1067-1074
Author(s): Aida Cornelia Stoian*
Open Access

Full Text 131
It requires major changes in the processes of learning and assessment of pupils’ achievements in order to meet the requirements of contemporary society. In this research study we presented the current approaches of the learning and evaluative issue in its transition from the face-to-face organizing to the utilization of the informatics technology in blended learning activities. We also have in mind: the identification of the teachers’ training needs in secondary education in order to develop their skills to use digital materials, promoting the mobile learning, as well as the individualization of the forming sources, beneficial to the development of the teachers’ skills related to the length of activity. The research was applied to a sample of teachers in urban and rural teaching areas. They answered to the applied questionnaire items in order to study the relationship between variables. The research results have shown teachers’ adherence to participate to various activities of training in order to develop the skills to use the information technology in teaching activities, as well as the identifying of training sources beneficial to the development of these skills. 

No: 132
Title:  Students’ Curricular Preferences for Computer-Based Instruction and Evaluation
Pages 1075-1082
Author(s): Alexandru-Constantin Strungă*, & Aida Cornelia Stoian
Open Access

Full Text 132
This case-study highlights the results of an empirical research, whose purpose was to identify and analyze the curricular preferences towards computer-based instruction and evaluation of students studying in the field of Primary and Preschool Pedagogy specialization, from the University of Craiova, Faculty of Letters, Department of Communication, Journalism and Education Sciences. We elaborated a questionnaire in order to identify the curricular preferences of the above mentioned students (n=92), aiming in the same time to analyze the relationship between two major variables: students’ interest regarding the attractiveness of disciplines as part of the educational curriculum and students’ perceptions concerning academic subjects’ utility with regard to the professional training curriculum. The results have confirmed the conclusions of several previous surveys regarding the curricular preferences and have opened, in the same time, new perspectives, for further research and development in the field of professional training curriculum, from the perspective of the new information and communication technologies. 

No: 133
Title:  Secondary Education Teachers’ Approach to Evaluation. Case Study
Pages 1083-1089
Author(s): Gabriel Albu*
Open Access

Full Text 133
Lately, evaluation gets an increasingly important place in teaching. In such a context, it becomes ever more necessary to deal as carefully as possible with this field of education sciences. In this study we considered evaluation as an intrinsic component of the teacher-student relationship. The quality of evaluation influences to a great extent the very performance of the student and the confidence one’s own skills. In this research we sought to reveal some aspects regarding the approach of evaluated students by a group of high school teachers (Prahova County, Romania), revealing the attitude of those who, for some time, were in the evaluator’s position. This approach of evaluation is the more relevant since we are dealing with teenage students, who are in a sensitive period of their lives, have yet unclarified and unconsolidated values, with explorations of character, with moments of confusion, self doubt, risky eccentricities, with a strong desire to clarify one’s own potential and to be reassured that he/she is not alone. 

No: 134
Title:  Predictors of Students’ Academic Success
Pages 1090-1095
Author(s): Valerica Anghelache*
Open Access

Full Text 134
If one regards school learning as a dynamic, continually evolving process, one should further understand that the success of this process is not exclusively conditioned by cognitive and motivational factors. Certain socio-cultural variables, the quality of the educational environment and that of the informational resources, the learning type or emotional intelligence also have significant influence. Moreover, the research conducted in this field underline the explicit connection between academic performance and the external factors of learning. The literature, our own investigations, and also practical experience make up a reference point in emphasising the correlation between academic performance and non-cognitive, external factors. Taking this correlation as a starting point, the aim of this paper is that of underlining the factors that may determine academic performance. Oftentimes, the non-cognitive factors may trigger differences between actual academic performance and the students’ cognitive resources. It is important that teachers and decision-makers become aware of the importance of these factors, as it further requires a coherent and objective analysis of the educational politics and practices, emphasis being laid on the quality of the learning experiences provided. The external determiners of learning indicate the fact that the learning process is influenced by variables which we sometimes tend to disregard. As a matter of fact, not only do these factors manifest contextually, but they also affect the students’ outcomes. 

No: 135
Title:  Some Guiding Marks for Undertaking Constructivist Learning At Preschool Age
Pages 1096-1103
Author(s): Valerica Anghelache*
Open Access

Full Text 135
It is already known that the matter of learning has been analysed according to various theoretical models of reference for the field of psychology: behaviourism, cognitivism, humanism and constructivism. These interpretational models have highlighted the state of theoretical and practical research at a given moment, focusing on various principles regarding the processuality of human learning, as well as on other aspects of learning. Unavoidably, this drew both adepts and criticism. With the passing of time, these theoretical trends have had the effect of emphasising certain rules in the comprehension of the learning process, of the didactic strategies which allowed varied references to the child’s potential. Starting from the research carried out by Piaget, Vygotsky or Bruner, the Constructivist paradigm approaches the learning process in terms of an action of building knowledge for the child. Along these lines, our paper aims at highlighting the importance of promoting the Constructivist principles at preschool age. Focus is laid on the possibility of activating learning through children’s experience, through their motivation for discovering knowledge. The results of the present investigation reveal that promoting teaching strategies based on learning through discovery and problem-solving prompt children to rearrange and restructure information by capitalizing on previous acquisitions. This aspect becomes reality as soon as the child starts going to kindergarten. 

No: 136
Title:  Projective Methods in Assesing Family-School Relationship and Children Adapting Abilities
Pages 1104-1111
Author(s): Andreea Laura Bădulescu*
Open Access

Full Text 136
In Romania, the psychology domain has gained lots of interest over the years, therefore education can’t be well understood or effectively applied without involving at least the fundamental psychological principles. Education attires the attention versus the concept of „parenting” (the parent’s role in forming a child’s behavior) but also towards school education (the school’s role in developing various learning abilities, at a child). Between family and school there must be a positive, solid, relationship, for assuring the psychological balance of a child. When, for various reasons the link between these two fundamental social contexts, the family and the school, is broken, the negative outcomes will be seen at the child level, by non-specific, dysfunctional, maladaptive behaviors. The objectives of this study were to assess the role of projective psychological methods when dealing with a child’s dysfunctional behavior at school. Qualitative research was based on a 9-year-old boy experience of psychotherapy, having real difficulties adapting to school’s specific educational patterns, also having poor relations with his family members. For working with the subject’s emotional issues, specific psychological projective methods have been used. The results of the psychological work process showed that projective techniques are a valuable resource when dealing with one’s internal world, especially when their communication skills are low (attributable to lower age) or when the person’s emotional blockages are so deep that he itself has difficulties observing or verbalize them. 

No: 137
Title:  The Management Of Learning Difficulties In Classroom
Pages 1112-1118
Author(s): Karla Barth*, Cristina Florescu
Open Access

Full Text 137
The problem of learning difficulties is new and old in the same time. It is a fact that in classrooms there are more and more pupils experiencing this problem. In the same time, the teachers have a problem to adapt the curricula for this type of children, to make the class accept them, and the parents of the other pupils be partners in their education. Every year, in every classroom are a lot of problems because of children with learning disabilities, or because they are not accepted by the others. In the same time we think that a lot of teachers are not prepared for managing the classes where these children are included. The purpose of this paper is to find solutions for the management of the classroom where there are children with learning difficulties. For that we used a questionnaire that was applied to 120 primary teachers in Oradea and Bihor county. The results show that the teacher has a big role in the successful integration of children with learning difficulties. 

No: 138
Title:  Motivations Of Training For Teaching Career
Pages 1119-1127
Author(s): Cristina - Corina Bentea*
Open Access

Full Text 138
The purpose of the present paper was to examine the types of motivations which underlie the training for the teaching career in Romanian graduates. The sample consisted of 103 participants, 81 females and 22 males, with ages between 22 and 50 years, who have enrolled in a postuniversity teacher training program. Were applied two self-reported instruments. Results have shown that correlations among the forms of motivation sustain the presence of the self-determination continuum model (Deci & Ryan, 1985). The hierarchy of motives indicated that extrinsic motivation through identified regula­tion, intrinsic motivation to know and extrinsic motivation through external regulation were the primary orientations which determine participants to engage in the teacher training program while amotivation orientation was the least. No significant differences in all types of motivation depending on gender and environment, but significant differences depending on years of teaching experience were found. Also, differences in the levels of both intrinsic motivation to know and to experience stimulation depending on their self-regulation ability. The limitations of the study and the findings were discussed taking into consideration possible directions for the future research. 

No: 139
Title:  Teacher Self-Efficacy, Teacher Burnout And Psychological Well-Being
Pages 1128-1135
Author(s): Cristina - Corina Bentea*
Open Access

Full Text 139
The aim of the present paper was to examine the relationship between self-efficacy, burnout, and psychological well-being dimensions in a sample of Romanian teachers. The sample consisted of 217 school teachers, 197 females and 20 males, with ages ranged from 22 to 58. Results revealed positive lower correlations between teacher self-efficacy and the six psychological well-being dimensions. Teacher self-efficacy was significant and negatively correlated with exhaustion and depersonalization and positively correlated with personal achievement. Teachers with low and high level of psychological well-being dimensions significantly differ in their perceived self-efficacy and burnout components. Those who scored lower on autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life, and self-acceptance reported lower levels of perceived self-efficacy within the teaching profession. Also, teachers with lower scores of all psychological well-being dimensions reported higher level of exhaustion and depersonalization and had higher tendency of reduction their personal achievement and to demotivate facing to difficulties. The effect sizes were high. The findings and the limitations of the study were discussed. 

No: 140
Title:  School Motivation, Cognitive Strategies And Test Anxiety In The School Performance
Pages 1136-1145
Author(s): Elena Bujorean*
Open Access

Full Text 140
The multidimensional nature of academic learning has determined the research regarding the role of non-cognitive factors in academic performance. The examination of the relationship between motivation, the correct use of learning strategies, personality traits (anxiety, self-efficacy, self-confidence) and academic achievement has focused less on secondary school students. The present study intends to establish the nature of the connection between academic motivation, study strategies and those utilized during school examinations, as well as between test anxiety and academic performance. The research methodology entails the application of a questionnaire regarding the evaluation of study motivation and of learning strategies to a number of 220 8th grade students from Suceava county. The students’ academic success was represented by the grades obtained at the national evaluation and the V-VIII grade point average. Discovering the students’ weak points and providing counseling on learning and emotions management must therefore become a vital part of educational programs in schools. 

No: 141
Title:  A Lithuanian Case of Fostering Creativity within Academia: Students’ Perceptions
Pages 1146-1154
Author(s): Nijolė Burkšaitienė*
Open Access

Full Text 141
Creativity has been increasingly researched in higher education. Until recently, however, empirical studies exploring creativity and creative writing simultaneously conducted from the students’ perspective are rare. The present study aims to analyse undergraduate students’ perceptions of the course of Modern English and Creative Writing and its impact on their creativity. The data were collected through feedback questionnaires and analysed using both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The general conclusion of this study is that the course encouraged most students’ creativity and fostered their creative writing skills. Prominent among the findings was the perception that creative writing practice was the most valuable component of the course, followed by new knowledge gained during the course and an increased awareness of others and self. It was also established that the course changed some students’ general understanding of creativity and raised their awareness of creative writing. On the other hand, the results also imply that to some students the course was a challenge. 

No: 142
Title:  Perceived Parenting Styles and Identity Development in Preadolescence
Pages 1155-1163
Author(s): Simona Butnaru*
Open Access

Full Text 142
The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between preadolescents’ perception of parenting styles and identity development in a Romanian preadolescent sample. Perceived authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting styles (Baumrind, 1991; Maccoby, & Martin, 1983) were correlated with informative, normative and diffuse identity styles (Berzonsky, 1992). 213 secondary school students participated in this study. Participants were between 11 and 15 year-old (M=13.25, SD=.88), 53.5% were boys, and 77.9% were residents in urban area. Most of them reported authoritative parenting styles and higher scores in normative identity. Significant gender differences were found in diffuse identity style, boys reporting significantly higher scores than girls. Perceived mother control was lower in older students and the decrease of maternal control was found only in boys’ sample, not in girls. Correlations indicated significant positive associations between informative and normative identity styles and perceived mother control, father and parental control and responsiveness. The most powerful correlations were found between the informative style and father responsiveness, father control and parental control. Older students and students with authoritative mothers and fathers had higher scores in informative style than younger students and those with neglectful mothers and fathers. In general sample, participants with authoritative and permissive parents had higher scores in normative style than participants with neglectful parents. Students from rural area with authoritarian and with permissive mothers obtained higher score in normative identity than their counterparts from urban areas. Pedagogical implications of the results are discussed. 

No: 143
Title:  Mental Preparation For Competition In Heptathlon
Pages 1164-1169
Author(s): Ionela Alina Cucui*
Open Access

Full Text 143
The concept of mental training gained special importance in recent decades, are being recognized and accepted outstanding merits in achieving superior sporting performance. This concept (which join the other factors of sports training), has a complex meaning, designating the whole range of factors which determine performance, ie both moral and volitional factors and the intellectuals, motivational and attitudinal, "which undoubtedly requires the use of systemic approach methodological advantage. The systemic approach favors highlight the dynamics activity "(Cucui, 2015, p. 326). The results recorded in world athletics have taken a special scale and once they began to speak increasingly of importance of the psychological factor in preparing athletes for training and competitions involving specific psychological them. The purpose of mental preparation for competition in sports training consists of a system of attitudes and conduct operational and regulatory nature whereby they adapt to situations flexible and creative contest and action opponents. Psychological preparation for competition is a component of training in addition to their physical, technical, tactical, biological that are geared towards ensuring effective performance of the competition. From this perspective one can speak of mental preparation for competition and general mental preparation for a particular contest. 

No: 144
Title:  Perfectionism in High School Students, Academic Emotions, Real and Perceived Academic Achievement
Pages 1170-1178
Author(s): Versavia Curelaru*, Georgeta Diac, Daniela Muntele Hendreș
Open Access

Full Text 144
Being studied initially in the field of psychopathology, the perfectionism was considered as a personality style characterized by negative aspects like striving to be perfect, self-criticism and also low self-esteem and depression. But the last decade’s research drew up perfectionism as a multidimensional construct which imply personal and social elements, with both positive and negative effects onto performance and development. So, the multidimensional model belonging to Hewitt and Flett (1991) distinguish between self-oriented perfectionism; other-oriented perfectionism, and socially prescribed perfectionism. In the educational field, the perfectionism was studied in relation to academic performance and motivation, to achievement goals and to some negative emotions like anxiety, shame, and guilt. But there are just a small number of studies that analyzed the perfectionism in relation to positive emotions in educational settings. Pekrun, Goetz, Titz, and Perry (2002) indicated that students are experiencing a rich diversity of emotions in different academic contexts. In this study, we explored the self-oriented and the socially-prescribed perfectionism, in relation to positive and negative test-related emotions, within a group of 187 high school students. Results indicated that, when controlling for academic achievement, hope and pride, but also anxiety, anger and guilt are significantly associated with self-oriented perfectionism and uncorrelated with socially-prescribed perfectionism. Instead, the socially-prescribed perfectionism was correlated but the self-oriented perfectionism was not correlated with hopelessness. 

No: 145
Title:  Child Abuse And Neglect In The Family
Pages 1179-1187
Author(s): Nadina Darie*
Open Access

Full Text 145
In this paper, I wanted to do an analysis of the phenomenon of child abuse and neglect in the family, focusing on the form of physical abuse. I highlighted the effects, impact and negative consequences it has on the physical and mental abuse of the child. I presented the process and the factors conditioning the child's development, emphasising the importance and role of the family in the primary socialization and social integration of the child. I also highlighted the effects of family failure and how this influences the behaviours of parents and disorganization default backup. The practical part includes five case studies conducted at the Centre for advise for abused, neglected and trafficked, organized by Save the Children Foundation Centre in Arges County. The studies we conducted by analysing social documents and through a semi - structured interview with the director of the centre. Follow conclusions on research conducted, personal considerations related to the occurrence of appropriate abuse prevention and treatment. The work was intended to be a presentation of the fundamental aspects that influence child development and how to prevent abuse and stop this development. I focused on the negative consequences of physical abuse that the child supports within the family, serious parties. I wanted to highlight fundamental aspects of abuse: definition and forms of abuse, theories that underlie child abuse in the family, the impact, and the negative effects of the intervention in such cases. 

No: 146
Title:  Psychological Particularities of Children at School Entry. Case Study in Romanian Schools
Pages 1188-1196
Author(s): Georgeta Diac, Versavia Curelaru, Daniela Muntele Hendreș*
Open Access

Full Text 146
Preparing children for school (“school readiness”) implies an appropriate level of training, stage of development, and amount of physical, social, emotional and cognitive capabilities (Blair, 2002, Lemelin & Boivin, 2007, Booth, 2008). This state is determined by the interdependence between internal and external factors, in the socio-familial and educational-institutional environment. The research aims to capture the perceptions of 84 pre-school teachers on the children’s abilities to meet the required activities. The analysis undertaken offers a profile of the children characteristics as perceived by teachers and suggestions for adapting the curricular offer to the individual features and age of children, in order to ensure a harmonious cognitive, psychomotor and socio-emotional development. The main results show that: • Only 10% of teachers believe that all the children were prepared, at the beginning of the preparatory grade, to face the challenges of the school curriculum, while 50% of teachers believed that not all but most of the children were prepared in this respect. • Teachers appreciated that most of the children have a good level of cognitive and affective – motivational skills but are not able yet to comply with the discipline rules (Sign Test < 0.05); • Overall, teachers appreciate that most children are not prepared in terms of compliance with the classroom rules. Teachers have proposed several solutions: focusing the activity on the socio-emotional development of children, renewing the curriculum by reducing the number of hours and simplifying the content, allocating additional human resources (psycho-pedagogue, doctor). 

No: 147
Title:  Successful School Child In A Form Of Special Protection
Pages 1197-1204
Author(s): Ana-Maria Dumitrescu*
Open Access

Full Text 147
A special category that requires special attention and has become a pressing issue in psychopedagogy is that of children under a form of social protection. The present study, conducted in orphanages in the Arges County, tries to analyze the school success/failure of these children/young people and at the same time to identify the cultural, family and educational barriers that lead to issues related to integration, socialization and even finding a job. The analysis of the theme was based on issues of qualitative research, the research methods being document analysis and the interview. The results of this study demonstrate that solving the problems in question requires individualized treatment, non-formal education, vocational counseling and even therapies. The risk of failure of the child is not limited to academic failure. Therefore a sustained effort of both the General Directorate of Social Assistance and Child Protection, the school and the community is needed to increase the school performance of institutionalized children and at the same time to achieve adequate social integration. 

No: 148
Title:  Relations Between Goal Orientations, Academic And Teacher Self Efficacy In Predicting Achievement
Pages 1205-1214
Author(s): Gamze Inan Kaya*
Open Access

Full Text 148
The fundamental aims of education are learning and achievement. In education, students are expected to learn the academic content and demonstrate an acceptable level of performance. In this respect, motivation is a crucial factor on academic performance and learning of students. Recent theories on academic motivation are based on cognitive aspects compared to drive or reinforcement based earlier explanations. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between goal orientations, academic self-efficacy, and teacher sense of efficacy and the predictive roles of these variables on pre-service teachers’ academic achievement. The participants of the study were 636 pre-service teachers from the Elementary Mathematics Education, Social Science Education, Primary Education and Foreign Language Education Departments at Istanbul University. The sample was composed of 352 males and 275 females. Eleven participants provided no gender information. In the data collection phase, 2X2 Goal Orientations Scale (Akın, 2006), Academic Self-efficacy Scale (Owen & Froman, 1988) and Teacher Self-efficacy Scale (Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk-Hoy, 2001) were used. In the quantitative analysis, significant relations were identified between the goal orientations, academic self-efficacy and teacher self-efficacy of pre-service teachers. The regression analysis demonstrated that pre-service teachers goal orientations, academic self-efficacy and teacher sense of efficacy had predictive roles on their academic achievement. 

No: 149
Title:  The Amelioration Of Socialization Through Communication, For Children In Family Homes
Pages 1215-1222
Author(s): Mihaela Gavrilă-Ardelean, & Liviu Gavrilă-Ardelean*
Open Access

Full Text 149
The human is, by nature, a communicational being, and communication is the essential process by which each person becomes what it is and comes into relationship with others. The methods used in the study of communication shows us that this is one of the constituents of social life; it is necessarily present in the group. Communication occurs almost simultaneously with the emergence of information exchange. The degree of the fulfilment of needs in childhood, puberty and adolescence is a clear indicator of the possibilities of further integration in the social life of future adults. The problem of children in orphanages is one of great interest. That's because we must respect each person's individual needs, and the children from orphanages are hard to accept because of the existing prejudices in society about them. The aims of the research are:
-        Identifying the initial degree of socialization of children in institutions;
-        The establishment of an intervention program in the socialization of children, along with the psychologist, the social worker, the social pedagogue and the parents;
-        Identifying the further degree of sociability of the institutionalized children. 

No: 150
Title:  School, Family and Adaptation Difficulties
Pages 1223-1230
Author(s): Popa Daniela*
Open Access

Full Text 150
This study sought to investigate the parents’ experience of taking part in a system that rather rejects than helping them. A second aim was to compare the teachers and parents’ perceptions toward inclusion. There were investigated 30 parents and caregivers, 10 special education teachers, 10 primary and middle-school teachers and 10 school counselors. In this qualitative study, data were collected via interviews and observer field notes. It was conducted a content analysis to extract similar themes from the different data sources. This initiative received a generally positive response from all groups of participants. The results show a high level of benevolence but no clear and specific steps in accountability. Perceived barriers included the lack of educational practice for inclusive education, the lack of managerial and teaching skills, lack of accountability and poor communication. The parents of these children tend to communicate poorly with teachers. Repeated rejections from the school determine parents' ostentatious behavior. Both groups of parents and teachers experience a high level of stress. Suggestions for improvement included acquisition by teachers of specific skills to cope with such challenges, specific supplementary learning materials and the introduction of peer teaching. Parents’ experiences represent valuable proves which can be utilized in education to develop the necessary teaching skills and prepare teachers for real-educational context. Further research needs to investigate how to enhance the parents’ willingness to collaborate with school and to fully exploit the potential that the relationship between school and family has it over the children’s future. 

No: 151
Title:  Assessment And Stress in Students Majoring in Agriculture-Related Fields
Pages 1231-1239
Author(s): Elena-Mirela Samfira*, Hasan Arslan
Open Access

Full Text 151
This paper is based on the responses from the undergraduate students at Faculty of Agriculture (Banat University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Romania). This research investigated the level of stress associated with assessment during winter examination session. Relationships between I-E Locus of Control and level of stress, were explored. Four demographic variable were used Age, Environment, Gender, Year of Study. A total of 83 students participated voluntary in this research, asking them to accept to be part of an interventional program ”Stress Management”, if the level of stress is high. Database were obtained through two questionnaire: Rotter’s Locus of Control Scale (29 items) and Cohen-Williamson’s Perceived Stress Scale (14 items). The results, sustain that there is a statistically significant correlation between level of stress and I-E Locus of Control, but contrary to study in the field, the level of stress during assessment, was low to medium. This results was an obstacle in implementing a training program for stress management. The research present correlation between each of four demographic variable, and level of stress, and I-E Locus of Control. 

No: 152
Title:  Identifying Life Satisfaction Among The Students From The University Of Bucharest
Pages 1240-1247
Author(s): Marina Cristina Sandu, Ruxandra Chirca, Georgeta Pânișoară*
Open Access

Full Text 152
The purpose of this study is to identify the level of life satisfaction and the differences regarding life satisfaction among the students from the University of Bucharest. In order to measure the level of satisfaction we applied an instrument designed for psychological testing – Multidimensional Studentsʼ Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS). The participants selected for this research were 140 students from the University of Bucharest, both male and female. The research results were processed in SPSS. After applying the descriptive statistics and the T-test for identifying the studentsʼ differences by gender, it was noticed a higher level of satisfaction at the male students. Furthermore, there were also noticed considerable differences on the five domains of the questionnaire: family, friends, school, living environment and self. Findings of the study showed significant differences in terms of satisfaction level for the two categories of subjects, so the training and development of self-image is influenced by the four areas of the life of every individual. 

No: 153
Title:  Educational Messages Seen Through A Child’s Eye – A ”Journey” Of Questions
Pages 1248-1261
Author(s): Andreea-Diana Scoda*
Open Access

Full Text 153
The present article represents a “journey” of analysis and of important questioning related to the impact of different educational messages being sent and perceived through children’s eyes (books, television, music, toys etc.). The design of the paper is based on empirical data obtained from two various samples of age. Thus, the opinions and perceptions concerning educational messages seen or developed could have an impact on our children’s wellbeing in general (learning, behaviour, emotions etc.); as well as, for our education and society system; these are just some of the questions analysed throughout the paper. The key question at heart is what “educational messages” are upright for today and tomorrow in preparing pupils for their future? The opinions and perceptions obtained will bring into light an imagine on the topic of the importance and impact on children (positive versus negative) and, at the same time, it will offer a portrait regarding the children’s and parent’s needs, in forms of  our answers as means for raising a child (”what’s good/unwelcomed?”, “Is this enough/too much?” etc.). The methods and techniques: analysis of documents – studies, theory etc. and a simple “case study” analysed step by step throughout this paper. More and more didactic materials and tools developed in education are becoming of important issue for the future of our children (learning approaches, habits, competences that need to be developed etc.). Consequently, what to select, how to select it, how to make it accessible etc., could be consider significant for our children.

No: 154
Title:  The Disruptive Behaviour in Classroom. Students’ opinion
Pages 1262-1268
Author(s): Laura Simion*
Open Access

Full Text 154
The purpose of this paper is to know the set of ideas that students associate to various disruptive behaviours developed in classroom space. A practical motivation: the need to know the system of beliefs that students develop relate to a set of behaviours which are not missing from the specific experiences of classroom’s life. The necessity is supported by the importance of these beliefs: they represent the most relevant source of the behaviours in the space of classroom. Paper is motivated also by the desire to address the behaviours analysed from a pedagogical perspective rather than psychological. Usually, undesirable behaviours of students are called deviant behaviour, with reference to the more or less relative to normality criteria. This is a psychological approach emphasized. The disruptive behaviours try resizing perspective into a pedagogical one. The applicative investigation was shaped around the aim: to configure an image that different types of students associate to different disruptive behaviour that they meet in classroom. Was used a questionnaire (for students) to find out what they think about each disruptive behaviour (how upsetting they believes that behaviours are, what are the causes, how teachers should react, which should be the reaction of colleagues). The number of questioned students is 60. Seven and eight grade (30 students of each). Two differentiating criterion were applied: gender and learning results (good and struggling students). 

No: 155
Title:  The Education for Creativity May Lower the Students’ Anxiety About the Future
Pages 1269-1273
Author(s): Ioan Susnea*, Emilia Pecheanu, Luminita Dumitriu
Open Access

Full Text 155
This paper is a brief presentation of a research regarding  the possible correlation between the individual creativity and the level of anxiety about the future of students involved in tertiary education. Basically, our experiment consisted in measuring the creativity quotient of a number of 30 students using a previously developped scale, and then comparing the results with their levels of anxiety about the future determined using the Bolanowsky AAF scale. Preliminary results show that students with higher scores at a creativity test feel better prepared to face the future, and exhibit lower levels of anxiety regarding their educational and professional evolution. On the other hand, there is growing evidence that the individual creativity can be significantly improved through specific education. Since the students’ anxiety is a catch all indicator of the factors having a negative impact on the process of education, it results that a systematic effort to stimulate  the creativity of the students might be one of the most effective means to mitigate the impact of many risk factors and improve the overall quality of  education. 

No: 156
Title:  Approaches To The Relationship Between Theacher And Parent With “Pronunced Personalities”
Pages 1274-1281
Author(s): Gabriela Vancu*, Anca Egerău
Open Access

Full Text 156
There seems to be a strong link between the parent’s personality type and the relationship he or she develops with the teaching staff; a much needed relationship in ensuring the academic achievement of the child. As a result, the teacher must develop psychological understanding of his or hers pupil’s parents, actually performing – to some degree – an analysis of their personality. The purpose of this understanding is to ensure personalized approaches to parents manifesting characteristics of a pronounced personality type in order to avoid, prevent or even settle various conflicts that may arise. The investigation aims at identifying approaches that would prevent and/or settle conflicts between sane-structured personalities – the teachers – and paranoid personalities – the parents. Data obtained from statistical analysis demonstrates that when we encounter a conflict, whether between teacher and parent or between other individuals, reaction must depend on the accented type of our personality, for this is dictates the style of resolving conflict that we naturally adopt. We express and react according to what we are, we feel, live, life events can change our way of thinking but we cannot change our personality, which will continuously be an object of study for specialists. 

No: 157
Title:  Effects of Motor Stimulation Programs on Children with Down Syndrome Development
Pages 1282-1288
Author(s): Camelia Voicu*, Bianca Chera-Ferrario
Open Access

Full Text 157
The paper brings forward the issues of motor activities importance in the psychological development, and especially mental development of children with disabilities, from the embodied cognition theory perspective. In the context of embodied cognition approach, we expanded variable "any age" (meaning chronological age) to variable any mental age, and we assumed that if the cognitive system includes body and his conditions, than improvement of sensorimotor skills contribute to an improvement in cognitive functioning in children with development delay. This study presents some results of motor stimulation activities for 16 children with Down Syndrome, beneficiaries of the project "Development of motor skills in people with Down syndrome" implemented by Special Olympics Romania in partnership with other educational institutions. The aim of the study was to identify cognitive development valences of motor stimulation program for children with Down syndrome. Hypothesis: we suppose the motor stimulation program contributed to improvement of cognitive functioning in children with Down Syndrome. The study was conducted on two groups, one of 10 children (ages 5-8 years), and the other of 6 children (aged 9-14 years). Research showed improved cognitive functioning in both groups, but to a greater extent in children from the first group, which underscores the importance of early intervention in the recovery of children with retarded development. The study values embodied cognition theory for the opening of new directions for designing educational programs for children with Down syndrome, in particular, but also for other categories of children with intellectual disabilities. 

No: 158
Title:  On The Education Of The Automotive Engineer Through Project-Based Approach
Pages 1289-1297
Author(s): Adrian Clenci*, Rodica Niculescu, Cătălin Zaharia
Open Access

Full Text 158
Today, perhaps more than in the past, we think that the question for the trinomial “academia-industry-state” is: are the graduate engineers “fit for purpose” and capable of operating in an industry that needs multi- and inter-disciplinary skills? In other words, is there a gap between industry needs for multi-skilled engineers and the current supply of graduate engineers? If so, then what should be done for reducing this gap? This being the context, the paper discusses the current stakes for the educational institutions and presents an approach which is currently implemented at University of Pitesti in a Master programme developed with Renault Romania. Thus, our combined effort was to design an academic curriculum “fit for this purpose”, i.e., frequently employing the teamwork in multi- and inter-disciplinary project-based learning. A full semester was dedicated to transversal disciplines, which should help students to be up to the industrial task. Another semester (the last one) was entirely dedicated to practical periods or internships held in industry or research labs. Equally, involving as often as possible direct interaction between the students and local and international industry specialists was another goal of our common enterprise. All this will be thoroughly presented and discussed in our paper, the final goal being to exchange information on this topic which we think should be currently regarded as one of paramount importance. It’s our belief that universities are challenged. It is about the challenge to produce useful graduates for industry, featuring short periods to reach the autonomy target. 

No: 159
Title:  Energy Aware Of Cloud Computing Development Using Cloud Simulators
Pages 1298-1305
Author(s): Ionel Gordin*
Open Access

Full Text 159
Cloud Computing its a hot topic nowadays, a concept that permits the organizations to access high performance computing and storage infrastructure at reduced cost through internet. With the fast development of cloud computing, the data center is becoming larger in scale and consumes more energy. From this situation comes the immediate need to develop cost-efficient energy saving methods to reduce the huge energy consumption in the cloud data center. The first solution to reduce the power consumption is to plan and test the optimal cloud data center structure before it is in production. We have achieved this goal through intensive testing of various well known cloud simulators (CloudSim, GreenCloud, Cloud Analyst, EMUSIM, GroudSim, DCSim). During this article we take in consideration both software based respectively software and hardware based simulators. Finally, we analyse and compare features of the existing cloud computing simulators and we take in consideration the most effective cloud solution for our project. 

No: 160
Title:  Virtual Classroom and Coaching - Unexpectedly Good Combination
Pages 1306-1313
Author(s): Mariya Aleksandrova Ivanova, & Aneta Benkova Dimitrova*
Open Access

Full Text 160
Traditional teaching methods and technologies for higher education not meet the expectations of the students and the needs of business. The paper presents the results of a study of the feasibility of innovative methods of learning and teaching in the field of management. The study aims to establish the scope of a combination of methods to achieve the expected level of competence of the students and their role in the transformation of knowledge and skills. Object of the study are students of master's programs at NBU, Bulgaria. The key figures are the students with theirs knowledge and skills that corresponding with standards and competency map. Differences to the purposes of the master’s program provides to students possibility of individual program planning. Following this approach, the student could receive better learning and personal development. Shared a two-year experience, taking into account the impact on the emotional state of the students and the effect on the achievement of learning objectives, through a virtual classroom application and the coaching approach. Are defined the factors for the change in the methodology and the philosophy of the creative class and problem based learning; the cycle and the elements of the learning process;  an environment for work in virtual teams and how to assess your team's performance. A new learning model provides a solution for innovating learning and practical focus. 

No: 161
Title:  Development Of Economic Thinking Of Students From Middle School Through Technological Education
Pages 1314-1319
Author(s): Elena Manolescu*, Claudiu-Mihail Manolescu
Open Access

Full Text 161
In our days, technological progress knows an unprecedented growth rate both in terms of the pace of achievement, and of how it influences the needs and choices of each individual and society as a whole. Thus, the individual is forced to adapt to these changes which affect his life economically, professionally and socially. This paper constitutes a research on how some economic issues are treated in the "Technological Education” manuals for gymnasium (fifth to eighth grade) available in school years 2005 – 2015, in Romania. In the same time we try to show the impact of these economic aspects on the economic thinking of the youth future society. We highlighted the transdisciplinary nature of the Technological Education and the link between: economic, technological and social development areas. It is also emphasized the education importance in general as well as the technology education in particular, in the process of permanent evolution and transformation of the three areas mentioned above, areas that interrelat and influence each other. 

No: 162
Title:  Origami Used as a Corrective-Recuperative Method for Children with Mental Disabilities
Pages 1320-1328
Author(s): Maria-Elena Osiceanu, & Dalia-Sorina Eremia*
Open Access

Full Text 162
This article aims to present the results of an applied research in which origami technique has been used as a corrective-recuperative method in the process of training and education of children with mental disabilities. Through its peculiarities, origami technique can receive, depending on the context, but also on the teacher’s skills, psychotherapeutic valences similar with ludotherapy, art-therapy, occupational therapy or ergotherapy. The research was conducted on a special category of subjects (children with mental disabilities from a special primary school), because we considered that this is the best period when they can acquire much more certain skills, abilities and capabilities so that to become able to realize the transfer of knowledge and to make connections, thus stimulating their rigid thinking. We emphasize that the success of such an approach is based on the fact that the technique should be applied systematically and methodically during several consecutive years. "Exercises" must be adjusted to the individual possibilities of children, because this training must be done in full cooperation with them in order to stimulate their self-confidence and thus to develop also their personality traits and behaviour. Basic assumptions of the research were: 1. the use of origami techniques in educating children with mental disability improves fine motor skills; 2. the use of origami techniques improves the level of mental functioning of the following processes: inferior cognitive level - perception (spatial view skills, development of forms perception), higher cognitive level - memory (increase storage capacity) and improves the capacity of concentration. 

No: 163
Title:  Theoretical Benchmarks And Practical Options Related To Teaching Career Formation And Development
Pages 1329-1336
Author(s): Letitia Trif*, Cornel V. Igna
Open Access

Full Text 163
Deep-seated social changes cause major changes within the Romanian educational system in general, and to requirements relating to the teaching profession, in particular. From the perspective of many reforms of education, we find significant concerns about the process of professionalisation of the teaching career, building methodologies of initial and continuous training for teachers, definition and description of professional skills/standards, of placement of the training system in the European context of continuous professional development, learning and training throughout life. Today, teachers' assessment focuses on skills, capabilities to make, solve concrete problems, specific to education, but also to students’results, to their performance, plus the opinions of parents and pupils, thus formulating new visions on the professionalism and expertise of teachers. Theoretical contributions on the formation and development of the teaching career in Romania, allow us to make certain analyses and correlations with the students and teachers participating in initial and continuous training programmes. Thus, in this article, we wish to identify the decisive elements of professional development related to the options being considered : identification and analysis of individual options or those based on collaboration and partnership but also of those based on corporate culture in teachers' professional development; on appreciation of the importance of initial and continuous training, both from the perspective of theoretical elements and pedagogical practice; on identification of the most effective or successful ways of continuous training; analysis of the role and functions of evaluation and self-assessment from the perspective of a career in teaching and professional development. 

No: 164
Title:  The Mentoring, a Successful Way to Develop Skills, in the Modern Society
Pages 1337-1345
Author(s): Victoria-Mihaela Brînzea*, Olimpia Oancea
Open Access

Full Text 164
The education that traditionally was seen as beginning in childhood and ending in the period of transition to the adult life, acquires, nowadays, new meanings, the lifetime alternating periods of study and work. In this context and taking into account that every man spends more than a quarter of life at work, the workplace is looming to be crucial in making lifelong learning a reality by stimulating the motivation to learn and by the adults participation in education and training. The purpose of this paper is to investigate a vital issue for the contemporary society, where the requirements are getting higher: the issue of the adult education in general and mentoring, more in particular. To achieve this purpose, it was conducted a literature review to identify how mentoring is interpreted and applied in organizations. In this regard, the paper starts with a presentation of the crucial role that companies, through the types of training offered, meet at generating lifelong learning for their employees, continuing with the conceptual definition of mentoring as a mechanism for the transfer of knowledge and the development of skills within organizations. The analysis undertaken have identified a number of advantages and limitations regarding the mentoring process at the workplace, the final conclusion being that mentoring is a win-win process in which both parties can gain valuable benefits. 

No: 165
Title:  Development Of Parenting Skills By Implementing Strong Families Program
Pages 1346-1354
Author(s): Maria Constantinescu*, Cornel Constantinescu, Cristina Dumitru
Open Access

Full Text 165
To be a parent is a challenge that involves creativity, warmth and abilities. If you develop skills through experience, both with their parents and those of friends, through efforts to improve communication, disciplining children etc., then creativity and warmth are difficult to learn. Our article reflects the results obtained during an experiment after the implementation of the Program "Strong Families" which is a parent educational program in family or in group. This program is based on social learning, which states that parents are the first and most important model for children. Firstly, the program aims to familiarize the parent with child needs and his behavior, and in the second part is intended acquisition by the parents of parental knowledge and gaining skills of efficient parenting. Methods used in our research were experiment, questionnaire, interview and data analyses through SPSSS. Subjects were randomly selected and distributed in an experimental and a control group. Intervention in the experimental group lasted 10 weeks, each meeting lasting over an hour. Parents were applied a questionnaire for the initial assessment which followed several dimensions of parenting skills: harsh penalties, inefficient discipline and efficient discipline. In the initial phase there were no significant differences between the two groups, but after the implementation of program "Strong Families" significant differences between the experimental and control groups in terms of efficient use of disciplinary methods were found. So, the "Strong Families" Program helps parents to learn effective skills for disciplinary actions and improve their relationship with children. 

No: 166
Title:  SWOT Analyze of Work Integration for People with Mental
Pages 1355-1362
Author(s): Mihaela Gavrilă-Ardelean*
Open Access

Full Text 166
Neuropsychiatric disorders are the third leading cause of disability in Europe and represent 15, 2% of the total number of
diseases, how are estimates for 2014 by World Health Organization (World Health Organization, 2014a). The research aims to analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, (SWOT Analyze) of the employers’ perception regarding labour integration of people with chronic mental diseases, in Arad County. The research runs on a total of 10 employers who received a questionnaire about the work integration of people with mental diseases. The results were processed in a SWOT analysis. The research results are relevant to facilitate the work integration of people with psychic diseases. The employability of people with mental diseases will be ameliorated by improving the skills of counselling employment specialists. Based on the SWOT results, we establish the competences required to train employment counselling specialists. This requires specific competencies to help people with chronic mental diseases obtain and keeping a job. These competences will be established as a final result of an international research project. 

No: 167
Title:  Methods Of Demonstrating Concurrence Lines In A Tetrahedron
Pages 1363-1371
Author(s): Costică Lupu*
Open Access

Full Text 167
This article discusses the advantages of teaching-learning Geometry with the help of the new educational technologies to motivate students and undergraduates, which may lead to building focus, interactivity and feedback during lessons. The 3rd-year students from the Department of Mathematics, “Vasile Alecsandri” University of Bacău, also attending the courses of the Pre- and In-Service Teacher Training Department, have experimented the relevance of the new technologies in teaching and learning Geometry, by applying a new approach to the design and conduct of a lesson of Geometry. The research was conducted during the 2014-2015 school year, involving two groups, each of them comprising 132 students: 66 children, from 3 classes having 22 students on the average each, experimental group – the 8th A grade from “Octavian Voicu” Middle School, Bacău, and 66 children, from 3 classes having 22 students on the average each, a control group – the 8th B grade from “Miron Costin” Middle School, Bacău and demonstrated the efficiency of teaching Geometry the concurrence of relevant lines in a tetrahedron by using computers in solving problems and promoting Geometry knowledge, building active thinking and competences, as well as skills in representing plane and space geometrical figures. 

No: 168
Title:  Adult Training In Romania - Critical Analysis
Pages 1372-1379
Author(s): Alexandru Robert Mihaila*, Monica Elisabeta Paduraru
Open Access

Full Text 168
This paper aims to highlight some aspects of adult education in Romania, the institutions responsible for adult training and the current trends in this field, focusing on training needs and options’ analysis of adult learners. The idea of this study came in sight as a result of our interests in this area and due to the changes that have occurred at national and European level in adults training. We deemed appropriate to use a quantitative research method for gathering the information (questionnaire-based survey). The survey included over 100 adult respondents, aged between 18 and 60 years.
More specifically this study was designed to explore the following questions:
      What is the opinion of adults regarding training courses offer on the market?
       What factors affect the choice of a training course for adults?
       What are the ways and degree of access to information about training courses for adults?
       What are the main training fields covered by the training providers in Romania ?
By conclusions and recommendations from the research conducted, we intend to shape a real picture of the trend regarding the degree of access to adults’ courses in Romania. 

No: 169
Title:  Is Blended Learning A New Way To An Optimal Adult Education?
Pages 1380-1389
Author(s): Bogdan N. Nicolescu, Tiberiu Macarie, Tudor C. Petrescu*
Open Access

Full Text 169
In actual stage of the mankind, the concept of the lifelong learning is a reality of the knowledge based society because this satisfies the new needs for its complex dynamics of evolution, of transformation, of development, etc. In this framework, almost all the crafts, jobs, professions, business, social services, etc. are continuously adapting to the demands of the new human society based on “computer”. By the “computer” we understand all the things and human activities which are made by /or with a computer, starting with the human common communications, through e-mail, Skype, WhatsApp, etc., till the sophistical artificial intelligences which helps mankind: to do better the things, to understand in the same time the “big” and the “little” Universe through learning. In this frame of the need of learning, it seems that the blended learning is gaining ground like a new educational paradigm which fulfils this need. Starting from a recent experience linked with a designed activity based on the blended learning technologies for reformulating a training plan of lifelong learning, which is supposed to give the school manager's competencies, dedicated for the teachers from the pre-universitary education system, if they will want to candidate at this position, this work is dedicated to some reflections about what is and what will become higher education in framework of the blended learning paradigm. 

No: 170
Title:  Community Regeneration Through Parents’ Engagement For Education. A Moldavian Socio-Educational Experience
Pages 1390-1399
Author(s): Andrei Pârvan*, Mihnea Preotesi
Open Access

Full Text 170
This paper presents a corpus of a qualitative research project conclusions aiming to generate the favorable premises to increase the social cohesion in Republic of Moldova rural communities, a specific case of evolution from traditional to the consumerist society, case related to multiple changes occurred during the last 25 years. The process of increasing the social cohesion itself involves the development of a set of activities which targets to identify and to activate the interaction, collaboration and cooperation mechanism to increase the educational system socio-performance. We highlight the key role of one of the most important endogen agents for the change: the parents, particularly the fathers, as part of the problem and solution for any intervention having as purpose the socio-educational development. The parents’ bonds to education are a precondition for development and a basic element to regenerate the community social tissue, but their action is strongly related to the social capital reinforcement and to the socio-economic status. 

No: 171
Title:  Adult Learning For New Job Skills Using Technology
Pages 1400-1407
Author(s): Ioana Porumb, Sorina Chircu*
Open Access

Full Text 171
Why is it useful for adults to learn? Does learning at an adult age need to be done in a procedural way, guided towards a certain purpose or a more spontaneous and contextual manner is more useful? The current society with its dynamics, the way in which the labor market is configured and reconfigured demonstrate the fact that learning becomes an indispensable condition for adults to remain active professionally. The present paper emphasizes the adults’ interest as course attendants in the professional improvement, professional conversion or initiation into a new job on the labour market that requires solid digital competences. Generally, in order to be efficient, a curriculum that aims to activate learning in adults has to be focused mainly on problem solving. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the measure to which the curriculum of this program has answered the professional training needs of the adult participants of this program, developing the necessary abilities required to practice the new type of jobs found on today's labour market where solid digital competences are a must. The hypothesis of research is that we expect a high degree of satisfaction regarding the quality of the curriculum for all modules of the program. The target group was formed of 100 adults aged 24-46. The research method used was the survey-based research.  The data obtained in the study confirm our hypothesis. 

No: 172
Title:  Students’ Perception Of School And Educational Activities
Pages 1408-1414
Author(s): Oana Alina Bota,Cristina Tulbure*
Open Access

Full Text 172
The present study aims to draw a fact finding analysis regarding the teenage students’ perception towards school and educational activities, with a focus on aspects concerning the students’ interest and attitudes shown within the school space. A number of 370 students enrolled in the Romanian pre-university education participated in the study. The investigation was carried out with the help of a questionnaire regarding the students’ perception of the educational activities and an interview guide. Unfortunately, the results pointed out a phenomenon which has been frequently noticed in the school space, namely the predominance of a superficial attitude and a relatively low level of interest showed for school and its activities. The students’ opinions represent an important step the teacher is invited to take into consideration in his or her endeavor, in order to offer the students actual experiences of learning and life. The added value of the study lies in the organized focus group, through which the students discussed their opinions regarding different aspects in relation to the school role in their training and development. 

No: 173
Title:  New Perspectives of Physical Education With Integrated and Inclusive Education
Pages 1415-1422
Author(s): Florin Cojanu*, Paul Visan
Open Access

Full Text 173
In this study we try to project physical education content with integrated education, inclusive education and interdisciplinary. So for our aim, we made measurements at driving ability for new perspectives of education expressed through integrated education, inclusive education and interdisciplinary. So to work at this age are considered necessary to evaluate the main trends currently learning (integration, interdisciplinarity, etc..). For this we built a set of five tests assessment covering the current trends manifest in contemporary education, such as:  Integrated Education, Inclusive Education, Interdisciplinary Education. In conclusions we think the designing teaching in the primary school curriculum for physical education lessons in an interdisciplinary view, contribute in a more pragmatic and effective to achieve the ideal and global educational goals and operational. Also the evolution of modern didactics of physical education noted the tendency to keep some acquisitions of traditional teaching, but still with emphasis currently reconsidering its entire system on the content, forms, methods of education in terms of scientific design curricular. 

No: 174
Title:  New Perspectives To Develop Psychomotor Capacity For Romanian Childrens From Primary School
Pages 1423-1431
Author(s): Florin Cojanu*, Paul Visan
Open Access

Full Text 174
Physical education, as a component of general education, contributes to the development and improvement of the child in terms of motor skills; stimulating the intellectual activity and certain affective processes; developing certain group relations; activation of certain psychical processes; developing some skills and qualities in the work process; refining the body organs, functions, apparatuses; refining certain particular notes which appear in the activity of certain organs, apparatuses, processes, as an effect of practising physical exercise; sense of the ball, sense of rhythm, of tackling, peripheral vision, tactical thinking, motor memory, kinestesic sensations, etc. The purpose is to design the physical education’s contents through psychomotor capacity’s structure, which would impact positively the two components, general motor skills and psychomotricity by using a complex system of action using specific means and materials within the physical education lesson, but also the identification of new strategies of acting in an optimum manner in accordance with the current level of physical and psychical development of pupils from elementary school. Physical education, as part of general education, pursues to achieve certain objectives, derived from the educational ideal, formulated at some point by society for which the subjects taking part in this kind of activity are being trained. Among the general objectives that physical education proposes to achieve is also the one concerning the harmonious development of human personality by influencing both in terms of prophylaxis (prevention of negative outcomes), and remedial (remedying the negative traits which can appear at some point). 

No: 175
Title:  The Model of Actions in Atack for Juniors in Volleyball
Pages 1432-1438
Author(s): Adin-Marian Cojocaru*, Marilena Cojocaru
Open Access

Full Text 175
The modern game of volleyball is characterized by speed and a variety of play activities through continuous improvement actions in terms of hitting the ball increasingly high creativity in building attack combinations and flexibility in the choice of defense. The literature and summarizing current information we consider it necessary to develop specific training programs to increase sports performance and improve the game in attack. To have a real dimension of the practice of juvenile volleyball game, you need to make a real x-ray at this level, especially in the final tournament, where participating teams the best of the moment. Processing and interpretation of data collected from official site over 5 days of competition allows us to have a personal view on the level of technical and tactical training teams and individual players in the tournament for juniors. Research methods used were computerized recording method, method and interpretation of statistical and mathematical the graphic method. In cocnclusion, it is necessary to put an emphasis on proper assimilation of techniques in terms of tactics, basic requirement of obtaining high performance in our paper and confirmed by the first hypothesis stated. The development of all these components and the gradual implementation of collective offensive actions (combinations in attack) develop percentage of success - two stated hypothesis is confirmed by a low efficiency index reported internationally. 

No: 176
Title:  Study Of Physical Training Attained By Basketball Specific Means In High School
Pages 1439-1446
Author(s): Alexandrina Mihaela Constantin*
Open Access

Full Text 176
Physical training includes a whole system of measures ensuring a high functional capacity of the body by the high level of development of basic motor skills and specific morphological indices optimal values - and a perfect functional health status. The purpose of the study pertains to highlight the effectiveness of exercises and specific means of playing basketball on improving general and specific physical training of students in high school(Alexe, 1993), (Ardelean, 1982), (Colibaba-Evuleţ, Bota, 1998), (Programele scolare , 2001) , (Ghid Metodologic, 2001). As a methodology in addressing physical training in basketball we should highlight a series of operations: • first operation in addressing physical training is the dominant driving qualities accurate, thus basketball, a domain experts have characterized as the effort being based on specific quality motor resistance manifested under the speed, strength and skill; • the second operation consists in characterizing specific effort basketball game. This characterization is correlated with the quality of the dominant motive. We note that the effort is characterized through the following parameters: intensity, duration (volume), complexity, metabolic processes of energy release. In basketball specific effort is characterized as: maximal and submaximal, variable intensity and duration, with brief interruptions, very complex and diversified schemes manifestation of motor skills and factors of performance or resistance under speed, flash, technical, tactics and tension, mixed (aerobic anaerobic points)( Demeter,1981),( Dragnea, 1991); • the third operation is to establish the dynamics of the training effort (i.e. increases and decreases in effort) that is how it is planned and programmed physical training. 

No: 177
Title:  Athletics Content In Primary School And The Role On Conditional Capacity Development
Pages 1447-1455
Author(s): Alexandrina Mihaela Constantin*
Open Access

Full Text 177
The aim is to improve primary physical education process based on the use of means and methods into capacity-building athletic conditional. Along with driving skills, driving skills must be the primary objectives of the physical education lesson content. Regardless of the material conditions (room, devices, materials) or weather (rain, snow, fog, cold), development of motor skills should be first. It is preferred that the lesson of physical education, physical attributes are not placed at random. Rank actions for developing motor skills in physical education class must be determined depending on the nature of that effort in order to ensure optimal volume or intensity and ensure the return of the body. School athletics is athletics during the initiation, which, from the earliest years of school children begin to learn the basic mechanisms specific athletic evidence. These are important for the influence they have both in developing basic motor skills, but also in developing the child's motor skills for daily activity, it’s natural that you have athletic exercises. As such athleticism is one of the core subjects in school physical education (Cârstea, 1993; Mitra, 1977). There was almost no sports discipline in which technical structure finds itself at least one of the specific movements of athletics. For this the correct assimilation exercises and skills learned in school athletics should be the most correct, and we refer to running, jumping and throwing, in all their manifestations. The exercises in school athletics are structured according to three specific groups, such as: running, jumps, throws (Ionescu-Bondoc, 2007), (Programele şcolare, 2001). 

No: 178
Title:  Effects Of Six-Week TRX Training On Physical Skills In Female Skier Students
Pages 1456-1460
Author(s): Ioana Curiţianu*, Andreea Cătănescu
Open Access

Full Text 178
In this paper we proposed to examine the effect of six-week TRX Suspension Training on some physical skills like strength, endurance and coordination in upper and lower limbs, endurance of the back/core, stability and balance. The effect of the TRX Suspension Training on physical skills was evaluated using five pre and posttests. The subjects that were analyzed participated in three weekly 45-50 minutes training sessions in a 6 week period. Descriptive statistic and t-Test at (α=0.05) were used to analyze the data obtained from the five subject of the research. The results showed that there was a significant difference in four out of five tests that were used. According to the results, the TRX Suspension Training program produced significant benefits to the subjects that were analyzed by increasing the levels of physical and functional fitness. Suspension training is an effective workout system that demands generating and controlling strength in a dynamic and changing environment.

No: 179
Title:  The Importance Of Video Analysis And Statistical Programs In Junior Football Training
Pages 1461-1469
Author(s): Cosmin Felegeanu*, & Gloria Rață
Open Access

Full Text 179
Sports performance has today a very high level of requirements, being no longer enough classical training and collaboration between the coach and his athlete. This has led to a greater use of information technology, a performance measurement apparatus and usage of software designed to quantify their performance, identify and improve ahtlete's training level. The statistical analysis software S.P.S.S., quantifies and ranks the performance of a footballer, while the video analysis helps to correct technical or tactical errors. There was a number of 12 "Junior C" subjects belonging to the club Ceahlaul Piatra Neamt. The aim of the study was the improvement of the technique and biomechanics of striking the ball but also the increase of the percentage of successful passes and shots on goal. Subjects had to perform during five training sessions a total of 10 passes at distances of 3, 5 and 10 m to a fixed point and a total of 10 shots from distances of 11, 15 and 20 m from target. The research results revealed a significant improvement in biomechanics of hitting the ball both in the passes with the flat and shoots with full shoe of distance. We observed an increase to 100% of success passes to 5 m and shots of 15 m, and a significant improvement in the percentage of successful passes at a distance of 10 m up to 90% and increasing the percentage of successful shots at a distance of 20 m up to 80%. 

No: 180
Title:  The Physical Education Determinant of Children Social Integration 
Pages 1470-1476
Author(s): Liliana Mihailescu,Mirela Catrina*
Open Access

Full Text 180
Through the objectives and functions is performing, Physical Education and Sport brings positive influence on all facets of personality: biomotor, psychomotor and socio-motor. In this regard, Physical Education and Sport is defined as "a complex system of training that simultaneously engages the individual, favouring the improvement of the physical, psychological and socio-cultural skills" (Dragnea et al ., 2000, p. 58). The literature recommends that social skills are taught using specific means of Physical Education and highlights the opportunity to develop personality traits through this discipline Şchiopu (1970); Orlik (1978); Underwood and Williams (1991); Hellison and Georgiadis (1992); Stiehl (1975); Sparks (1993); Shilds and Bredemeier (1995); Cutforth and Parker (1996 ). The research hypotheses were verified by experimental methods that are specific to the sociometric assessment. In terms of group cohesion as a result of applying the methodology that was focused on games and motor exercises we noted that the values of cohesion index increased in the case of final testing. All matrixes based on the data from sociometric indices were calculated and the results emphasized the preferential status of the subjects. The information extracted from these results entitled us to say that the research hypotheses were confirmed. 

No: 181
Title:  Contributions In Leading Scientific Training Swimming 
Pages 1477-1483
Author(s): Liliana Mihailescu,Gîju (Dubiţ) Nicoleta*
Open Access

Full Text 181
In specialty literature, the aspects of the effects of training stimuli on the athlete are analyzed from interdisciplinary perspectives. Thus, they are emphasized by several researchers from the psychologically and medical view point, having monitored the biochemical indexes during or right after the specific effort was done. The training of the performance swimmers requires the answers' finding regarding the effort-fatigue-stress variables conducting that are necessary in order to optimize the sportive performance and implicitly, the sportive longevity increasing. The purpose of the research is to identify the concrete ways of the methodological conducting of the swimming individualized training based on determining the relation between effort-fatigue-stress, by determining the psychological profile regarding the stress reactions and by determining the individual variables of some biochemical and hormonal parameters, in order to optimize the performance capacity. We assumed that the obtained information related to the psychological profile of the performance swimmers can represent objective marks in the training methodological controlling. During this research we used the following methods: the survey method for finding the competition stress (SCAT), the felt stress level, PSS, the competition anxiety level; biochemical analysis. 

No: 182
Title:  Role Of Physical Therapy In Recovery Kinetic Ankle Sprains Level Volleyball Player
Pages 1484-1492
Author(s): Florentina Nechita*, Silviu Gabriel Cioroiu, Adrian Vescan
Open Access

Full Text 182
This paper aims to highlight the importance of functional complex "ankle - leg" which aims to support the weight of the body and enable it to move on any terrain. Because the fetus that across the ankle joint can produce a series of macro - trauma such as contusions, sprains, dislocations, they may affect all anatomical structures and can leave scars immediate or delayed whose link with the trauma that it is not difficult to determine. Objectives; The study aims to improve trauma to the ankle by applying modern methods and kinetic means. Material and methods; The research was conducted within Volleyball Club "Castelo da Maia" Porto, Portugal and was to implement a program to recover kinetic strain on the ankle in a case study of a volleyball player. Results; Treatment results show values highlighted by evaluating kinetic parameters of the athlete showings improvement target: testing joint flexion -extension and inversion - eversion articular testing. Conclusions; Given the differences between tests suggest developing a program to recover kinetic strain on the ankle, in order to shape a methodological framework for its implementation within the game of volleyball. 

No: 183
Title:  Study Regarding the General Level of Physical Training of Female Football Team
Pages 1493-1497
Author(s): Iulian Pîrvulescu*
Open Access

Full Text 183
The main premise of this research is the importance of developing through training the motions specific to football. The basis for perfecting the other qualities that are part of sports practice (technical training, tactical training and psychological training) is physical training due to its complex array of actions that mostly involve striving toward perfecting oneself. It is also the main factor of performance progress even in the case of junior level football players (12-14 years old). The objective of the research is the evaluation of junior football players (12-14 years old) level of physical training. Methods: the study of specialized literature, mathematical and statistical methods, graphic representation. Results: After analyzing the results gathered from the measurement tests there can be noticed a range of low results. This is the main circumstance why football player training (aged 12-14 years old) needs to be restructured. Conclusions: The results of our experiment prove that achieving a good performance level in regards to a football team comprised of players between the ages of 12 and 14 depends on the physical training planned accordingly to the different levels of preparation. 

No: 184
Title:  Somatic evolution motor, perceţie and representation to children in athletics
Pages 1498-1505
Author(s): Bogdan Constantin Raţă, Marinela Raţă, Gloria Raţă*
Open Access

Full Text 184
Developing strength, mobility, coordination and balance in the 10-12-year-old children, practising athletics events is of great importance in the training process. This paper is an experimental observation study, by means of which we aim to highlight the possibility to improve the level of speed, strength, mobility, coordination and balance in the 10-12-year-old children practising specific athletics events. In order to establish the dynamics of child development, we performed the following: an initial test, which had an observation purpose, and a final test, as demonstrative achievement. In order to develop the athletes’ behaviour during the experiment (lasting for 14 weeks, 2 hours a day, 4 trainings per week), we practised at the end of each practical lesson, for 10 minutes, the following training: on Mondays - strength exercises, on Tuesdays - speed exercises, on Thursdays - mobility and balance exercises and on Friday - coordination exercises. The results of the children who took part in the experimental group (12 children) were better in the final evaluation. The progress recorded for the average values emphasizes the efficiency of the applicative intervention oriented towards the increase in the skill level and of the perception capacity and movement representation. The findings revealed the following fact: after 14 weeks of training with the 10-12-year-old children, the level of the somatic development, the level of the development of speed, strength, mobility, coordination and balance and the level of the perception capacity and movement representation improved. 

No: 185
Title:  Efficiency Regarding The Specialists In The National Sports System In Romania
Pages 1506-1512
Author(s): Daniel Rosu*
Open Access

Full Text 185
Romania outstood throughout time in the Olympic Games with valuable sportsmen, gaining respect and consideration; this way sport has become one of the most efficient ambassadors of our country abroad. Along with the change of the social system, following 1989, sports had also to adapt to the requirements of market economy, change which has materialised, among others, in decreases of value confirmed by great sportive competitions. This research brings into attention an indicator not promoted in specialty culture, that is the report between human resources categories (sportsmen versus specialists), shortened RSS. Without knowing and imposing an optimal value of RSS according to each sport, the research presents the RSS dynamics during the latest Olympic cycles, creating observational correlations between top results and RSS value for each sports federation and Olympic cycle. The accuses brought to the lack of financing in sports must be mitigated as long as the trainers are paid from public money for an activity they perform with too few sportsmen. Acknowledging and imposing an optimal value of RSS for each sports federation may contribute to making more efficient the trainers’ activities, creating new premises for the mass basis of performance sport, highlighting sports that are attractive for children and young people and  rendering objective the problems within the sports in crisis. 

No: 186
Title:  Controversies Regarding The Sportsmen Access To National Championships Podium In Romania
Pages 1513-1519
Author(s): Daniel Rosu*
Open Access

Full Text 186
The research identified and analysed four controversies linked to the Romanian performance sports, which present both positive and negative aspects that characterise the adaptation process of the contemporary Romanian society to the European community ideals. The decrease of Romania’s Olympic performances cannot be attributed to participant sportsmen, but to the antiquated sports system in Romania, within which specialists carry a great responsibility. In Romania sport is a dynamic sector, with a rapid development and a more and more significant macro-economic impact; within it, mass sports has a sure development while performance sports manifests a light drawback. Taking into consideration that Romania has never had developed mass sports, we can anticipate a revival of performance sports in the future. As far as present negative connotations of the Romanian sports system are concerned, the research analysed issues connected to the decrease of the number of performance sportsmen, the increase of doping cases, poor school training of performance sportsmen, the declining status of performance sportsman. In final, author suggested the reasonable solution for this bed aspects. 

No: 187
Title:  Study On The Main Elements Which Determine Students To Practice Motion Activities
Pages 1520-1525
Author(s): Maura Stancu*
Open Access

Full Text 187
During almost 30 years of experience in teaching physical education and sport, I understand that precisely the uniqueness, complexity of human nature can provide the correct answers to questions related to culture, perception, habits, etc. The purpose of the paper: Determination of amounts that resulted in the case of students in developing a positive attitude - active against motor activities, and other students caused a negative attitude - passive. Hypothesis work: Finding these elements can contribute to the development of teaching strategies that emphasize positive stimuli / improve on the negative, so that students participate consciously, actively, systematically practicing the exercise and after graduation. During two years of study, we initiated an active observation of the degree of involvement of student participation in physical education classes and sports provided in the curriculum of the Faculty of Mechanics and Technology, University of Pitesti. Following this approach we selected 20 students with a strong intrinsic motivation and 20 extrinsic predominant motivation for driving activities. These 40 students have completed the end of the second an opinion survey questions focusing on the practice of physical exercises (in various forms), family, school, material conditions, the subjective perception of reactions (physical and mental) of their own body to exercise. Physical education in higher education, it is, as I like it define, ,, last redoubt "that the teacher must have a win for the stadium, on the mountain, in gyms or swimming pools, etc. to meet his former students, friends, family, moving. 

No: 188
Title:  Study On The Students Option Stability In Respect Of Some Motion Activities
Pages 1526-1532
Author(s): Maura Stancu*
Open Access

Full Text 188
An informed student, is also interested in practicing motive activities, having also a diverse motivation: health, physical appearance, harnessing his own experience to strengthen his carrier on the labour market, developing the necessary capacity in order to gain `social success`, personal fulfillment, self-knowledge, self-discipline, and so on. Physical education in pre university period and later at university must offer students a wide range of options so they can accomplish the so called objective: continuously practice of motive activities during leisure time. We know that `sport training, that is done in one way or another throughout life, aims to make the child and later the adult able to choose the activity that suits him best, according to his needs and interests. Determining the stability of students` initial options taking into consideration the diversity of options based on the attractiveness expressed for those activities as a condition of constant interest for sport is the  aim of this paperwork. For that, in academic year 2014-2015, I have decided to check the stability of initial choices, for a group of students at Economic Industrial Engineering specialty, from their first year of academic studies, planning various activities, different from a class to another. In this paperwork I have tried to find out how my students are eager to experience new things and how these new habits can modify their horizon of options. 

No: 189
Title:  Evaluation Model for Physical Education at Preparatory Class
Pages 1533-1541
Author(s): Monica Stănescu, Zoe Pîrliteanu*
Open Access

Full Text 189
The paper proposes an evaluation model designed for the children from preparatory classes, who participated in physical education activities, created in relation with the admission requirements for children at the beginning of the primary school and with school curriculum at physical education. The importance of this topic is confirmed by the fact that the preparatory class became the first class of the Romanian primary cycle of education (starting with school year 2012 - 2013). However, even under these circumstances, the National Assessment System for Physical Education and Sport Area (official document for this curriculum area from 1999) does not include specifications for this school population. Following the inclusion of the preparatory class in the primary school cycle we believe it is appropriate to introduce some tests capable to highlight the skills acquired by the little scholars. These tests were set taking into account the level of children development as well as the peculiarities of the educational process in physical education. Thus, the evaluation model tested in our research provides important methodological benchmarks for the specialized teachers and helps them achieve all three essential forms of assessment:  predictive, formative and summative. In order to integrate the evaluation in the educational process, the model proposed an integrative vision on the children’s physical and psychomotor development, assessed in terms of aptitudes and abilities (including those achieved by children during kindergarten). 

No: 190
Title:  Adult Motivation for Practicing Physical Activities in Academia
Pages 1542-1550
Author(s): Daniela Aducovschi*, Remus Dumitrescu, Robert Sakizlian, Monica Sakizlian, Adrian Oţoiu, Mircea Slăvilă
Open Access

Full Text 190
The existence of specific factors which influence practice of physical activities in adults, and improvement of working places and conditions, after controlling for age and other characteristics. The awareness of the importance of specialized guidance in the field of physical education and kinetotherapy, that can help adults improve their knowledge of it. Organized exercise should result in increased quality of life and professional performance. Research design was cross-sectional, results were based on classical methods of investigation: scientific documentation, questionnaire-based survey, and graphical interpretation. The survey was carried out in 2015 based on a questionnaire designed by the authors, with 20 questions chosen so that the answers were as objective as possible, leading to a high rate of accuracy. There were 42 subjects (59.52% men and 40.47% women), aged between 28 and 59 years which are teaching staff, researchers and auxiliary staff at the University of Bucharest. The study showed that physical maintenance activities elicit most interest from 80.95% of participants, followed by sport activities 26.19%, and therapeutic activities 19.04%. The age distribution is: 45-50 years old 28.57%, 40-45 years old 19.04%, 25-30 years old 16.66%, 35-40 years old 11.90%, 30-35 years old and 50-55 years old both with 9.52% , with 55-60 years old having only 4.7%. Results confirm assumptions, identifying motivational factors of practicing physical exercise in an organized setting, showing the psychological and social reasons that determine adults to do sport. 

No: 191
Title:  Education for Health in the Context of Experiential Pedagogy 
Pages 1551-1558
Author(s): Gabriela Alina Anghel*, Camelia Delia Voicu
Open Access

Full Text 191
The research aims to analyze the perception of the pre-university opinion of the teachers (from primary school, secondary school and high school) teaching “Education for Health” regarding the importance of the model based on experiential learning - Kolb`s model - within the discipline’s didactics. The objectives of the research were: to measure the importance level of using the Kolb`s model in the didactics of “Education for Health”; to measure the teachers’ satisfaction level regarding the use of the Kolb`s model at the didactic of “Education for Health”. The methodology we used during the research was based on Delphy technique (the method of the expert group) and for analyzing and interpreting the results was used a bi-dimensional matrix Nice & Gaps type.  The research reveal the fact that within the discipline Education for Health the valorization of experiential pedagogy by means of Kolb`s model is identified as a model of best educational practices which successfully support the cultivation and consolidation of general human values, educational and social values. The paper presents conclusions concerning the limits and implementation possibilities of the didactic strategies derived from the experiential pedagogy for the research group. The research report displays also the differences of perception regarding the importance and satisfaction degree (concomitantly approached) between the two main groups of trainees: teachers from rural schools compared to teachers from urban areas.

No: 192
Title:  Management Of On Line Learning Platforms In Medical Education
Pages 1559-1569
Author(s): Elena Taina Avramescu*, Daniel Marius Mitrache
Open Access

Full Text 192
Learning on the Internet by the "e learning" method, fundamentally changed the way by which doctors can get information and be involved in educational activities designed to ensure their continuous medical education. The present paper wishes to offer a general overview of Web-based learning in Medical Education based on the research, results and experience gained by an international partnership in 2 LDV projects and one in development Erasmus + KA2 project.  The challenge of our projects was to offer innovative courses for medical professionals by a flexible, attractive and focused e-learning training pathway based on online courses and real case studies. The target group addressed was formed by medical professionals that improved their competencies in Ultrasound within project e-EDUMED, and Human Movement Analysis, Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation issues in projects ORTHO e-man and COR-skills. The innovation of the projects consisted in the development of online courses by the use of a new methodology (Problem Based Learning) and a virtual environment with open Source technology (Open Source online Platform). Innovation was added by Multimedia Lessons in HTML and flash format, virtual classes, a visual Authoring Tool and Keyword-guided Clinical Case search tool. Measuring the satisfaction of the trainees our conclusions showed that e-learning platform and technologies didn’t mean to substitute the practice but to strongly enhance the skills and knowledge of medical professionals to be better prepared to practice, allowing them to tailor their experiences to meet their personal learning objectives. 

No: 193
Title:  Influences Of Practicing Leisure Sports Activities On Mental Health In Adult Population
Pages 1570-1581
Author(s): Georgian Bădicu*, Wilhelm Robert Grosz, Lorand Balint
Open Access

Full Text 193
Traditionally, physical activities exert favourable effects on physical and motor development of the individual. This truth is already well-known, but that idea does not take into account that the individual is a bio-psycho-social complex, and any influence exerted on him causes changes on all of its components. In this context, the present study aims to highlight the correlation between mental health that adults perceive and identify the proportion of practicing leisure sports activities in their free time. We applied a multiple survey, centred on the main component of quality of life, health, and the investigation of the declared / perceived mental health was considered as one of the subcomponents. The questionnaire-based survey focused on psychic sphere included 20 questions. In terms of targeted content and interpretation of data, the level of the anxiety index in adults who practice or not leisure sports activities was emphasised. The collected data were grouped by age, educational level and subjects’ gender. The Results of study leads that practice of physical exercise improved mental health of the individual, especially since the amount of time spent on such activities is higher. 

No: 194
Title:  Study on Evolution of Body Mass Index in Dental Technologists
Pages 1582-1589
Author(s): Claudia-Camelia Burcea*, Cosmin Medar,  Viorel Perieanu,  Radu Costea, Mădălina Malița,  Camelia Ionescu,  Mihai David, Liliana Burlibașa, Mihai Burlibașa, Luminița Georgescu
Open Access

Full Text 194
The working conditions in which specialists of dental technology carry out their activity are factors conducive to a series of changes that affect the body. Thus, factors like prolonged static effort, length of work, work rhythm and ratio between dynamic and static effort lead to metabolic disorders and imbalances which may cause excess weight – one of the most frequent issues society today is struggling with, and which is harmful to the quality of life. This research was conducted on 30 subjects. Initial assessment of body mass index was made for students specializing as dental technologists within “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Bucharest and then, five years later after subjects started to work, they were assessed again, taking account of the physical activity performed and diet kept. The purpose of the study was to set out how effective physical exercise is in maintaining / improving the body mass index parameters and, therefore, the quality of life. Conclusions: This study points out to positive statistical association of regular and constant exercise with maintaining normal values of body mass index. Our proposition is to implement kinetoprophylaxis programs on dental laboratory technicians for preventing prolonged static effort’s outcomes, maximizing body functionality and improving the quality of life by stimulating subjects to adopt an active physical exercise regimen, as well as preventing overweight and obesity in these subjects. 

No: 195
Title:  How Could Tai Ji Quan Improve Our Abilities?
Pages 1590-1596
Author(s): Maria Butucea*
Open Access

Full Text 195
To practice sport in the western meaning is action of our body that has benefice in growing and better function. It is well known also that the sport can improve our rational mind, make it clearer and improve self-control. Ancient Asian sports require more then to use notion of body or conscious/ rational mind. The philosophical assumptions in Western culture and in Eastern culture are different regarding mind or body, even Chinese researchers are using Western scientific paradigm nowadays. Due to this, their experiments sometimes remain inconclusive. The topic of his article will be Tai Ji Quan, the “soft sport of mind”, which, they say, has unbelievable achievements. We will to discuss Chinese philosophy background regarding sports  try to emphases, that to practice of Taiji requires mostly the use of internal part of mind, as unconscious mind, meditation or intuition. Based on new assumptions, clarification of some concepts and transfer/interpret of meaning from one culture to another, plus our experiential practice, we think is possible to explain how a person could become a very powerful and moral one. Also we will show some educational benefices at psychological and behavioral level. 

No: 196
Title:  Is Happiness Determined By Individual’s Well-Being? Proposing An Econometric Model On Happiness
Pages 1597-1604
Author(s): Stela Drăgulin, Mădălina Rucsanda, Fulvia Anca Constantin*
Open Access

Full Text 196
There is no doubt that each and every individual’s intent is to get to happiness. Most of its decisions are made to accomplish a mental or emotional condition proper to a certain level of well-being. In our opinion, happiness is, in a way, the synonym of well-being, and well-being is a sum of positive situations that matter morally, and of fulfilled needs such as love, power, fun and freedom, stability, general health, education, so on. As many physical illnesses have psychological roots, a good mental condition gets a high importance related to our life and performance. Vitality, enthusiasm and engagement imply dealing with stress, obtaining a positive mental health and a reduced risk of heart disease, therefore a happier and qualitative life. The aim of the paper is to get an answer if either nor is happiness a determinant of our well-being state, if meeting our needs in responsible ways gives us happiness. Therefore, we propose a model in which the left hand side variable “happiness” is determined by a positive thinking and a general state of “feeling good” and “well-being”. The well-being explanatory variables used as determinants in our model include: health, education, employment, age, financial satisfaction, political or religious beliefs, marital status and age. 

No: 197
Title:  Study About the Place of Sports Activities in Students' Free Time Budget
Pages 1605-1613
Author(s): Remus Dumitrescu*, Alina Stoica, Daniela Aducovschi, Mihaela Ganciu, Robert Sakizlian, Dan Moise, Bogdan Gozu, Monica Sakizlian, Costinel Mihaiu, Marius Leştaru, Florin Liţoi, Monica Gulap, Cătălin Serban, Oana Ganciu
Open Access

Full Text 197
Concerning the location of the residence, the opportunities of some special organized places for physical and sport activities, the objective and subjective matters specifically for the social and educational environment, this study aims to determine the free time budget of the students of the University of Bucharest with the main favorite spare-time activities. The method of the questionnaire, the statistically-mathematical method, the method of graphical representation. The two parts of the students that are included in the presentation are the following: 858 girl and 271 boys, from all the study-years, including the master. They are part of the 18 faculties of the University of Bucharest and of the sport and physical education courses. The social issues influence to some extent the motivation for sport activities in the spare-time (the lack of special-organized spaces) and moreover, other issues are the comfort, education and an unorganized lifestyle. From the processing of the data  turns out that the questioned students practice the sport activities in their spare-time, mostly in group. However, the subjects from both categories dispose of spare time of  between 1 and 4 hour with a percentage of 84,1 % foe girls and 78,2% for boys. The girls prefer the sport activities that are mainly sedentary whereas the boys prefer sport activities. 

No: 198
Title:  Students Life Abilities’ Need in an Insecure World 
Pages 1614-1621
Author(s): Simona Eftimie, Alina Mărgărițoiu*
Open Access

Full Text 198
Starting from the theory of David Brooks considering life abilities (see The Social Animal; The Hidden Sources of Love, Character, and Achievement, 2011), we were interested to investigate the level of this kind of abilities to our students. Using an adapted version of Casey Life Skills Assessment and focus group interview on 29 students with different specializations from Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti, we have found that students with high level of academic achievements have a low level of life abilities, especially regarding money management. So, an important and worry finding for us is the lack of financial education for investigated subjects, an irrational behaviour as consumer even if young people seems to wish to gain their autonomy, including financial one. Another finding was that our subjects consider that they are able to manage a CV, an application for a job, preparing for an interview, but they have difficulties about the issue of employees’ rights, getting protection against harassment and discrimination. In technology era meant to facilitate communication, we have identified our subjects’ preference for virtual world both for meting a person and for solving work / professional tasks and this could indicate fear, insecurity for direct / real social contacts / relationships. Other results are discussed here. 

No: 199
Title:  Therapeutic Education and Health Promotion in Individuals with Neuropsychological Overload Syndrome
Pages 1622-1628
Author(s): Luminita Georgescu*, Mariana Tudor, Elena Ioana Iconaru, Manuela Ciucurel, Camelia Burcea, Cosmin Medar, Constantin Ciucurel
Open Access

Full Text 199
The supervision of health status is commonly associated with physiopatological aspects of various diseases, but also with identifying the possibilities of correcting the imbalances discovered. Increasingly nowadays, we are faced with trends and challenges for early detection or anticipation of pathological markers and for establishing how reliable are the clinical and therapeutic methods applied for a specific pathology. In this respect, the intensity of body’s response to different measures should be accordingly quantified using the most accurate and efficient assessments. This study aims to determine the level of impact and the intensity of the body's response to physical or mental overload, alongside with identifying the context with increased risks for this imbalance and setting the appropriate therapeutic approach. For the research purposes we had monitored 50 student subjects, 25 of them only studying (the witness group) and 25 which were also working with a part-time job program (the experimental group). An assessment system which included testing of attention, monitoring cardiovascular parameters, type of activity and level of job-specific demands, sleep quality, mood and appetite. The analysis of our recorded data highlighted the importance and interdependence between possible causal factors, pathological condition, the evaluation system and the proposed therapeutic measures. Health specialists should offer assistance and guidelines in order to prevent the overload syndrome and to improve the quality of life of people in a multitasking environment. Our proposed protocol can contribute to health promotion and optimization of individuals’ recovery process, fastening thus their social and work reintegration. 

No: 200
Title:  Education For Health Food By Biological And Natural Sciences And Romanian Traditions
Pages 1629-1639
Author(s): Mariana Iancu*
Open Access

Full Text 200
The scientific research on education for health food of students through Biological and Natural Sciences and Romanian traditions was achieved mainly by Microbiology as Biological Sciences and Biochemistry as Natural Sciences at the University Bioterra from Bucharest with students from the food faculties, starting with the 2012-2013 academic year until now. The reconstruction of conceptualization demonstrated that education for health food materialize professional education of students from food faculties and is based on sciences like “Biological Sciences”, “Natural Sciences”, “Educational Sciences” and “Psychology”. Didactical methodologies have been developed, such those practical-heuristic, based on laboratory experiments, i.e. determination of the pH of muscle of domestic pig and the identification the toxic food with nitrites over admisible limits, on laboratory practical works, i.e. the organoleptic examination of meat and D.N.A. (deoxyribonucleic acid) histochemically extraction for identification the counterfeit foods, on observation. Also, were developed interactive-heuristic methodologies by discussions and debates about fundamental concepts, such as health of bread, necessary for their life and future profession. Education for health food in correlation with Romanian traditions and religious beliefs reveals that they have a scientific basis, i.e. prayer before meals is cause for that the food to be bioavailable, completion of long and short posts help to detoxify the body by eating vegetable products, the ancestor of alms-boiled wheat that is both a food and a symbol and a part of a ritual. Were identified numerous examples of education for health, the undertaken objectives of the scientific research being met. 

No: 201
Title:  Gratitude Journal: Comparative Content Analyse for License     and Master Students
Pages 1640-1647
Author(s): Alina Mărgărițoiu, Simona Eftimie*
Open Access

Full Text 201
In a hyper consumer society, adolescents and young people learn to believe that the individual and the individualism are fundamental reference points for the world. Decisions for choosing school/university, professional and socio-economic benefit are priorities, in spite of human relations quality. Competition and celebrity culture influence today adolescents and young people to excessive concentrate on the success. Present paper proposes to identify the gratitude practice to a group of licence and master students of Petroleum – Gas University of Ploiesti, young people raised in a society dominated by capitalist values: individualism, financial power, competition, and consume. We intended to make a comparative content analyse based on Gratitude Journal (experimented by doctor Robert Emmons from Davis University, California) and questionnaire. Content analyse of the journals and questionnaire results demonstrated a low level of gratitude for teachers as mentors for their lives on licence students and a raising gratitude level on master students. Considering the differences between the two generations of students involved in our study the conclusion was that they have different value system (and, as a consequence, they value differently important persons of their lives). 

No: 202
Title:  Physiotherapy Following Breast Surgery For Cancer
Pages 1648-1660
Author(s): Dina-Magdalena Pușcaș*, Patriciu Achimaș- Cadariu, Cătălin Vlad, Augustin Moț, Simona Tache
Open Access

Full Text 202
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to observe the effects of active, guided exercises on postoperative complications, shoulder range of motion (ROM) and functionality of the arm and the in women undergoing radical mastectomy or lumpectomy with axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer. We compared patients who participated at the recovery exercise program to those who didn't attend any exercise program and patients with different associated therapies (hormone, chemo, chemo+radiotherapy). METHODS: The study was carried out on 140 patients with breast surgery for cancer, divided in two groups: the study group and the control group. Both groups were divided in three categories: patients with associated hormone therapy, patients with chemotherapy and patients with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. RESULTS: The most affected movements after surgery are: flexion and abduction. Also, the most significant changes happen for these two movements after daily participating to the physical therapy program. Postoperative complications are ameliorated and functionality tests for the arm show an improvement. CONCLUSIONS: A structured, patient tailored, well designed and early applied exercise program has several benefits on troublesome symptoms, functionality and range of motion of the ipsilateral arm. There are differences between the three categories of patients regarding the followed aspects, although, physiotherapy influences all of those aspects in well. 

No: 203
Title:  Patient’s Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Oral Cancer Screening in Dental Practice
Pages 1661-1666
Author(s): Gheorghe Raftu*
Open Access

Full Text 203
In recent years the oral cancer incidence is increasing and is a real problem in the worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate dental patient’s knowledge and perception of oral cancer and screening in dental practice. A questionnaire survey of 92 adults, having no previous history of oral cancer was done. The collected data were about their knowledge of oral cancer, ‘screening’ experience, attitude and perception on being screened, preventive behaviour (regarding risk factors), appropriateness of a psychological counselling before screening participation. Adults were selected from the patients addressing for dental treatments to the Faculty of Dental Medicine. Seventy-seven percent of participants knew little or nothing about oral cancer and 72% did not know that dentist can usually screens for oral cancer. Ninety-two per cent would like to be informed by the dentist if they were being screened for oral cancer and 97% would like to be informed and helped by their dentists to reduce their risk. Ninety percent are willing to have psychological counselling before screening participation, considering being useful in dealing possible situations of oral cancer. The participants to this study seem generally having no knowledge that oral cancer screening can be done in the dental office but they express their interest in participating in such an investigation. Also, they would like to be informed and greet their dentist assistance to decrease the risk of developing oral cancer. They considered as opportune the psychological counselling before screening participation, considering being useful in dealing possible situations of oral cancer. 

No: 204
Title:  A Study on the Dietary Behavior in School-aged Children
Pages 1667-1675
Author(s): C. Scurt, Mădălina Doinița Scurt*
Open Access

Full Text 204
Adopting a balanced and healthy diet is a public health system priority. The aim of this study is to identify dietary behaviors (consumption of fruit, vegetables, dairy products, pasta, meat, sweets, fast food) of a sample of pupils and whether there are significant differences in terms of demographic variables, such as age, gender and weight. In order to obtain data on the dietary behavior, a questionnaire containing 14 items was applied to a total of 234 schoolchildren, between 12 and 15 years. The field work was conducted between April and June 2014. Participation in this study was completely voluntary and the participants’ anonymity was guaranteed. There were identified significant differences of dietary behavior by gender (F(5, 228) = 4.38; p < 0.001; η2 = 2.25), respectively (F(4, 229) = 2.58; p < 0.05; η2 = 2.41). As regards age, no significant differences were found (F(5, 228) = 1.95; p > 0.05), respectively (F(4, 229) = 1.14; p > 0.05) and weight (F(5, 228) = 1.97; p > 0.05), respectively (F(4, 229) = 1.03; p > 0.05). Analyzing the post ad-hoc Bonferroni tests, significant differences were identified between dietary preferences, depending on age, gender, and weight. The consumption of sweets and fast food is high. An unbalanced diet can have severe consequences on the health condition of the school population, leading to chronic diseases, like arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, etc. 

No: 205
Title:  Body Mass Index at Puberty Schoolchildren in Romania, Urban Areas
Pages 1676-1685
Author(s): Mădălina Doinița Scurt*, L. Balint, L. Rogozea, C. Scurt
Open Access

Full Text 205
In recent years, the prevalence of overweight increased as a result of complex interactions between genes, dietary intake, physical activity and environment. The aim of this study is to estimate the incidence of overweight of a sample of pupils and if there are significant differences in terms of demographic variables, such as gender and age, as well as body mass index and anthropometric indicators, such as height and weight. In order to obtain data on the overweight, anthropometric indicators, such as height and weight, were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated, to a total of 261 schoolchildren, between 12 and 15 years. An ANOVA 2 (gender) x 2 (age) was performed to determine if there are significant differences between the dependent variable (body mass index) and the independent variables. The results show significant differences in body mass index according to the age (F(3,254) = 5.35; p < 0.05; R2 = .059) and the gender (F(3, 254) = 4.19; p < 0.05; R2 = .047) of the schoolchildren. A very strong positive relationship between BMI and weight, according to the gender, was found and a high direct correlation between height and weight, according to the gender, was found, too. No relationships are found between body mass index according to the age of the measured schoolchildren. Measured anthropometric indicators show significant increases. A high percentage of overweight schoolchildren, are obese. WHO recognizes that overweight, in childhood and adolescence, represents a major problem for industrialized countries. 

No: 206
Title:  A Case Study of Occupational Therapy in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patient
Pages 1686-1693
Author(s): Mariana Tudor*, Elena Ioana Iconaru, Manuela Ciucurel, Constantin Ciucurel
Open Access

Full Text 206
The increasing prevalence of coronary heart disease and heart failure, as well as their multiple consequences on individual level, in terms of functional limitations and occupational participation restrictions, including socio-economic challenges, impose the implementation of new effective methods and strategies for prevention, treatment and rehabilitation. More studies revealed that a comprehensive therapeutic approach of coronary patient, which includes also disease’s self-management through counselling and therapeutic education interventions, contributes significantly to reducing morbidity and mortality of this type and the risk of sub-optimal patients’ recovery. The aim of this study was to present a strategy for increasing self-efficacy of therapeutic management interventions based on the patient's occupational needs in the context of his living environment. Thus, we proposed, implemented and validated a six weeks intervention plan for the clinical case of a 54 years old man with post myocardial infarction status. Our strategy consisted in teaching the patient how to identify and solve the various occupational problems he is facing, by using a problem solving process approach. In order to evaluate the results, a series of assessments were conducted: self-perception of occupational performance (using COPM), heart rate, level of perceived intensity during physical activity (Borg RPE Scale) and anxiety level. In conclusion, the favourable evolution of the patient, as a result of our proposed therapeutic intervention, provides clinical evidence supporting the idea that the principle of client-centred practice in the context of occupational therapy is a reliable resource for promoting and improving disease self-management in cardiac rehabilitation. 

No: 207
Title:  New Challenges in the Educational Systems – The Implementation of European Projects
Pages 1694-1701
Author(s): Simona Mioara Marin*
Open Access

Full Text 207
Romania's accession to the European Union has brought along a series of structural changes at almost all levels, through the efficiency and competitiveness of the public and the private sector: increasing quality of vocational training through human capital development and connecting education with the labor market, increasing quality of life  and the sustainability of long-term macroeconomic efficiency, reducing poverty and improving the health of the population, strengthening the administrative capacity. The success of the integration in the European model has been the real challenge. However, the modernization of Romania depends on the success of implementing the projects for human resources development. This huge opportunity is due to the European financial allocations and the capacity to absorb the majority of them, to be able to reduce the gap compared to the EU countries. In this context the measure of a society’s development may be emphasized not only by the economic and financial indicators, but also by those related to human resources and education, indicators related to the way knowledge and learning are organized, to the types of performance expected, to the quality of educational activity, and to the ways that is supported by economic and financial policies. 

No: 208
Title:  A CLIL Model for Primary Schools
Pages 1702-1707
Author(s): Adriana Lazar*
Open Access

Full Text 208
The present paper gives an account on the results of a desk research carried out within the Erasmus + funded project C4C – CLIL for Children on successful CLIL models adopted in primary schools. As Romanian primary schools are concerned, our research revealed a few CLIL models, which depend on aim, context and desired outcomes. The CLIL methodology is/has been used either in short thematic units (modules) using the foreign language as a working language, involving rather little time within the curriculum, or, it may involve long or short-term exposure, as typical of some private primary schools which may offer a part of their curriculum in the target foreign language. The choice of the CLIL model in practice also depends on other aspects, such as children’s age, level of education, school timetable, context of instruction, teachers’ training and expertise on CLIL, language command, etc. In addition to the desk research, the Romanian partner carried out a survey asking teachers, educators and other participants involved in primary education on the models of CLIL they have implemented in their schools, in order to have a clear overview before developing a training course and lesson modules within the project. 

No: 209
Title:  Techniques for Introducing CLIL in Primary Schools
Pages 1708-1715
Author(s): Adriana Lazar*
Open Access

Full Text 209
CLIL is an innovative educational approach which allows students to learn how to do things rather than knowing things, focusing both on content and language. ‘This approach involveslearning subjects such as history, geography or others, through an additional language. It can be very successful in enhancing the learningof languages and other subjects, and developing in the youngsters apositive ‘can do’ attitude towards themselves as language learners. (Mehisto et al., 2008). CLIL entails a new educational approach based on the integrated learning of foreign language and content. The foreign language is acquired through subject-related contents provided in such a way to encourage learning. Special attention is paid to the learning skills, as they are pivotal for an efficient linguistic and communicative learning. For this reason, as Mehisto et al. (2008) stated, the CLIL approach is strictly linked to good practice in education: ‘CLIL cannot be separated from standard good practice in education. CLIL is a valued-added, as opposed to subtractive, approach that seeks to enrich the learning environment.’ The present paper will look at ways of effectively introducing CLIL in primary schools, presenting the language teaching techniques that were successful for the early learning of a foreign language that can also be used in CLIL activities. Similarly, the good practice in education and the techniques that were effectively used in teaching school subjects can be applied to CLIL and will be presented throughout the paper. 

No: 210
Title:  Early Childhood Education – Parents’ Perceptions
Pages 1716-1723
Author(s): Otilia Clipa*, Paula Gavriluță
Open Access

Full Text 210
Early childhood is the most important period from a child’s life, as it is marked by crucial moments for its success at school and in life. Adult’s intervention during this period is fundamental. Early education targets the time interval between birth – because the child starts learning and develop since birth–and the age of 6/7 - the age of school start. Early education is done both in the family as well as within the specialized services, as day-care or kindergarten. For most of the teachers (kindergarten teacher – child carers) who took part in this study, early education of the early preschool age children was a challenge, but, after the adjusting period of the children they noticed clear progresses of their behaviour, sometimes even in short intervals of time (1-2 weeks). The subject suggested for research is comprised within the early education field, in the meaning of specialized intervention within the small child’s education. The education before preschool period is very important for the early development of the child. 

No: 211
Title:  Development Of Creativity In Primary School – Challenge And Possibilities
Pages 1724-1732
Author(s): Otilia Clipa*, Valentina Juravle
Open Access

Full Text 211
Problem Statement: Creativity is a common theme for science of education, but represents a challenge for educational field from theoretical approach to practical one. Purpose of Study: The purpose of the study is to investigate the modalities to developm the specific level of creativity from primary school in Suceava County. Research Methods:The investigative part is done through the survey about some aspects of the creativity process in primary school and we investigate the diferences between the students before and after educational intervention. The sample comprises 40 students  from Bukovina County (ROMANIA). Findings: The students consider the creative process is depending on some factors (educational level, program of study and performance). In terms of the gained results we have described the diferences between our sample before educational intervantion and after creativity programme. Conclusions: The results obtained after the quantitative and qualitative analysis help to figure out more clearly the roles and the ideal methods for stimulating creativity process in primary education. The final data helps to build a better system for teaching in primary school and for the optimizing the quality of the teaching process for development of creativity. 

No: 212
Title:  The Role Of Storytelling Activity In The Vocabulary Development Of The Pre-Schoolers
Pages 1733-1740
Author(s): Cristina Loredana Bloju*, Ruxandra Viorela Stan
Open Access

Full Text 212
Storytelling is a way of doing activities within the scope experiential language and communication involves exposure and communication of knowledge, the form of activity to learning about the environment and speech development of the pre-schoolers, developing mental processes - memory, attention, thinking, imagination - and language in all its aspects. We can mention two types of stories: the story of the teacher and the story of children. The efficiency of the story depends largely on how it is "spoken", on the language used throughout the exposure must be correct grammatically, the tone used, how it is used the semantic side of the words, the gestures, the eye contact made between storyteller and children, the rhythm of speech, alternate utterance slower or faster words, raising and lowering his voice, the way they are pronounced words, sentences, phrases, changing timbre meant to indicate the emotional state of the children. The story also contributes to activation, but also to the enrichment of the vocabulary, both performing and checking previously acquired knowledge to fix them. The assimilation of the vocabulary from the earliest age have a particular importance because they significantly stimulates the overall intellectual development of the child, positively influencing the dynamics of his life. The overall objective of our study is to demonstrate the importance of storytelling in developing creativity and enrich the vocabulary of the pre-schoolers. 

No: 213
Title:  Educational Biography as a Means of Critical Reflection
Pages 1741-1747
Author(s): George A. Koulaouzides*
Open Access

Full Text 213
The main target of this paper is to present educational biography and its potential to become a critical reflection tool for the development of adult educators. Educational biography is understood as an oral or written testimony of a person in relation to the sum of his/her learning experiences, either within or outside the education system. Individual educational biographies expressively expose the way that people interact with their educational environment and construct their professional identities, as well as their thinking manners. On the other hand, critical self-reflection is a term that has many interpretations and definitions. However, it remains the main cognitive process that may lead to individual and social transformation. In this paper, beyond, a clear presentation of the concept of critical reflection, its content and its function towards the transformation of a person’s frame of reference, I present the structure of an educational biography workshop that has been successfully implemented with adult educators and other teachers in Greece. 

No: 214
Title:  Determinants Parameters Of Figure Skating Jump
Pages 1748-1755
Author(s): Carmen Gugu-Gramnatopol, Anca Ionescu*, Ștefan Ochiotan, Dragoș Dăncescu
Open Access

Full Text 214
In figure skating, the athletes reach remarkable performances at younger ages than in the last twenty years, when senior’s skaters were the only ones who managed to do triple rotation jumps. In the present, rotation jumps are being learned starting from 12 or 13 years old. By increasing efficiency of the learning process it shorten significantly the length of time in which the athletes passes the threshold from one at two, three or four rotations, performance that requires both, special motoric abilities and a careful guidance from the coach. The initial premise from which our study started was the importance of height jumping that is considered being essential in carrying out the difficulty technical elements in figure skating. The purpose of our study is to highlight the differences between parameters at simple vertical jumps and those with one or two rotation at figure skating. For this study we used the OptoJump device, we have identified and measured the jumping determinant parameters in skating, namely: jumping heights, the power generated at the jumping point, the time spent in air and the time spent on the ground, to a lot of 7 junior figure skaters. Doing the statistical analysis of these items, we showed the importance of the jumping height in the preparation of the figure skaters performance, the differences between simple vertical jumps and those with one or two rotation, and we compared these results with the notes obtained by sportsmen at the contests throughout competitive season. 

No: 215
Title:  Experimentation Exercises to Achieve Specific Physical Preparation Handball Teams to Performance
Pages 1756-1762
Author(s): Ion Mihăilă*
Open Access

Full Text 215
At the echelons of children and youth, physical training is the support on which to build other factors sports training prerequisite for achieving superior performance in old Senior career. Specific physical preparation, seeks improvement skills needed to meet the growing demands of the current handball in terms of driving dynamics and structures effort specific phases of attack and defense. This research was conducted within a team handball performance participating in the National Championship Division on a group of 16 female athletes tested at the beginning and end of the competition, during which operated a number of specific means specific physical preparation, selected and dosed according to age peculiarities and preparation of subjects. The results recorded in the control samples were processed and interpreted to identify statistical and mathematical progress rate and deducing some conclusions from experimental research. In this regard, a number of indicators were statistical and mathematical science specific to the sport and physical education, such as arithmetic mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation and test ,,t" test that indicates materiality of progress. Research methods used during the research were specific to physical education and sports training, namely: studying literature, teaching observation, experimental method, method of control tests and trials, the experimental method and graphical method. 

No: 216
Title:  The Emotional Dimension As Part Of Pre-Service Teacher Training Programmes
Pages 1763-1770
Author(s): Alexandrina Mihaela Popescu*, Remus Florentin Mogonea
Open Access

Full Text 216
Recent theoretical approaches as well as current know-how perspectives highlight the dimension of emotional culture in teacher training with a view to enhancing professionalization. Though a comprehensive in-depth investigation, emotional culture development has chartered new territories in recent years. As teacher's roles have multiplied, teaching has been understood as highly demanding. However, this may lead to increased fatigue, emotional wear-off, downgrading of the affective involvement within the school. The teacher's emotional culture divided into multi-layered emotional competencies is crucial in teaching professionalization: if not properly developed, it can trigger overwhelming conditions (mental and emotional wear-off, resentment and fears), causing further negative effects on networking and interpersonal communication. The concept of emotional culture incorporates emotional, communicative and personal-adjusting skills and competencies to ensure increased awareness, acceptance and remedial work on personal states and feelings as well as of the others, thus, enhancing productivity, networking and personal growth. Mainstream literature dwells ion-oriented mechanism in different situations, the way we use our own capabilities to understand the others and increase our self-affective control. Our paper is premised by the idea that teachers’ emotional culture is built gradually. Thus, we aim at identifying prospective trainees’ perception with regard to the importance of emotional culture development. The integration of key emotional values that fully round the contemporary teacher profile may also contribute to the learners' emotional development. 

No: 217
Title:  Evidence - Based Approaches Of Curriculum Implementantion. Some Grass-Roots Exemples
Pages 1771-1777
Author(s): Laura Elena Căpiță*
Open Access

Full Text 217
The paper focuses on the concept of curriculum implementationas part of a wider process of curriculum development. In Romania, the general practice of policy implementation is focused on top down approaches; by this, educational authorities orient the curriculum implementation by means of official documents (such as Ministry Orders, recommendations), the result being a text driven reform. Although it has its advantages, especially in terms of duration of implementation, the approach limits the opportunities that schools have in order to propose localised and/or customised perspectives for curriculum. The starting point is a small research conducted in four schools in Romania. The research seems to demonstrate the existence of a number of common practices that occur in schools when implementing the national curriculum. For example, curriculum design activities can be transformed in opportunities for professional dialogue and peer learning. These commonalities can be consolidated as formal internal indicators to be used by schools in the process of self-evaluation. 

No: 218
Title:  Physical Therapy in Poor Peripheral Circulation or in Peripheral Circulatory Failure
Pages 1778-1785
Author(s): Florentina Cristea*
Open Access

Full Text 218
Peripheral circulatory failure (PCF) is a complex of lesions of different severity and magnitude affecting different leg veins which have in common a slowly progressive evolution of their condition and the occurrence of chronic complications. Varicose veins prevalence among the adult population; 10% - 33% in women and 10% - 20% respectively, in men, with an impressive socio-economic impact. RELIEF Study: 78% of symptomatic patients were untreated. This paper aims at addressing issues of peripheral circulation from a kinetic point of view. The trial was conducted by direct observation and tracking of the 121 cases studied between  November 2014 and May 2015 within the SPINOF center of kinesiology at the Lower Danube University of Galati. The study showed the need for a minimum 3-week well-coordinated kinetic program, adjusted to the stage of peripheral circulatory failure. Its association with drug therapy significantly decreases the intensity of specific symptoms and increases the duration of remission periods. Physical therapy is preferred for preventing the installation of peripheral circulatory failure, preferably in the case of people who are prone to peripheral collapse or present environmental factors favoring the emergence of peripheral circulatory failure, and becomes helpful in advanced stages of peripheral circulatory failure. 

No: 219
Title:  Developing Psychomotor Skills in the Case of Autistic Students
Pages 1786-1794
Author(s): Iuliana Barna*
Open Access

Full Text 219
Physical effort gears the subject’s organism as a dynamic system, in all its development stages, as a certain profile corresponds to each ontogenic period, which leads to the processes of growing, development, optimisation, maximisation of capabilities, regeneration, etc. Various authors define effort from the perspective of physiology, psychology, or training theory, either as a process of strength mobilisation in view of overcoming an obstacle, or as a factor in antithesis with the recess state (Demeter,1974), or as predominantly biological stimulus which forces the organism to respond with electric, biochemical, mechanical or thermic manifestations ( Bota, 2000), or as a process of conscious defeat of the requests in view of attaining a good level of training ( Dragnea, 1996). The psycho-motor dimension is an optimal way of non-verbal communication in the social environment for the child with autism. It is recognised that any child coordinates his motor activity in accordance with the mental image of the perceived act. Psycho-motor therapy facilitates, through its integrated programmes, the education of the individual, aiming at knowing one’s own body and at the identification of the self. 

No: 220
Title:  Elements of Cultural Identity in Pre-School Education
Pages 1795-1802
Author(s): Mihai Braslasu*
Open Access

Full Text 220
Cultural identity as a person’s self-conception and self-perception of belonging to a distinct culture.  Cultural identifiers: nationality, ethnicity, language, history, religion, and cultural arena. Cultural identity as a characteristic of the individual and of the culturally identical group of members sharing the same cultural identity. The impact of globalization upon cultural identity. The “melting pot” versus Unity in Diversity. Cosmopolitanism versus preservation of cultural identity. The Jean S. Phinney’s Three-Stage Model of Ethnic Identity. Unexamined cultural identity as a characteristics of pre-primary school age. Pre-school curriculum and cultural identity. Experiential domains as "integrated cognitive fields " The Language and Communication Domain and the opportunities to develop language identity as cultural identifier. Language as the main cultural vehicle and mark of cultural identity. Suggested activities. The Man and Society Domain - nationality, ethnicity and religion as cultural identifiers.. Activities in the Aesthetic and Creative Domain – specific cultural identifiers. The Psycho-motric Domain- opportunities to form and develop elements of cultural identity. Cultural identifiers and the main themes of the annual programme of study: Who Am I? /Who Are We? - What and How Do I Want to Be? -  How and What Do We Express What We Are Feeling with? - When, How and Why It Happens? - How Is It, Was It and Will It Be Here on Earth? - How Do We Plan / Organize an Activity 

No: 221
Title:  Integrating Reading And Reading Skills In The Romanian Curricula – A Case-Study
Pages 1803-1810
Author(s): Corina-Amelia Georgescu*
Open Access

Full Text 221
Reading is one of the four skills included in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. It is seen not only as a skill when it comes to foreign languages, but also when it comes to mother languages. Lately, one has noticed a decrease of the students’ interest in reading, no matter the level or the age. As far as we are concerned, we are trying to analyze how reading is integrated in the Romanian curricula. There are a lot of studies regarding the theories of reading. In order to increase motivation for reading, we should first see which the factors that may help students read more are or the factors that prevent students from reading. This paper will take into account one of these, which is the Romanian curriculum and how it is structured so as to integrate reading. Does it motivate students? Are there included works appropriate? The methodology that the paper uses involves a desk-research taking into account the Romanian curricula as it was designed for teaching Romanian; we will emphasize the way reading and reading skills are integrated. The research aims at being a synthesis of how reading and reading skills are integrated in the Romanian curricula and of the way students perceive these; we also aim at formulating some propositions in order to improve students’ reading skill and to increase their motivation for reading. 

No: 222
Title:  Strategies for approaching conflict management in school organization 
Pages 1811-1818
Author(s): Claudiu Langa*
Open Access

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Conflict is an undeniable reality of organizational life, therefore it represents a reality of the activity of a school manager. In sociological literature, conflict is defined as ’’a blockage of the normal decision-making mechanism, of the way in which an individual and a group faces difficulties in choosing their way of action’’. Organizational practice shows that conflictual situations are used as important strategies for obtaining a better result to the detriment of the others’ progress. The purpose of the study is the analysis of using various interventions strategies on the part of the manager in solving the conflict situations, depending on the parties involved in the conflict and the type of conflict. Correlation between some preferences for applying certain strategies and seniority in education of the managers was also taken into account, the managers’ attitude towards conflicts and trigger causes of the conflicts. The methodology used in this investigative approach is the questionnaire applied on a group of 90 students from the master study program Educational management, University of Pitesti. The questionnaires were applied on face to face sessions. Findings and Results. The data gathered from the applied questionnaires have been elaborated and analyzed through statistics methods such as the descriptive and the inferential one and have confirmed the necessity of choosing agreeable strategies for conflict solving, depending on the parties involved in the conflict and the type of conflict. 

No: 223
Title:  Metaphors Role In The CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) Campaigns
Pages 1819-1827
Author(s): Maria Mureşan, Carmen Adina Pastiu*
Open Access

Full Text 223
Considered as figures of speech metaphors are about transferring associations from one experience to another in various fields, from the literary theory to scientific domain, as well. According to Berger (2012), the metaphor is “A mode of communication in which meaning is generated by making comparisons” (Berger 2012, p. 241). A metaphor is actually a strong analogy which suggests equivalence between the two objects/things being compared (Berger, 2012). For instance, if you say that your love is a rose, then you are using a metaphor. Suggesting such equivalence will cause the receiver of your message to attribute qualities of a rose to your love. So, a rose is beautiful and if your loves a rose then your love must be beautiful as well (Berger, 2012). The current paper aims to examine advertisements in which metaphorical comparisons were made in the case of some products. The purpose was to identify what rhetorical themes emerged among the advertisements, and to determine if the visuals could provide sufficient content for a marketing message. An analysis was performed on each through the application of visual semiotics. Findings indicated that a visual metaphor approach can deliver involved rhetorical marketing messages to the viewer. The methodology used in the case of this research study contains two basic directions: a documentary research on the metaphor typology and the use of metaphors in the case of Social Responsibility Campaigns, and the link between the advertising construction theory for a campaign and the forms of advertisement, as well as. 

No: 224
Title:  Methodical Aspects Of Teaching Literature for Pedagogy of Preschool /Primary Education Students
Pages 1828-1836
Author(s): Ileana Silvia Ciornei*, Marius Valeriu Grecu
Open Access

Full Text 224
The teaching of literature has always been a challenging process, starting from the preparation of the course syllabus to the reality of the class. Any teaching process supposedly starts from a clear structure and a statement of objectives. In the Romanian curricula for Preschool and Primary Pedagogy program of studies, the objectives divide into cognitive, procedural and attitudinal objectives. However, the general objective of the course is not only to cover a certain set of literary topics, but also to train our students to think, read, analyze, and approach literary texts as specialists. Thus, we aim at giving them a set of critical skills they can apply in the domain of language, literature and culture as well. The theories that apply to the practice of teaching literature for Pedagogy of Preschool /Primary Education Students are divided into subject-centered theories, teacher-centered theories and student-centered theories (Showalter, 2006, p.27), teaching approaches appeal to several techniques and methods. 

No: 225
Title:  Contributions In Leading Scientific Training Swimming 
Pages 1837-1841
Author(s): Nicoleta Samarescu*
Open Access

Full Text 225
eLearning may enrich the mental representations, save energy, time and resources.Both in the case of the primary school in Romania and the primary school abroad, the eletronic teaching materials and tools are capitalized. They are integrated in traditional lessons or final exams. Because the equipment with electronic tools is not a problem in our country anymore, the research is based on the analysis of the information obtained through questionnaires. These questionnaires are designed according to the opinion questionnaires realized by G. H. Gallup, respecting in the same time the conditions regarding the length of the questionnaire, its design, avoiding the „halo” effect in the questionnaires applied on the primary school teachers, parents and students. Consequently, this paper aims to: 1. Analyse the usage degree of some eLearning tools in the Romanian primary school, degree which rises or decreases together with other variable involved in the researching process; 2. To answer the following questions: what eLearning tools are involved in the teaching-learning process today and in what degree? What is the connection between the educational degree and the usage degree of the eLearning tools? To what extend do they help anyone keep in mind the information? To what extend do they simplify the teaching process? To what extend do the actors involved in the teaching-learning process consider that the working style may be modified and if they may lead to addiction? 3. To present, in the end, if and how these eLearning tools respect the principles of teaching Mathematics. 

No: 226
Title:  Social Media – New Form Of Learning Community
Pages 1842-1850
Author(s): Daniela Popa*, Mihaela Voinea
Open Access

Full Text 226
Information and communication technologies are essential in the contemporary process of teaching - learning. Integrating social media in education is an alternative to support teaching and learning activities, both formally and informally. In Romania there is little empirical research on professional use of Social Media in the educational environment. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the dimensions of social media use in educational context as new form of learning community and their implications for professional development. The research method is based on a questionnaire survey. The instrument was created and administrated online using Survey Monkey. The questionnaire was created through qualitative research with two focus groups on the most important aspects of social media as a new learning community. In research participated 103 teachers (48 teachers from university level and 55 teachers who work with pre-university level). The results show that the use of ITC is in the process of transition from Web 1.0 to Web 2.0. Teachers exchange information, use social media platforms at different levels and contribute significant with original product in virtual environment. 

No: 227
Title:  Emotional Intelligence, Emotional Skills And Social Skills At School Age
Pages 1851-1858
Author(s): Claudiu Eduard Ionescu*
Open Access

Full Text 227
Awareness of emotions isthe basic skill for the purchaseall other skills, allowing understanding the emotional feelings of their own and of the other, what favorson the one hand the transmission of appropriate messages with the emotional contentand on the other hand, the correct interpretation of the messages withemotional content received from the other. Emotional skills are developed, largely by involving children in discussions regarding emotions, expression or inhibition of emotional manifestation, attitude towards events, facts and queries from social and educational environment. Children learn about emotionsand about how they can be managed properly, in the context of social interactions. Acquiring the social and emotional skills requires an optimal interaction of all the intra- and interpersonal factors, that can represent a source of protection, ensuring an efficient adaptation of the child to the environmental requirements. Emotional skills influence the development of social skills, in their absence, being difficult initiating and maintaining relationships withpeople around. Empathy is the substrate to develop the skills of cooperation,of offering aid the necessary for integration in the group. 

No: 228
Title:  Self-Image And Self-Confidence, As Factors Facilitators Of Communication To Small Schoolchildren
Pages 1859-1865
Author(s): Claudiu Eduard Ionescu*
Open Access

Full Text 228
If self-esteem is the emotional reaction of the individual perception of their own image, self-image is the way in which a person perceives its own characteristics physical, cognitive, emotional social and spiritual, it is the result of self-assessment and evaluation from those around and how it is reflected in the eyes of others. Self-esteem can be positive and negative, having an important role in the involvement of the pupil in difficult  tasks, in making responsible decisions, the ability to resist in the face of pressure group, in creating the psychological state of well, in maintaining a good health and mental strength to the factors of stress. The adequate language development provides a more shaded verbal communication, increasing the chances of higher quality social interactions. Children can initiate discussions about emotions, which facilitates the understanding and recognition of their own emotions and those of others, may require explanations and clarifications from adults, can establish the relationship between cause and effect of events - emotional reactions - behavior. 

No: 229
Title:  Teaching Methods that Can Be Applied To Form Concepts of Natural Sciences
Pages 1866-1876
Author(s): Gabriela-Paula Petruţa*
Open Access

Full Text 229
The purpose of this paper is to highlight the possibility that teacher have to apply observation, laboratory experiment or practical work in the lessons in which begins the formation to the schoolchildren of the concepts of natural sciences, in primary school. To achieve the purpose of our investigation, we analyzed the content of programs and textbooks developed for the “Mathematics and exploration of the environment”, and “Natural sciences”, respectively, in terms of suggesting the application of the three previously mentioned teaching methods during lessons. According to the content of curricula, research has shown that observation and practical work are suggested to be used as teaching methods by the teacher during lessons conducted since preparatory class to the fourth class. Laboratory experiment is first mentioned in the content of curriculum developed for the first class. It is often suggested the application of observation directed by the teacher in learning activities, in the form of short-term observation (during a lesson), both as observation which does not need to be repeated, and observation that should be repeated. That observation can be guided by teacher through observation sheets. Based on the content of textbooks, our research has shown that the observation and practical work are indicated to be applied to a greater extent than the laboratory experiment. 

No: 230
Title:  The Sour Grapes Effect in Youth Career Counselling
Pages 1877-1882
Author(s): Dana Balas Timar*, Mustafa Aslan
Open Access

Full Text 230
Career counseling has emerged as a way to respond to social pressures imposed on the implications of this phenomenon in the ever-changing relationship between jobs supply and demand, raising the quality of requested skills as well as efficiency, in a client commitment manner. Career counseling theoretic literature abounds in models and strategies that when put into practice simply do not work, not because they are wrong, but because client’s expectations and beliefs are so different. The main focus of this paper is to analyze youth perception on career counseling activities, for a better understanding of what triggers them to be fully active into the process. The purpose of current paper is to identify the relationship between perceived employment barriers and perceived employment support of 432 last year students and young graduates from 4 European countries. The curvilinear relationship identified, shows that very high and low scores on perceived employment barriers significantly influences the outcome of the career counseling process, while medium scores on perceived employment barriers, gives youth incentives for authentic receiving of career counseling services, mostly in terms of employment support. Conclusions and practical implications are discussed. 

No: 231
Title:  A Systems Theory Framework Approach to Dynamic Relationships in Youth Career Counselling
Pages 1883-1888
Author(s): Dana Balas Timar*, Mustafa Aslan
Open Access

Full Text 231
This paper is focused on discussing youth perception on career counselling services, with the purpose of delineating best practices in active employment behaviour engagement. The main purpose of current study is to analyze the dynamic relationship between perceived employment success and perceived employment assistance in career counselling of 432 youth, last year students from Romania, Turkey, Hungary and Cyprus. The curvilinear relationship highlighted demonstrates that very high and very low scores on perceived employment success are related to a negative perception of employment assistance, while situating on the medium response scores, and gives youth incentives for a positive perception and acceptation of employment assistance, which instead will work in their favour. Perceived employment success and perceived employment assistance prove to be crucial concepts when directly working with clients, because depending on these two perceptions the first beliefs of trust or distrust the career counselling process are formed. Results can be easily approached by the Systems Theory Framework (STF) of career development (McMahon, 2015), that proves to be more efficient that any other approaches in understanding the complex and dynamical process of youth career counselling.

No: 232
Title:  E-Learning For Foreign Languages
Pages 1889-1894
Author(s): Cristina Ana Lemnaru*
Open Access

Full Text 232
While distance education is growing more and more popular by the year in a variety of fields, e-learning for foreign languages is still “foreign” in many and different ways, especially when it comes to research, data, and teaching methodology. Online foreign language courses differ radically from other subjects in which students interact and communicate in their own language in order to learn new material. In Romania, more and more students are enrolled in distance education programs in the last 5 years. We want to investigate this aspect in order to answer the following questions: What is the nature of learning a foreign language? What is the role of the teacher in the new virtual classroom? What language learning strategies should educators use? How essential is self-efficacy? To successfully adapt continuously moving requirements of the educational market, the “online site” is the new trend on the Romanian market. This trend represents the newness that we can enjoy if we want to be in tune with the times. Online platforms have progressed significantly in recent years. They continue to provide increasingly more useful applications and tools for language learning. 

No: 233
Title:  Students Concern Of ICT Implementation In The Classroom
Pages 1895-1900
Author(s): Cristina Ana Lemnaru*
Open Access

Full Text 233
The technological changes and processes have major implications for the structure and goals of the educational institutions. It can be said that the integration of ICT resources in education is beneficial and leads to an increase in school performance, provided that students have knowledge of computer use. This involves the introduction of IT and ICT classes for all profiles and all levels of education. In this article, we try to present an important problem, based on the multidimensional interactivity, the use of ICT in teaching a foreign language. Based on new information technologies, our education should not remain indifferent and instill solid knowledge to all students. Teachers are responsible for the appropriation of communication skills. Penetration of these technologies in education should be seen as an additional and decisive asset that takes into account the realities and demands of today’s society. The classes should be equipped with modern computers connected to the Internet. Teachers should possess in addition to theoretical and practical knowledge and skills pertaining to the studied discipline, the use of ICT. ICT should not only be a tool to present existing content in a new manner, it should lead to changes in thinking and working style classroom teachers crystallized into centuries of traditional education, too little concerned with the student’s personality and opportunities. 

No: 234
Title:  Ways To Increase Tennis Players’ Motivation
Pages 1901-1907
Author(s): Traian Ionut Mercea*
Open Access

Full Text 234
This article aims to identify the main techniques for increasing tennis players’ motivation in order to increase performances both in official competitions and at the training level. We focus our research on tennis players aged between 14 and 18 who are part of AS Pitești Tennis Club and who participate in the national championship. We know that motivation plays an important role in the training process, it is the main factor that separates a champion from the rest of the players. Without a motivation, the player perceives the training as monotonous and thus fails to reach its superior indices. A very good motivation makes the players to overcome opponents in competitions and in case of injury causes them to recover more quickly. Our work presents the facets of motivation in tennis as a major indicator in achieving a good sports performance. A good mental training will lead to superior performances in contests and competitions for tennis players. 

No: 235
Title:  Ways Of Developing Tourism With The Help Of Sports Activities
Pages 1908-1914
Author(s): Traian Ionut Mercea*
Open Access

Full Text 235
This article aims to achieve an increasing number of tourists in the Bradulet holiday village, in the county of Arges, combining the sports and recreational activities with other types of mountain activities. We are given all kinds of activities performed by children aged between 10 and 18 years, enhancing the reputation of the area and thus the number of tourists. The concept of recreation programs reflects the need for a variety of appreciable activities which respond to the multitude of motivations, needs, levels, items, opportunities etc.  This article helps the professionals in the field to exemplify the types of recreational sports that can take place in holiday camps with different categories of children. Thus, in designing sports activities, we must take into consideration the material conditions, the specialty of the involved persons. These activities are designed to form the habit of youth free time independent and autonomous practicing by children. This is shown in this research article. 

No: 236
Title:  Strategies For Achieving Psychological Training At University Men’s Basketball Teams
Pages 1915-1920
Author(s): Julien Leonard Fleancu*
Open Access

Full Text 236
This article aims to present strategies for achieving the psychological training performed on the basketball teams of the University of Pitesti participating in three university European championships. There are presented some psychological techniques that we managed to get out of difficult moments both at the University European Games in the Netherlands and those in Serbia and Croatia. These techniques have been successfully applied on both 5x5 teams as well as 3x3 streetball teams, constituting a starting point to demonstrate that the psychological training is permanent and it makes the difference very often with the other components of sports training between a winner and a defeated. We know that the psychological training allows athletes to perform successfully and achieve effective action and better results in contents and competitions. This is just we want to elucidate in this article namely presenting psychological techniques which were successful in obtaining the best performance in European university basketball competitions. Without an adequate psychological training at this competition level, the athletes would not be able to overcome difficult moments always occurred within competitions. 

No: 237
Title:  Analysis of management strategies of BCM U Pitești National League basketball team
Pages 1921-1927
Author(s): Julien Leonard Fleancu*
Open Access

Full Text 237
The fundamental objective of the club is the significant and steady contribution of sportsmen and technicians in Pitesti to represent and enhance Romania’s prestige both nationally and internationally. The purpose of this article is to analyze the existing management strategies at the club level for the last season which led the team close to relegation and identify the viable solutions for the competitive year 2016/2017. To achieve the team’s goals in this competition year, namely the classification in the top 6 teams, there were drawn and noticed a number of main directions, reported to the team’s budget that should be related with the team’s potential, following the development and harmonization of the collaboration and partnership relations they have with the local government and county authorities,  ensuring transparency in sport expenditure, achieving restoration to modern standards and gathering funds to support the team’s activities. The important factors are fundamental to achieving the objective: the human resources management, the management by objectives, the relations with the civil society and the institutional partnerships, the financial resource management and the development of the material base. 

No: 238
Title:  The Road From School To Real Life: Entrepreneurial Behaviour Among Romanian Students
Pages 1928-1938
Author(s): Amalia Duțu*, Mihaela Diaconu, Bogdan Georgescu
Open Access

Full Text 238
The new social and economic global outlook claims that European Union should take coherent strategic actions in training and education in order to better react to some challenges like the growing unemployment among young citizens, the new technologies and learning methods and entrepreneurial skills development. According to the 2020 Entrepreneurship Action Plan, education and training play an essential role in nurturing new generations of entrepreneurs. In this context, the present paper aims to measure the entrepreneurial intention among the Romanian students, to identify the main predictors of entrepreneurial behaviour and to generate the skills profile of the entrepreneur according to students' perceptions. In order to reach the purpose of the study, a students' survey was conducted across fundamental study domains in an average-sized and diversified university in Romania. According to students' perceptions, entrepreneurship is considered to be a science rather than an art, and the university should be concerned with entrepreneurial skills development no matter what the fundamental field is, which is considered by students as being core competences across fields. 

No: 239
Title:  Enhancing Employability of Graduates in Engineering
Pages 1939-1944
Author(s): Simona Găbureanu, Laura Serbănescu*
Open Access

Full Text 239
The paper presents the results of a study on students’ and employers’ perceptions of the employability skills of new graduates in engineering. The main objectives of the research are: to explore the perception of Master’s students concerning their own skills, knowledge and characteristics which help them to be employable; to explore the students’ perception of the targeted job; to identify the employability skills followed by the employers in the recruitment process and in the next period, right after hiring; to assess whether there are differences in the perception regarding the motivating factors at the workplace, between employers and students. In order to explore issues pertinent to the research objectives, interviews with students, young graduates of technical degree programs provided by the University Politehnica of Bucharest, and employers were conducted. Students were asked to specify both subject-specific competences and the transversal competences owned. These data were complemented with the employers’ views on graduates’ employability. The focus was on exploring their opinions regarding the strengths and weaknesses of graduates/ probationers, during the interview/ or in the next period, right after hiring. The employers’ opinion concerning the facilities offered to graduates and young employees revealed the nature of their partnership with the higher education institution, in order to promote employability. The research findings were used for identifying and choosing the best useful tools and developing specific materials that support the work of counseling to career planning for students in the target group. 

No: 240
Title:  Self-Regulated Learning And Academic Success
Pages 1945-1952
Author(s): Mihaela Păiși Lăzărescu*
Open Access

Full Text 240
Self-regulation is a behavioural acquisition which constitutes an important factor of school adaptation. Self-regulated learning represents a synthesis of several – motivational, strategic and self-control factors of performance. This type of learning provide explanations for two main problems: the first is connected to pupils’ learning motivational resources and the second targets the specific behaviours which externalize pupils’ individual learning. Pupil’s abilities target his use of different cognitive and metacognitive strategies whereas the motivational orientation refers to aims, values and expectances. The option for one strategy or another in solving certain problems, no matter whether cognition, metacognition or motivation are implied, depend on pupil’s expectances and convictions, on the values and goals related to learning. Self-regulated learning implies a reciprocal construction relation between subject (the learner) and the object (what is learned), construction and reconstruction of meanings in an interative relationship. Knowledge is constructed and transformed during the interaction of the subject with the academic environment.The strict preservation of old meanings is replaced by the „discovery” of meanings and significances, able to trigger pupils’ dynamic, active own approaches of the learning material. The determinant factors in achieving self-regulated learning belong to the learner’s personality but also to the educational/academic context he is part of. Consequently, pupil’s instruction to approach the learning material in a dynamic and flexible way becomes very important. The aim of learning strategies is represented by a judicial management of the pupil’s cognitive and motivational resources in order to problem solving. 

No: 241
Title:  Interpersonal Cognitive Problem-Solving And Social Self-Efficacy In Children
Pages 1953-1959
Author(s): Maria Magdalena Stan*
Open Access

Full Text 241
Research literature showed that the functioning of social abilities have a large impact on personal and professional success and influence the quality of mental and physiological health on the long run. Deficits in social skills and social competence play a significant role in the development and maintenance of many emotional and behavioural disorders of childhood and adolescence. Social-cognitive problem solving has been proposed and often accepted as relating positively to social and emotional adjustment, yet empirical support has been inconsistent. Interpersonal cognitive problem solving skills included: sensitivity to or the recognition of interpersonal problems; the ability to generate alternative solutions to solve these problems; the ability to consider step-by-step means to achieve social goals; the ability to articulate consequences of social acts for oneself and for others, and to generate alternative consequences to acts of social significance before deciding how to behave and the ability to identify and understand the motives and behaviors of others. This study aimed at examining the relationships among interpersonal problem solving skills and social self-efficacy in social competence. The data collected after applying the instruments Children’s Self-Efficacy in Peer Interactions, Wally Problem Solving Test and The Social Problem Solving Measure. The findings showed that the interpersonal problem solving skills and social self-efficacy are correlated positively. 

No: 242
Title:  The Dynamics Of Motivational Factors In The Didactic Career Development
Pages 1960-1966
Author(s): Maria Magdalena Stan*
Open Access

Full Text 242
The findings showed that the interpersonal problem solving skills and social self-efficacy correlate positively. The specialty studies have confirmed that a teacher’s professional quality and performance represents a predictor of the academic achievement of the educable individuals. The issue of the teacher’s professional development as a constantly topical subject appears conceptualized in the specialty literature under two aspects; on one hand the cognitive aspect- which refers mainly to the acquisition of pedagogical and speciality offering support in the efficient practice of the didactic profession and on the other hand to the emotional aspect which refers to internal impulses that direct behaviour emotionally: commitment, attachment and dedication. The starting point of the research is to examine the internal impulses of the didactic career. Thus, the present study proposes to analyze the dynamics of motivational factors at teachers according to the variables didactic experience and
environment as well as the impact these factors have upon the professional development of their didactic career. The practical implications of the present study refer to the evolution of efficient management strategies of professional development programmes adapted to the didactic profession, through developing, training and optimization programmes for personal and social support dimensions which can counterbalance socio-professional pressures and can contribute to obtaining acquisition of high levels of job satisfaction and professional commitment. 

No: 243
Title:  The Environmental Impact of Danube’s Pollution with Heavy Metals
Pages 1967-1974
Author(s): Amelitta Legendi, Corina Frăsineanu*
Open Access

Full Text 243
Nowadays the pollution is a stringent and critical problem that imposes serious measures to be taken into account. Water is one of the most important medium factors that facilitate the pollutants transport with serious consequences on the environment. There are many significant sources of water pollution which can affect the human health and may damage seriously the fauna and flora. The paper asserts the main sources of Danube’s pollution with heavy metals and proposes some solutions in decreasing the amount of these pollutant elements. The area of study that offered the data in this paper was the Somova – Parcheş aquatic complex, considered to be representative from the pollutant elements point of view. This area is located between Tulcea and Isaccea, in the pre-deltaic area of Danube Delta Biosphere reservation. Water is an medium factor, compulsory and crucial for everyday life, being the most outspread element on Earth. In nowadays situation, Terra finds itself in a critical period of its life from the pollution point of view and from the struggle for environmental protection point of view. 

No: 244
Title:  Making Learning Science Fun through Web2.0 Technologies: a Qualitative Study in Romania
Pages 1975-1983
Author(s): Georgeta Chirleşan*, Dumitru Chirleşan
Open Access

Full Text 244
Many countries have seen declining numbers of students choosing to pursue the study of Physical sciences, Engineering and Mathematics at university, while the percentage of Science & Technology graduates has fallen in several EU countries. The consequence is that the supply of scientists to sustain knowledge economies, which are heavily dependent on science and technology, is perceived as a significant problem. To address this problem, even starting with the pre-university education, the Erasmus+ Strategic Partnership project “SciFUN: Making Learning Science Fun” envisages to prepare European educators to better engage students in Science Education and as an effect of that, to increase students’ motivation and achievement in science and other connected subjects, such as Technology Education, Informal Learning, Environmental Education, Multicultural and Civic Education. The current paper presents findings from a qualitative study performed in Romania during the initial phase of the SciFUN project implementation, with the purpose to identify the state-of-the-art in Science Education and teachers’ needs and preparedness in relation to making learning science fun through the use of mobile devices and Web2.0 technologies. The research was achieved through Literature and Curricula Review, Focus Group and questionnaires applied to science teachers who teach to students aged 9 to 15. 

No: 245
Title:  Working with Multicultural Groups: a Culture and Ethnicity Case Study in Romania
Pages 1984-1991
Author(s): Georgeta Chirleşan*, Dumitru Chirleşan
Open Access

Full Text 245
The paper presents the main findings of a field research performed in different regions of Romania in the framework of the project “Us & Them: dialog, tolerance, collaboration for good coexistence in a multicultural world!”, a project financed by the Erasmus+ Programme of the European Union. The research has investigated the state-of-the-art regarding (1) the main features of existing cultures in Romania (principles, practices, ideas, values, patterns in human behaviour, thought and feelings, human activities, social standards) and (2) the misunderstandings, prejudices, stereotypes as potential sources of socio-cultural tensions. The research findings emphasize on the people’s level of awareness about other cultures existing in their area and also on the level of interaction among these cultures. The existing categories of cultures and sub-cultures – from a sociological point of view - have been also analyzed through a Focus Group organized with representative participants. The research findings helped identifying the training needs of Adult Educators who work with multicultural groups and designing a training curriculum for them to promote dialog and collaboration among multicultural learners. 

No: 246
Title:  Didactic Communication In Primay School
Pages 1992-1997
Author(s): Ileana Gurlui*
Open Access

Full Text 246
Didactic communication, as a particular form of human communication is essential in using the contents for the teaching activity and presupposes a dual relationship, teacher- pupil, and also an interaction for the feedback regarding the information used during communication. The purpose of didactic communication is to form opinions regarding the development of the didactic activities where the most efficient means and procedures should facilitate the accessibility of cognition and human practice. Communication is the basis of the educational relationship in the educational process. Didactic communication is also an educational communication, because the teacher enables changes in the pupils’ personalities. Didactic communication represents the basis of the teaching-learning process in which the partners have different roles: teachers are the main agents of education and the pupils are under the subordination of the institution. Didactic communication is not only an activity that puts together the teacher and the pupil, but also a process of influencing attitudes, believes, behaviors and volition. 

No: 247
Title:  Cultivation Of The Pupils`Speech While Achieving Teaching-Learning Objectives Of History
Pages 1998-2005
Author(s): Florentina Bucuroiu*, Mădălina Țibrian Cuceanu
Open Access

Full Text 247
The first impression of what we see, hear, taste, smell or touch has a major impact on our memory. If this first impression is deep enough to arouse interest, the information will be easily committed to memory. That`s why in the teaching-learning process the didactic strategy of knowledge transmitting is very important. It offers the basic support for enriching one`s universe. Explanation is the key-side of understanding while understanding is necessary for integrating the new into the already acquired structures. Yet, the context used for enhancing all these processes is decisive. Formative aspects have gained precedence over the informative ones. Those activities carried on outside the educational environment come to revigorate the common curricular activities. Enhancing pupils' interest in the study of history and discovering other cultures in the context of achieving theobjectives of history teaching-learning for example, requires that choice of teaching approaches that lead to strengthening the active and conscious character of knowledge acquisition. Extracurricular activities used to arouse students' interest in culture/history (visits and trips for example) are auxiliary forms of history teaching-learning process, and they are perfect opportunities to speech cultivation, an objective achieved through other activities besides the compulsory ones dedicated to language education. They foster an emotional climate of free and civilized verbal communication between children and reinforce the act of communication in its most varied forms. Thus, within different curricular areas, activities that come to support speech development can take a large variety of embodiments with often unexpectedly proficient outcomes. 

No: 248
Title:  Creating Productive Communicative Contexts With The Foreign Students
Pages 2006-2011
Author(s): Florentina Bucuroiu*
Open Access

Full Text 248
Educational activities carried out in a positive, entertaining and challenging atmosphere arouse the students` interest, increase motivation and desire for getting involved into the tasks. Consequently, interactivity derives not only from the application of modern teaching methods, but especially from the skill and the sense of humour of the activity coordinator.If game playing is the main form of organization of work in childhood, then we can say without hesitation that laughter remains the necessary ingredient of any successful interactive teaching activity, regardless of age or social status of the protagonists.Open discussions on our weaknesses and strengths, successes and failures, on whatever we love or we abhor are all helpful for a better integration within the group, and they are good prerequisites for socialization and empathy. Students must be happy simply because they are in classroom in one another's company. It is good if we can strengthen their sense of belonging to the group and remind them the reasons why all of them are lucky to be there together. Our paper aims to bring into the attention of those teachers involved in training the foreign students some suggestions of modalities that come to support activity development by creating relaxed didactic contexts, beneficial to interrelating and learning in general. 

No: 249
Title:  Study On The Management Of Communication Relationships In Some School Organizations  
Pages 2012-2018
Author(s): Liliana Ezechil*, Petruța Coman
Open Access

Full Text 249
Performing the management of education institutions becomes a more and more complex activity. Among the most appreciated skills of the school principal there is their capacity to manage the communication relationships at the level of the institution they manage. The target group  of this research  consists of  30 students in the master's program Educational management in our university.  The learners attending it are already teachers so that they can constitute a desirable experimental group  providing both information on the manner in which acting school principals understand communication relationships  and information on their expectations, as teachers, from their principals. Research questions: Do teachers perceive the existence of certain defining behaviors for performing a management of communication relationships? Which is the expectation level of teachers as a consequence of the principal’s exercise of the  functions associated to the management of communication relationships? Research methodology. Two questionnaires were applied: a. Questionnaire on identifying the perceptions of the teaching staff regarding the principals’ exercise of certain communication relationships management; b. Questionnaire on identifying the expectation level of teachers related to the exercise of the functions specific to the management of communication relationships of the school principal. Research results. Teachers have high expectations regarding the exercise by the principals of certain functions specific to ensuring the management of communication relationships even if they cannot explicitly define this concept. The results of test t for mean comparison, t (29) = 36.887, p≤0.00, which means that the difference between means 9.90 is statistically significant. 

No: 250
Title:  Prevention Of Errors In The Evaluation Process
Pages 2019-2026
Author(s): Ana Oproescu*
Open Access

Full Text 250
The pedagogical research focusing on the study of pedagogical evaluation contributed to the development of educational theory and practice by introducing concepts into the culture of pedagogical evaluation and experimental validation of the strategic approach to the culture of pedagogical evaluation, in order to prevent errors related to the educational process. One of the routes for guidance in the investigational study was the assessment of the multiple approaches to pedagogical evaluation, which led to focusing on the concept of culture of educational evaluation as a solution to prevent subjective evaluation. Researchers have identified the theoretical foundations of educational evaluation which have been integrated into a coherent system focused on theories, models and principles of evaluation: continuity, irreversibility, optimization, ordering to achieve the functions of evaluation: control, transmission, regulation/self (adaptation/improvement), conversion, socio-emotional encoding/decoding. In this context, the contemporary docimologic trend to ensure the evaluative device necessary to objective evaluation was reflected. It has been scientifically proven that pedagogical phenomena recorded in the subjective evaluation of contemporary education can be prevented by promoting and building a culture of pedagogical evaluation. 

No: 251
Title:  Educational Patterns In The History Of Pedagogy
Pages 2027-2032
Author(s): Gabriela Cristea*
Open Access

Full Text 251
Pedagogical patterns as defined in the specialized dictionaries set the main direction in the achievement of education, reflected in the level of didactical and extra-didactical process, the instructional method or the constitutive parts which represent the main focus of the didactical projects established at the scale of the whole educational system. There is an education policy fundamentally different under the historical conditions which allowed for the assertion, both in theory and practice of the school system, of some paradigms which focus on: a) the teacher, teaching, guided learning – the magistro-centric paradigm; b) student’s individual psychological needs- the psychocentric paradigm; c) society’s needs as well as economical, civic, cultural, political, religious, community needs - the sociocentric paradigm; d) the technology of education, the didactic methodology, types of organization in instruction, etc. – the technocentric paradigm; the goals of education designed according to level of the educational system and process- the paradigm of the curriculum. Our study proposes three objectives: 1) defining the concept of pedagogical pattern; 2) application of the concept of pedagogical pattern throughout the history of pedagogy in order to understand the paradigms which were promoted in the course of time; 3) examining some pedagogical patterns/ paradigms which foreshadow the progress in the evolution of pedagogical thinking both at a global level (John Dewey) and at a national level (Spiru Haret).