The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences EpSBS
Volume XXII, Pages 1- 283 (8 May2017)
Edited by: Zafer Bekirogullari, Melis Y. Minas & Roslind X. Thambusamy
Conference: 5th CPSYC 2017 International Congress on Clinical and Counselling Psychology
Dates: 26 - 28 April 2017
Location: CIRPAS (Interuniversity Research Center “Population, Environment and Health” University of Bari, Foggia, and Cosenza) Department of Educational Sciences, Psychology, Communication, University of Bari Aldo Moro
Conference Chair(s): Prof. Dr. Francesco Bellino, Co-Chair, CPSYC 2017, Full Prof. of Bioethics, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense organs, University of Bari Aldo Moro; Prof. Dr. Giovanna Da Molin, Co-Chair, CPSYC 2017, Full Prof. of Historical and Social Demography, Director of the CIRPAS, Department of Educational Sciences, Psychology, Communication, University of Bari Aldo Moro; Prof. Dr. Maria Sinatra, Co-Chair, CPSYC 2017, Full Prof. of General Psychology, Department of Educational Sciences, Psychology, Communication, University of Bari Aldo Moro; Dr. Zafer Bekirogullari, Co-Chair, CPSYC 2017, CPsychol, AFBPsS (British Psychological Society), HCPC Registered Counselling Psychologist (United Kingdom)
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Title: Contribution Of Psychological Defences And Coping Behaviour On Preschool Children Psychological Health
Author(s): Elena Kuftyak*
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Children’s psychological health is treated as a condition providing behaviour regulation adequate to the surrounding reality. The health factor considerably defines person’s ability to overcome difficulties in an evolving context. The author assumes that there are some particularities in the psychological defences and coping strategies composition depending on the state of children’s psychological health. In this article, we will discuss the results of the assessment of psychological health and the contribution of psychological defences and coping-behaviour. The research involved 86 examinees (49 boys and 37 girlsaged 5 to 6). The state of psychological health was estimated on the basis of an expert assessment using the Assessment of Anxiety Involving Observation questionnaire (Khukhlaeva & Khukhlaev, 2015) and the "Assessment Form of Children’s Psychological Health (Khukhlaeva & Khukhlaev, 2015). The defence mechanisms were studied by means of the Children Psychological Defence Assessment Map (Plutchik, 1980 adapted by Chumakova, 1999) and Schoolagers’ Coping Strategies Inventory (Rayan-Wenger, 1990). The results of the research show that psychologically healthy children more often choose the strategy of passive retreat from difficulties, while children with mental health problems are more focused on destructive emotions and "risk group" children use "regression" and "replacement" defences. The psychological defences and coping-strategies contributing to the state of psychological health were also revealed in this research. The obtained results are of great differential and diagnostic importance for psychologists. Besides, they can be used as a basis for the elaborating the programs for psychological prophylaxis and correction of psychological health impairments in childcare centres.
Title: Effectiveness Of Individual Play Therapy On Oppositional-Defiant Disorder Symptoms Among Children Performance
Author(s): Narges Morshed, Mohammad Babamiri*, Soheila Panahi, Mehdi Zemestani
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Given the importance of childhood disorders, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of individual play therapy on Oppositional-Defiant Disorder symptoms among children. A quasi-experimental research design type using a cluster sampling method was employed. The study sample included 30 girls and boys aged 6 to 10 years with Oppositional-Defiant Disorder symptoms referred to psychological consultation centres in the city of Ahvaz. Using simple random selection, the study sample was divided into an individual play therapy group (15 individuals) and a control group (15 individuals). The Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher Report Form (Achenbach & Rescolar, 2001) were used as measurement instruments. In addition, a clinical interview with parents was conducted to confirm the presence of the symptoms. The subjects were exposed to individual play therapy interventions during 8 sessions (each lasting 45 minutes) on a weekly basis and then evaluated in three stages including pre-intervention, post-intervention, and two months after the completion of sessions in a follow-up form. The SPSS software (version 18) and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) were used for data analysis. The results of the multivariate analysis of covariance indicated that Oppositional-Defiant Disorder symptoms reported by parents and teachers in the individual play therapy group significantly decreased at the post-test stage compared with those in the control group. Furthermore, the results were consistent after the two-month follow-up evaluation. These findings showed that individual play therapy could reduce symptoms of Oppositional-Defiant Disorder among children. Therefore, it is recommended that therapists use this therapy in treating children affected with this disorder.
Title: Adolescents’ Online And Offline Identity: A Study On Self-Representation
Author(s): Luca Pisano, Isabella Mastropasqua, Luca Cerniglia, Michela Erriu*, Silvia Cimino
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Adolescence represents a crucial period for the construction of personal and social identity. Nowadays, youths create their offline and online identity, as an undistinguishable and complex Self. Adolescents, indeed, construct their online identity as an integration of their physical and virtual persona. This integration might be difficult to represent and communicate to others. The Internet is widely spread among adolescents, and it can favour the development of risky online behaviours, which in turn can involve the occurrence of youth’s negative consequences, such as emotional problems, or difficulties in social behaviours. The present study intends to explore, in a sample of Italian adolescents, the capacity of representing the online and offline identity. This capacity is hypothesized to result in an adaptive use of the web. The sample was composed by 200 Italian adolescents, aged 14-17 years, who filled out an ad-hoc questionnaire tapping different aspects of representation of virtual reality. Adolescents revealed an unclear representation of their virtual identity. Because of their difficulties in identifying the relationship between the real and the virtual identity, the consequences of their activities in the web and in virtual communities are frequently underestimated. Identity and representation of the Self that adolescents express through social networks are very complex topics and the relationship between real and virtual identity needs further research, to carry out effective programs of prevention and intervention of problematic internet use in adolescence.
Title: How Self-Regulatory Modes And Perceived Stress Affect Academic Performance
Author(s): Francesco Bellino, Maria Sinatra*, Valeria de Palo, Lucia Monacis
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Kruglanski et al. (2000) demonstrated how two self-regulatory modes, locomotion and assessment, underlie most goal-directed activity: locomotors are inclined to engage in initiating and maintaining any goal-directed activity, whereas assessors tend to compare and select among alternative desired end-states. These two motivational components were thought as interdependent aspects and considered as trait or state, thus influencing individuals’ life activities. Previous research has shown the association between these self-regulatory modes and many aspects of goal pursuit, such as procrastination, time management, academic achievement(e.g., Chernikova et al., 2016), as well as self-esteem, optimism, anxiety, etc. (Pierro et al., 2008; Shalev & Sulkowski, 2009). The present study sought to analyze the association between self-regulatory modes, perceived stress, and academic performance. 492 Italian students (Mage = 20.63, SD = 5.22; 62.4% females) completed a questionnaire composed of a Socio-anagraphic section, the Locomotion and Assessment Scale, and the Perceived Stress Scale, during an exam session. Results revealed that the average marks were positively associated only to locomotion and that perceived stress was correlated negatively with locomotion and positively with assessment. Hence, the degree to which students perceived exams as stressful was determined by the way they regulated their goal-related activities. Consequently, developing specific strategies in academic environment could contribute to prevent the potential deleterious consequences of perceived stress.
Title: Psychological Support Programs For Foreign Students: Accounting Values And Coping Strategies
Author(s): Larisa Darinskaia, Natalia Moskvicheva*, Galina Molodtsova
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International students have difficulties in adapting in the host country. Psychological support programs will be effective if students` cultural characteristics, preferred values and behavioral strategies are taken into account. The purpose of the study was to determine international students` value orientations and coping strategies contributing to their successful adaptation to training in Russia; and to perform comparative analysis of coping strategies and life values of students of different ethnic groups to develop differentiated programs of psychological support. The sample comprised 441 international students in Russian universities: Africans – 149, Turkmen – 164, Mongols – 128; mean age 21.6±0.9. The methods included the use of the Trompenaars questionnaire of national culture differences (Tunik`s adaptation), Hobfoll Strategic Approach to Coping Scale (SACS), Lazarus Coping Questionnaire, Rokeach Value Survey. Descriptive statistics, Spearman correlation analysis, and comparative analysis (Mann—Whitney U-test) were conducted. We have found that successful adaptation of international students is positively linked with the coping strategies such as Social joining, Seeking social support, Planned problem-solving, and Positive reappraisal. Significant differences in coping strategies and ranking of life values among students of different ethnic groups were revealed. This study showed that psychological support should facilitate formation of sociocultural competence and development of coping strategies connected with social contacts and rationalization. In group training sessions it is necessary to focus on universal values and prevention of behavioral abnormalities.
Title: Sportspersonship In Martial Arts
Author(s): Lucia Monacis*, Silvana Miceli, Valeria de Palo, Pasquale Chianura, Maria Sinatra
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Studies on psychological outcomes related to individual differences have increased showing contradictory results, especially in martial arts. The difficulty to provide conclusive evidence for the psychological outcomes of martial arts practice and to determine if and to what extent martial arts trainings explain the above mentioned effects needs a more in-depth analysis of those dispositional aspects which can impact adaptive behaviors in terms of sportspersonship. Since no studies on sportspersonship and goal orientations has been carried out in the specific context of martial arts, the current research aimed at examining the role of goal orientations and trait aggressiveness as predictors of sportspersonship. A cross-sectional study was conducted. 389 Italian martial artists (Mage = 29.60, SD = 9.22) completed a questionnaire composed of four sections: a socio-anagraphic section, the Multidimensional Sportspersonship Orientations Scale, the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, and the Aggression Questionnaire. Descriptive and casual analyses were applied to data. The expected hypotheses were generally confirmed. Results suggested that ego orientation and trait aggressiveness negatively predicted sportspersonship, whereas task orientation positively predicted a sportspersonship attitude. In sum, this research contributed to a better identification of the dispositional factors which prevent antisocial behaviors, especially in the context of martial arts.
Title: The Characteristics Of Some Modern Romanian Mass Media Heroes And Their Educative Effects On Public
Author(s): Elena Claudia Mihai*
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Mass media represent today a huge social force, designed not only to deliver information, but mostly to shape attitudes and behaviours. It has a strong influence on the way that people perceive life, society, the world and their own existence. The mass media is creating and providing role models, leaders to follow, persons to compare yourself with and “modern heroes” aimed to guide the public. But which are the properties of these characters? What directions are they showing by their actions? This study aims to present the characteristics of some Romanian mass media “heroes” promoted by the best seller newspaper, their goals and the values associated with them. The psychological effects of this type of social models on public will be discussed. In order for this, we selected the most accessed Romanian journal, according to the Romanian Audit Rating Bureau: “Libertatea” (“Liberty”), the online edition, and we followed the lifestyle section during one week.
Title: Longitudinal Study On Parental Psychopathological Risk And Offspring’s Growth Delay
Author(s): Michela Erriu*
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Theory and research suggest that maternal psychological characteristics are a significant variable in the infant weight gain during childhood, while fewer studies have examined the role of fathers’ psychological profiles. Being the family relationship a core aspect of interpersonal processes during the developmental age, the evaluation of directly and indirectly involved variables in infants and in their parents is a key aim. Both maternal and paternal characteristics can impact on children’s weight faltering and psychological functioning, so that it would be useful to considerate the fathers’ role as risk or protective factor. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of maternal psychological functioning on the child’s adaptation during childhood, considering the paternal involvement in caregiving. Participants were N=60 parents with their children, recruited through nurseries and primary schools in Central Italy, longitudinally assessed in 6 years, when children were 2 (Time 1), 5 (Time 2) and 8 years old (Time 3). Children with severe feeding difficulties tend to have mothers with similar problems, whereas paternal psychopathology reveals a relevant role in the quality of caregiving modulating the interactional mother-infant patterns. Assessment of maternal and paternal psychopathological risk appears to be crucial to deal with the failure to thrive in their children and for promotion of early intervention in this field. We can say that the involvement of fathers can reduce the impact of important maternal difficulties on infant’s wellbeing, promoting an overall positive balance of the family.
Title: Qualitative Studies In Community Health: A Systematic Review In The Elderly Population
Author(s): Emília Martins*, Rosina Fernandes, Francisco Mendes, Cátia Magalhães
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The increased recognition of the qualitative methodology in the health field is a way of enhancement and highlights topics that would remain hidden if the option was the quantitative research. The purpose of this systematic review paper is to reflect about the importance of the qualitative methodology in the study of community health with the elderly. It seeks to identify areas of existing research, describe findings and analyse implications emerged for socio-educational intervention to inform practice and further research. The relevant literature was identified through two electronic databases: MEDLINE and PubMed (2010-2015). Inclusion criteria were: published qualitative or mixed-method studies, about elders, in community health. Relevant data including findings and practice recommendations were extracted and compared in tabular format and were included 48 articles of the 226 initially identified. The majority (20) came from Europe and 11 from North America, but we found studies in all Continents. Study repliers included health professionals, informal carers, patients, community members and relatives. Most (13) were focused on health care network, six on end-of-life care and six on quality of life and successful aging. The others referred to multiples themes. Qualitative research in elderly community health can help researchers to gain a more complete understanding or interpret the results of quantitative data more completely, as well as show us local specificities, that support a differentiated socio-educational intervention.
Title: Psychotherapy Intervention With Hypnosis In Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Author(s): Fabiana Rodrigues*, Celso Oliveira, Carlos F. Silva, Agostinho D’Almeida
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Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disease with high mortality and morbidity rates which entails early negative effects to the life of diabetics. Given the scant investigation of the effectiveness of hypnotherapy in type 1 diabetes, one might ask: can psychotherapy with hypnosis and using Guided and Creative Imagery lower blood sugar levels? This current investigation aims to study the efficiency and effectiveness of analytic hypnotherapy - a person centered approach focused on solutions that we called hypnotherapy without (or with) hypnosis - and of guided imagery, at the same time monitoring type 1 diabetes by glycemia and glycosylated hemoglobin. This investigation involved 28 diabetic participants from the Association of Diabetics of Ovar, northern Portugal. Participants were randomized, 15 of which were part of the experimental group while 13 of them were part of the control group, benefited by a relaxing technique. The research was conducted during three sessions, with needle prick and blood tests. The results have shown statistically non-significant differences between the two groups. However, we found statistically significant differences between the two groups as far as the reduction of levels of glycemia in association with guided imagery by direct suggestions, post-hypnotic suggestions and self-hypnosis. Results suggest that hypnotherapy seems to have been useful for the reduction of glycemia levels only when psychotherapy combined with guided imagery by direct suggestions, post-hypnotic suggestions and self-hypnosis were used. In short, psychotherapy combined with hypnosis may have contributed to an improvement in glycemic control of the studied diabetic patients.
Title: Psychological Intervention For Improving Prenatal Attachment Of Pregnant Women With A History Of Previous Miscarriage
Author(s): Chețu Camelia-Vasilica*
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Given that pregnant women who went through the miscarriage experience during one or moreprevious pregnancies have difficulties in forming emotional attachments to the fetus during the current pregnancy, development of psychological interventions for improving their maternal-fetal attachment is needed. The aim of this study is to present a psychological intervention centered on the Unifying-Experiential Psychotherapy for improving the prenatal attachment in pregnant women with a history of miscarriage and to investigate its effectiveness. Hence, 32 pregnant women at 10-30 weeks of gestation, who reported miscarriage in previous pregnancies, were divided in two groups: experimental and control group. All participants had completed Romanian version of Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale MFAS) (Cranley, 1981)in the pre-experiment and post-experiment stages. The experimental group members participated in a psychological intervention program, while the control group did not undergo any psychological intervention. The results obtained highlight significant differences in MFAS overall scores, Roletaking and Attributing Characteristics and Intentions to the Fetus subscales scores. Our findings indicate that psychological intervention for pregnant women with a history of miscarriage could be an important factor in improving their maternal-fetal attachment. Even if is is known that MFA increases during pregnancy, one-to-one or group therapy sessions support a stronger and healthier attachment between mother and fetus.
Title: Creativity In Psychotherapy: The Possibilities Of Its Utilization
Author(s): Ivanna Shubina*
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Although many studies on creativity have been conducted, issues related to utilizing creativity as a child’s ability and therapeutic tool in different social contexts still remain. How can creativity be classified and utilized in various psychological studies in relation to children and what are the possibilities of creativity use in psychotherapy considering social factors? This paper is aimed at exploring creativity in terms of abilities which potentially may be used during treatment. Clinical psychologists and psychotherapists have been considering use of patient abilities to think independently, to create original and novel ideas or to solve problems in non-stereotypical ways. Creativity in psychotherapy encourages patients to use their imagination and skills to help express their problems, difficulties and beliefs in a natural way, after which it is possible to plan efficient treatment, find appropriate solutions and additionally to develop highly important personal, cognitive and other skills and capabilities. Next, child’s play was developed in the frame of humanistic psychology as an efficient tool for the exploration of the child's life, culture, and problems in a natural and accepting atmosphere without judgment creating the possibility of rehearsing and mastering some skills or patterns. The active use of creativity in psychotherapy can be applied in treatment of adults, but is especially effective with children. The significance of creativity in therapy opens up wide possibilities for both therapists and patients to explore this problematic field more freely.