BE-ci 2016

The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences EpSBS
Volume XVII, Pages 1- 471 (30 November 2016)

e-ISSN: 2357-1330
Edited by: Roslind X. Thambusamy, Melis Y. Minas, Zafer Bekirogullari
Articles: 1-43
Conference:  BE-ci 2016 : 3rd International Conference on Business and Economics
Dates: 21-23 September, 2016 
Location: Universiti Teknologi MARA Selangor Malaysia
Conference Chair: Shah Alam, Universiti Teknologi MARA Selangor Malaysia  

No: 1
Title: Guest Editors' Message
Pages 1-2
Author(s): Future Academy
Open Access

Full Text 1 

No: 2
Title: Do Self Efficacy and Familial Factor Matter? Understanding Women’s Entrepreneurial Intention in SMEs in Sarawak
Pages 3-10
Author(s): Nadzly Zaqwan Mohamed Zaini, Jati Kasuma Ali, Yusman Yacob
Open Access

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Although there are a number of studies on entrepreneurial intention, women in entrepreneurship are becoming one of the main attractions and concerns among researchers nowadays. The entrepreneurial intention of women is essential to the development of entrepreneurial activities because it acts as a background for entrepreneurs to be competitive and enhance their abilities to achieve the business objective. The present study serves a ground work to determine the factors that influence women’s entrepreneurial intention with a focus on women as micro-enterprise entrepreneurs in Small and Medium Industries (SMEs) in Kuching, Sarawak. Self-Efficacy and familial factor are looked into to assess their effect on women’s entrepreneurial intention. A quantitative approach was adopted whereby a self-administered questionnaire was designed and pre-tested. Questionnaires were distributed to women entrepreneurs in Kuching who registered under the Wawasan Women Entrepreneur Sarawak (SARANITA) program. The data obtained were then analyzed using SPSS 22. The result shows that both dimensions of self-efficacy and familial factor have a positive effect on women’s entrepreneurial intention. The result also indicates that self-efficacy is the critical factor followed by familial factor that drives their business intention. Hence, understanding women’s entrepreneurial intention towards business could help to strengthen their roles in the developing market and economies. 

No: 3 
Title: An Investigation of Decision Making Practice upon Sustainable Property Investment in Medan City, Indonesia
Pages 11-22
Author(s): Khaira Amalia Fachrudin, Hilma Tamiami Fachrudin
Open Access

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Property investment is done by developers.  The property is then sold to the consumers to get a return.  Sustainable property has not been well developed in Medan City, Indonesia. This research is conducted to find out and analyze the investment consideration on sustainable property made by the developers.   The study involved 40 active members of the real estate association in Medan, which chosen at random from their list name. This research is quantitatively conducted along with an in-depth interview.  The research findings indicate that the correlation of return of sustainable property and risk is negative and insignificant within alpha5%.  Sustainable property development is related to the responsibility towards the environment and capability but not related with trend.  Yet, it is not related to government's policy and accepted reward.  The study can contribute to the development of policies and rewards by Medan City Authorities to encourage sustainable property development. 

No: 4
Title: Examining the Relationship between Psychological Empowerment, Relationship Quality and Online Word of Mouth in Brand Facebook Page
Pages 23-33
Author(s): A. Ngelambong, M.W. Omar, J.A. Ahmad, S. Saien
Open Access

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This study examines the link between psychological empowerment, relationship quality and word of mouth in a brand Facebook page. It is intended to help brand marketers establish and apply successful relationship marketing strategies in the online environment. Successful implementation of relationship marketing in social networking sites will contribute to favorable consumer behaviors such as positive word of mouth. Based on the data collected from 10 hospitality brand Facebook pages, Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis was used to examine the structural interrelationship between psychological empowerment, relationship quality and online word of mouth. The empirical findings of this study were threefold. First, higher consumer psychological empowerment resulted in higher relationship satisfaction. Second, greater relationship satisfaction led to higher relationship commitment and relationship trust. Third, better relationship quality (relationship satisfaction, relationship commitment and relationship trust) contributed in greater positive online word of mouth. 

No: 5
Title: Transformational Leadership and Business Performance: An Insight From Technology-based SMEs in Malaysia
Pages 34-42
Author(s): Azlin Shafinaz Arshad, Amran Rasli, Afiza Azura Arshad, Zahariah Mohd Zain
Open Access

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Many researches have been conducted on leadership styles and business performance in Malaysia. However none of these researches specifically studied transformational leadership and business performance from the perspectives of technology-based SMEs. This paper serves two purposes. First, the authors aim to identify the critical dimensions of transformational leadership and business performance. Second, this paper intends to determine the relationship between transformational leadership and business performance.  This study used a quantitative method approach using survey questionnaire. 86 respondents who are the owners or top managers of technology-based SMEs in Malaysia  took part in the study. The analyses conducted involved factor, reliability and correlation analysis. The results of factor analysis proposed three dimensions representing transformational leadership, i.e. enthusiastic optimism, idealized influence and individual consideration which is contrary to the four dimensions theorized by Bass and Avolio (2004). In addition, business performance generated a one-factor-dimension. The correlation analysis indicates there is a significant and positive correlation between transformational leadership and business performance. The originality of this paper lies on being the first to examine the transformational leadership and business performance in technology-based SMEs in Malaysia. 

No: 6
Title: Analyzing Burnout Syndrome at Bingol University
Pages 43-63
Author(s): Imran Aslan, Çetin Bektaş
Open Access

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Burnout syndrome resulting in dissatisfaction and physical illnesses due to continuous and long-term stress exposure at work is a common problem at governmental institutions in Turkey.  A survey  was carried out in 2015 on 121 staff at Bingöl University, Turkey to measure the burnout level and compare Maslcah Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) scales. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, regressions and correlations methods are used to analyze data. All items of the survey had 0.915 Cronbach Alfa reliability score and MBI and CBI groups had 0.799 and 0.904 Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. The total mean of all items was 2.45 with 1.48 minimum from “Impersonal objects item”  and 3.826 maximum from “Have enough energy during leisure time”. Moreover, strong correlations were found between EE (Emotional Exhaustion)  and DP (Depersonalization), WRB (Work-related Burnout) and PB (Personal Burnout) - CRB (Clients-related Burnout) groups and DP has strong correlations with WRB and PB-CRB groups. Position and working more hours had a significant relationship with burnout syndrome while other important factors such as experience, age, gender and having children had moderate effects on burnout. Moreover, the CBI scale was found to be more suitable to measure burnout with higher reliability and validity values. 

No: 7
Title: Institutionalization in Practice: Development of a University
Pages 64-80
Author(s): Imran Aslan, Pınar Güneş
Open Access

Full Text 7
Institutionalization of the new universities is critical to deal with problems faced by staff and students, and region. In this paper, a new process of institutionalization producing stable correlations and shared beliefs for measuring the dynamics of institutionalization was carried out at Bingöl University, a new university established in 2008 in the east of Turkey.  The theory should be applied to a wide range of institutions to compete with national and international universities. Diverse educational quality of higher education is now a serious issue in Turkey due to increasing numbers of graduates not being able to find a job despite the availability of many work opportunities. Challenges need to be minimized to create a harmony between quality and financial sustainability in Bingöl University. For this study, 130 surveys were carried out at Bingöl university out of 500 staffs in 2015. Statistical tools like one-way ANOVA were used to evaluate the degree of institutionalization. Being a new university, having low-qualified academicians, getting low-scoring students from national entrance exam to universities named as LYS, and self interests are major barriers preventing the institutionalization of Bingöl University. 

No: 8
Title: Impact of Macroeconomic Policy Instruments and External Shock on Unemployment Rate in Malaysia
Pages 81-94
Author(s): Gurmit Kaur, Nur Asyiqin Bt. Zaharudin
Open Access

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This paper examines the impact of macroeconomic policy instruments and external shock on unemployment rate in Malaysia.  Using the quarterly data from 2006(Quarter 1) to 2015 (Quarter 4) the study found that GDP growth, price of oil, broad money supply and average overnight interbank rate have significant and negative impact on unemployment rate in Malaysia.  The findings of the study also indicate the existence of Okun’s law which postulates A positive relationship between GDP and unemployment. Policy makers could formulate policies related to the above macroeconomic variable to enhance unemployment reduction. On the other hand, the inflation rate shows a positive effect but is not significant. 

No: 9
Title:  Scientific and Professional Development of Public Accountant Graduates in Uniguajira Colombia
Pages 95-99
Author(s): Víctor Iguarán Manjarrés, Ledis Campo Rivadeneira, Belkis Vanegas Sprockel, Omar Cortés- Peña
Open Access

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The purpose of this paper is to analyze the scientific development of public accountant graduates from the Universidad de La Guajira, in the exercise of their profession in the Department of La Guajira, Colombia. The methodological approach to the research was descriptive with a non-experimental cross-sectional design and quantitative approach. The sample consisted of 139 certified public accountants and 106 managers of companies where they work. The techniques and instruments used for data collection were a direct survey with 21 items using a Likert Scale. Graduates have developed measurement methods and accounting interpretation to optimize the financial information of the companies where they work, but they need to strengthen the design and application of valuation methods of representation and coordination, aggregation and accounting information, to facilitate business financial information. It was concluded that public accountants graduates of the University of La Guajira almost always have the analytical skills for the accounting processes but it was determined that they have not participated in scientific research which has generated scientific knowledge production, accounting theories, accounting strategic guidelines, contributions to the generally accepted accounting principles, or scientific articles.  

No: 10
Title: Sustainable Transport in Campus Area: E-Bike
Pages 100-107
Author(s): Muhammad Fitri Samsuddin, Siti Nurul Akma Ahmad, Siti Nurbayah Ahmad
Open Access

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The increased awareness of the impact of CO2 emissions and consumption of fossil fuels on the environment has led to world-wide research focused on electric vehicle solutions. University campuses are one of the affected environments involved in this issue as a high dependency on private vehicles causes traffic congestion in the campus area particularly during peak hours leading to concerns about parking especially for the established universities. Therefore, alternative transport solutions should be considered in minimizing the environmental consequences specifically within the campus area. With an adapted technological means, at minimal cost that best suits student capacity, a feasible mode of transport for use within the campus area was visually developed. The emphasis of this new mode of transport is on short journeys around the campus area as well as short commutes from home to campus. The electric bike (E-Bike) will provide an eco-friendly and cost-effective alternative to getting around campus. The objectives of this research are to study the relevance of E-Bike usage within the campus area and to examine the factors that might encourage students to use the E-Bike. A set of questionnaire with the visually developed E-Bike was randomly distributed to 100 students in Universiti Teknologi MARA(UiTM), Alor Gajah, Malaysia campus and data analysis was conducted by using SPSS version 20. The findings revealed that the proposed E-Bike was relevant with the expected benefits perceived by the students. This feasible commuting mode can get people out of their cars, reduce the number of vehicles on campus with lower carbon emissions, promote a healthy lifestyle among students and staff, reduce travel costs and fuel consumption as well as save parking space in campus area to avoid traffic congestion.  

No: 11
Title: Identifying Work-Family Conflict among Nurses: A Qualitative Study
Pages 108-120
Author(s): Faezah Sabil, Haruyah Abu, Jati Kasuma, Nurul Lizzan
Open Access

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Working women face stress due to the multiple roles they need to handle to achieve work and family life satisfaction when there is no full support from their spouses. Conflict will arise when they cannot balance their tasks at the workplace and their home. Nurses have many responsibilities in their workplace while needing to manage their families as well. Work-family conflict occurs when workplace responsibilities interfere with family life, such as inflexible working hours, work overload, interpersonal conflict at work and unsupportive supervisors in the organization. This study hopes to identify the scenario of work family conflict among nurses in public sector and outline some strategies for the enhancement of their well-being. Ten respondents were chosen based on purposive sampling. The study was conducted among various levels of nurses at Sarawak General Hospital. Findings from the interviews show that three factors contribute to work family conflict among nurses, namely workload, work shift and position. Recommendations have been proposed based on respondent feedback as well as researchers’ view such as reducing work family conflict through work family segmentation, support from family (husband, children and other family members) and self-commitment which comprises the elements of work priority, positive attitude, open communication and intention to work.  

No: 12
Title: Household Debt and Macroeconomic Variables in Malaysia
Pages 121-130
Author(s): Masturah Ma’in, Nur AmiraIsmarau Tajuddin, Siti Badariah Saiful Nathan
Open Access

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The rise of household debt in Malaysia has caused consternation since it has almost reached 89.1% of total GDP. The level of household debt is deemed to be at worrying stage as it may trigger another financial crisis. The purpose of this study is to examine factors that influence household debt in Malaysia via time series data. This study employs the ordinary least square (OLS) method and the macroeconomic variables used consist of base lending rate, housing price index, gross domestic product and unemployment as independent variables taken in the period from quarter one 2008 to quarter four 2015. The results show that the housing price index is the most significant variable, followed by base lending rate, unemployment and gross domestic product. House pricing index and gross domestic product show positive relationships with household debt, which indicates that the rise of household debt is determined by the rise of these explanatory variables. However, base lending rate and unemployment are found to have negative effects on the rise of household debt. The data are taken from Bank Negara Malaysia report, National Property Information Centre (NAPIC) and Asia Regional Integration Centre. 

No: 13
Title: Documenting Knowledge through Oral History: Islamic Awareness among the Malaysian Malays
Pages 131-145
Author(s): Mohd Nazir Ahmad, Mashitah Sulaiman, Sohaimi Zakaria, Marina Munira Abdul Mutalib, Ahmad Zam Hariro Samsudin
Open Access

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The literature proposes that the participation among Malay middle income class in the Islamic Resurgence was significantly noticeable in helping the upsurge of Islamic consciousness in urban cities in Malaysia. How do they perceive this? How does the Malay middle income class obligate to Islamic teaching? This study aims to analyze the Malay middle income class’commitment to Islamic teaching based on their convictions and their participation in Islamic Resurgence and activities. Exploratory qualitative approach is used for this multidisciplinary historical and socio-religious research. Documentation of knowledge with five informants of the Malay middle income class was conducted through oral history. Samples were selected purposefully based on criterion sampling. The semi-structured in-depth interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and analysed through content and descriptive analyses.Data showed significant roles played by the Malay middle income class in Islamic activities led to the revival of Islamic Resurgence in the urban areas. In general, Islamic Resurgence contributes to positive impacts on the Malay Muslim middle income class’ religious practices and commitments. The study indicated that the Islamic Resurgence contributes to the emergence of the great number of moderate Muslims and the progressive development of Islam in Malaysia. 

No: 14
Title: The European Parliament after Brexit
Pages 146-157
Author(s): Katarzyna Cegiełka, Piotr Dniestrzański, Janusz Łyko, Radosław Rudek
Open Access

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The allocation of seats in the European Parliament (EP) according to the Treaty of Lisbon, must comply with the principle of degressive proportionality. The rule can be either in the form of rounded degressive proportionality or unrounded degressive proportionality. This paper deals with expected compositions of the EP after the likely exit of the United Kingdom from the European Union bodies. We present the allocations of seats among the member states generated by means of simulation algorithms selected from the literature. These allocations are mostly unrounded degressively proportional, whereas using the approach developed in previous papers and considering all feasible allocations, we always achieve rounded degressively proportional allocations. We discuss the attained results and indicate the most appropriate allocation and methodology. 

No: 15
Title: Understanding Islamic Brand Purchase Intention: The Effects of Religiosity, Value Consciousness, and Product Involvement
Pages 158-166
Author(s): Siti Sarah Kusumawardhini, Sri Rahayu Hijrah Hati, Sri Daryanti
Open Access

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The Islamic brand is closely linked to the faith, but the significant role of religiosity is sometimes overlooked. The current study will incorporate the issue in the analysis. The point in question is whether there is a significant influence of religiosity on Islamic brand purchase intention. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of religiosity on Islamic brand purchase intention as compared with the effect of product involvement and value consciousness. To investigate the relationship between the variables: religiosity, value consciousness, and product involvement, an explanatory research design was employed that involved an online survey of 176 Muslim women. The final questionnaire was made up of 30 items that consisted of the measures for product involvement (10 items), value consciousness (7 items), religiosity (10 items), and purchase intention (3 items). Based on a study of Indonesian consumers in the context of toiletry product purchases, the study found that religiosity and product involvement have no significant influence on Islamic brand purchase intention. Meanwhile, it is only value consciousness that has positive and significant influences on Islamic brand purchase intention. 

No: 16
Title: Understanding Muslim Customer Satisfaction with Halal Destinations: The Effects of Traditional and Islamic Values
Pages 167-175
Author(s): Errid Hadisyah Putra, Sri Rahayu Hijrah Hati, Sri Daryanti
Open Access

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Only limited research has examined the role of religion in a tourism context. This study examines the moderating role of religion in the relationships between value and customer satisfaction. This paper poses the question: Does religiosity moderate the relationships among traditional value, Islamic value and customer satisfaction with the halal destination? The study aims to test empirically the effect of traditional value and Islamic religious value on customers’ satisfaction with a halal destination. Moreover, the study also analyses the moderating role of religiosity in the relationship between Islamic value and customers’ satisfaction with a halal destination. A total of 295 questionnaires consisting of 40 items was distributed to Muslim tourists on-line through survey sites and off-line at Lombok Island. Lombok was employed because it was chosen as the Best Halal Tourist Destination and the Best Halal Honeymoon Destination during the World Halal Travel Awards 2015 held in Abu Dhabi. The direct relationships and moderation effects of religiosity were assessed using structural equation modeling with AMOS 18.0. The results clearly indicated that it is only traditional value which significantly and directly influences customers’ satisfaction with a halal destination while Islamic value has no significant influence on customers’ satisfaction. Islamic value, specifically non-physical Islamic attributes, significantly influences customers’ satisfaction only under the moderation of religiosity. Thus, destination marketers should deliver highly traditional value to create high customer satisfaction with halal destinations. Marketers should also consider non-physical Islamic attributes such as segregation of service delivery when they target consumers with high religiosity to attract more Muslim tourists.  

No: 17
Title: Understanding Halal Restaurant Patronage Intention: The Role of Perception, Culture and Religiosity
Pages 176-188
Author(s): Andreina Fara, Sri Rahayu Hijrah Hati, Sri Daryanti
Open Access

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Restaurants providing halal (permissible according to Islamic jurisprudence) food are important to Muslims. However, many factors influence customers’ intention to patronise halal restaurants. This study examines the antecedents of patronage of halal restaurants. The study questions whether there is an effect of perceived value, perceived usefulness and culture on the intention to patronise halal restaurants and whether religiosity moderates the relationship among these variables. The purpose of this study is to explore the factors that influence Muslim customers’ intention to patronise halal restaurants. The study specifically investigates the relationships among perceived value, perceived usefulness, culture, religiosity and intention to patronise halal restaurants. The study is based on a sample of 323 halal restaurant consumers. The questionnaire measures the following variables: perceived value, perceived usefulness, vertical collectivism, horizontal collectivism, vertical individualism, horizontal individualism, religiosity and intention to patronise halal restaurants. The study shows that both perceived value and perceived usefulness have a direct influence on behavioural intention to patronise halal restaurants. In regards to the effect of collectivism and individualism, only horizontal collectivism and vertical individualism have a direct influence on purchase intention. The current study also finds that religiosity moderates the relationship among perceived value, perceived usefulness, horizontal collectivism and horizontal individualism with respect to behavioural intention. The study shows that the Muslim intention to patronise halal restaurants is influenced by the perceived value, perceived usefulness of halal restaurants and culture which is also moderated by the Muslim level of religiosity. 

No: 18
Title: A Methodological Framework of Financial Analysis Results Objectification in the Slovak Republic
Pages 189-197
Author(s): Viera Bartošová, Pavol Krá
Open Access

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The applicability of financial analysis results meets in practice a serious problem how to objectify analysis results with regard to the comparable values and information sources. Financial analysis results cannot be taken as useful and acceptable without their objectification on the basis of chosen reference rates, values. The article is focused on key information about financial analysis objectification methods, sources and databases in conditions of Slovak enterprises. Current database for the comparison in Slovakia is provided by the CRIF – Slovak Credit Bureau, which provides a complete range of solutions for business and consumer information as well as credit and marketing management. This information is very useful for financial analysis objectification, but not available for all potential users. 

No: 19
Title: Impact of Internal Marketing on Job Satisfaction Among Bank Employees in Yemen
Pages 198-212
Author(s): Waddah Ismail, Nooraini Mohamad Sheriff
Open Access

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The main purpose of the current study is to examine the effects of internal marketing on job satisfaction among banks employees in Yemen. The independent variable was internal marketing factor represented by several dimensions namely, development, vision, internal communications, rewards and empowerment adopted from the models of Foreman and Money (1995). The dependent variable was job satisfaction factor, represented by several dimensions namely; pay, promotions, supervision, work and co-workers, adopted from Stanton (2002). The study made use of a survey questionnaire distributed to 407 Yemeni bank employees, after which data was analyzed with the help of descriptive statistics, and exploratory factor analysis. Added to this, the study used the structural equation modeling and the findings confirmed that internal marketing has a significant relationship with job satisfaction. In examining model fit, the value of fit statistics (GFI=.95, CFI=.975 and RMSEA=.068) indicated that the hypothesized model fitted the data. Finally, this study contributed positively in the direction of internal marketing factors and its impact on job satisfaction in the banking sector in Yemen. 

No: 20
Title: Relationship and Effect of Entertainment, Informativeness, Credibility, Personalization and Irritation of Generation Y’s Attitudes towards SMS Advertising
Pages 213-224
Author(s): Nik Mohamad Nik Najib, Jati Kasuma, Zainon Binti Haji Bibi
Open Access

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With the fast growth of mobile phone usage especially among generation Y, companies have taken this opportunity to advertise their products and services through this new medium of interactive marketing. SMS advertising is a good advertising medium or tool to advertise products and services. The objective of the research is to explore how generation Y in Kelantan, Malaysia cope with SMS advertising and to find out which factors among Entertainment, Informativeness, Credibility and Personalization affect generation Y’s attitudes towards SMS in Kelantan. A total of 300 respondents were selected using convenience sampling technique. Questionnaires were distributed at two public universities in Kelantan; UiTM, Kota Bharu campus and Universiti Malaysia Kelantan. The purpose of this paper is to explore generation Y's views and perceptions towards SMS advertising. In the light of the overall findings in the current research, this study concludes that the respondents held negative attitudes about receiving mobile advertisements. Entertainment, informativeness, creditability and personalization share the same significance among the factors affecting generation Y's attitudes. Overall, the findings show that perceptions of SMS advertising are rather negative among generation Y. 

No: 21
Title: The Acceptance of Medical Saving Account (MSA) in Alleviating Healthcare Costs
Pages 225-234
Author(s): Siti Nurul Akma Ahmad, Nor Azmaniza Azizam, Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh, Mohd Shahril Mohd Besir, Siti Nurbayah Ahmad
Open Access

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A healthcare system involves activities whose primary purpose is to promote, restore and maintain health (WHO, 2000). It is fundamental that health systems are able to maintain and improve social welfare. In relation to mobilization of resources and long-term sustainability healthcare expenditure, ongoing efforts by the stakeholders involved are occasionally made to revisit the current system and propose more innovative financing mechanisms.  The Medical Saving Account (MSA) is one of the mechanisms being assessed to gauge the efficiency of cost containment. This study aims to examine the health and financial status of selected residents in Shah Alam,  analyze the acceptance of the MSA, and determine the level of willingness to pay (WTP) for the MSA. Data collection was conducted by distributing 31 questionnaires as a pilot test. Respondents were randomly selected from Shah Alam and given a guided questionnaire. The data was analyzed using SPSS. Most of the respondents reported a good health status with no serious diagnosed diseases and a good financial status. However, none of the factors studied showed a significant association with the acceptance of the MSA implementation with a median WTP of RM72.30 (approximately 17USD). To develop the MSA as a comprehensive model which can complement existing financing mechanisms, the benefits of the MSA need to be addressed especially in closing the gaps between the current systems as well as improving the current mechanism models or revising the proposed scheme. 

No: 22
Title: Association of Patient Centered Communication and Patient Enablement
Pages 235-242
Author(s): Nor Azmaniza Azizam, Siti Noorsuriani Maon, Nor Intan Shamimi Abdul Aziz, Nur Zainie Abd Hamid
Open Access

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There is increasing attention in assessing patient centered communication (PCC) as a measure of health quality and patient’s outcome. Difference in perception between patient and health provider on communication during medical consultation may lead to poor health outcome and compliance. Limited studies in assessing health provider communication in Malaysian primary care setting make it difficult to determine whether this country evolving towards patient centered communication. This study was aimed at identifying the association between PCC and patient’s enablement (PE). A cross sectional investigation involving a total of 69 outpatients was conducted in an outpatient clinic at the Pulau Pinang Hospital. Respondents were recruited using convenience sampling in February 2016 and the data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. PCC was measured by three domains; exchanging information (EI), socioemotional behavior (SB) and communication skill (COS). Patients scored highest on SB domain with mean (SD) was 4.06(0.51), followed by EI, 3.84(0.45) and COS, 2.75(0.70). Only SB showed a statistically significant association with patient enablement, p<0.05. The findings of this study provide useful information towards improving health provider communication skill to enhance patient’s understanding and self-care management. Further studies need to be conducted to explore other factors that contribute to the patient enablement during medical consultation. 

No: 23
Title: Economic Burden and Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Psoriasis Treatment Modalities in Malaysian Public Hospitals: A Study Protocol
Pages 243-250
Author(s): Saperi Sulong, Aniza Ismail, Nor Azmaniza Azizamc Norazirah Md Nor, Zafar Ahmed
Open Access

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There is limited evidence on the economic burden and cost effectiveness of psoriasis treatment modalities in this region. This study aims to evaluate the economic burden and cost effectiveness analysis of four Psoriasis treatment modalities in Malaysian public hospitals. This is a prospective cohort study involving a total of 523 moderate to severe psoriasis patients (Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI)>10and/or Body Surface Area (BSA)>10 and/or Dermatology Life Quality Life (DLQI)>10) recruited from five public hospitals in Malaysia via consecutive sampling technique. The duration of the data collection is 12 months (6 months recruitment and 6 months follow up). Inclusion criteria include new or existing moderate to severe psoriasis patients who started with new treatment modalities at the time of the recruitment period, Malaysians, aged 18 years and above and who are willing to participate. The costs are calculated from the societal perspective. Provider costs are calculated by estimating recurrent costs (emolument, consumables, utility, maintenance and training) and direct costs (drugs, laboratory investigation, procedural examination).Patient costs components are direct and indirect costs. Direct costs include treatment cost (traditional medicines), out of pocket expenses (over the counter drugs, skin supplements and products). Indirect costs covers transportation and loss of productivity. Economic burden is measured by multiplying the total cost with the prevalence of psoriasis. Effectiveness of the treatment modalities is assessed based on PASI, BSA and DLQI scores (outcomes). PASI-75 (75% reduction of PASI score from baseline score), BSA<5 and DLQI≤5 (disease has no or minimal impact on quality of life) is considered effective. The least cost per outcome is the most cost effective treatment. 

No: 24
Title: Personal Factors and Work-Life Conflict: A Study of a Malaysian Statutory Body
Pages 251-261
Author(s): Muhamad Khalil Omar, Mohamad Fahimi Ahmad, Isma Syafani Ismail
Open Access

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Work-life conflict has been discussed prominently in the literature for the last two decades because the workforce is increasingly composed of individuals who struggle with multiple roles. A number of empirical investigations have been carried out to examine its nature, variance, and outcome. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between personal factors and work-life conflict among employees of a Malaysian statutory body using a sample of 120 personally-distributed questionnaires. The variables for personal factors consist of career commitment, household responsibilities, and financial needs. The findings indicated that two out of three variables of personal factors (i.e. household responsibilities and financial needs) are positively and significantly related to work-life conflict. The finding also reveals that career commitment is not significantly related to work-life conflict. Therefore, this study adds to the body of knowledge of work-life conflict that validated the positive relationship between employees’ personal factors of household responsibilities and financial needs with work-life conflict. On the other hand, this study also proved that an employee’s career commitment does not relate to work-life conflict, thus showing that a committed employee would not be feeling any conflict in fulfilling the demands of both of his or her work and non-work lives. Nevertheless, an employee who has higher household responsibilities and financial needs would face a higher conflict in fulfilling the demands of both of his or her work and non-work live. Hence, human resource practitioners could use this information as a reference in their managing their employees. 

No: 25
Title: Intra-Industry Trade in Machinery and Transport Equipment: Malaysia and its Trading Partners
Pages 262-273
Author(s): Siti Badariah Saiful Nathan, Nasiha Kamaruzaman, Masturah Ma’in
Open Access

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Intra-industry trade (IIT) has become prominent across Asia including Malaysia due to the greater influence of globalization in international trade and rapid economic growth. The growth of IIT occurred because of its characteristics which could result in gains from trade through better exploitation of economies of scale and product differentiation as well as enhance innovation. Since IIT is important in increasing the growth of an economy through trade earnings trade, therefore there is a need to study the determinants of IIT in Malaysia. This study is focused on the manufacturing sector especially the machinery and transport equipment (SITC 7) from 1994 to 2014. IIT is calculated by using the Grubel Lloyd (GL) index. Panel data is utilized in performing panel cointegration and panel Granger causality tests. The Hausman specification test shows that the fixed effect least square dummy variable (LSDV) model is better than the random effects model. These tests were used to determine the relationship between the levels of IIT and its determinants namely differences in per capita GDP, foreign direct investment, geographical distance and technological advancement. The results show that the variables are cointegrated in the long run, in addition to the existence of short run relationships between intra-industry trade with differences in per capita GDP and foreign direct investment. 

No: 26
Title: Family Friendly Policies - A Tool for Resource Management among Working Women
Pages 274-286
Author(s): Geetha Subramaniam, Nurul Nabilah Huda Kamarozaman, Tan Peck Leong
Open Access

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The Malaysian female labour force participation increased from 47.2% in 2004 to 54.1% in 2015 but this is not alarming as the number of female students in tertiary institutions outweigh the male students.  However, the issue is while the female labour force participation rate is highest in the 25-34 years age group (72%), it dropped 5 percentage points to 67% in the 35-44 years age group. A research by Talent Corp (2014) shows that the top three reasons women dropout from the workforce are: to raise a family, lack of work-life balance and to care for a family member. So, this perception study examined whether family friendly policies (FFP) could be a tool to retain women in the labour market and subsequently a tool to manage the nation’s resource.The main aims of this study are: firstly, to examine whether there is a relationship between demographic factors and women’s decision to remain in the labour market, and secondly, to examine whether FFP may encourage them to remain in the labour. Using a self-administered questionnaire, working women who were married were identified in the Klang Valley.  A total of 158 usable questionnaires were collected in June 2016. Cross tabulation analysis and frequency analysis were used. The crucial findings showed that women who work in organisations with FFP have higher intentions to continue working compared to women who work in organisations without FFP. This study found that ethnicity, occupational sector and having children below 6 years old are significant factors that influence women’s decision to remain in the labour market. Family friendly policies can be a pertinent tool for resource management to retain married women in the labour market. Hence, the government and private sector should collaborate together in the enforcement of family friendly policies at the workplace. 

No: 27
Title: The Mediating Role of Innovation between Family Culture and Business Performance
Pages 287-301
Author(s): Stanley Yap Peng Lok , Wei Ying Chong
Open Access

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Due to increasing specialization, outsourcing and competition from the globalization process, family businesses are under more pressure than ever to innovate and improve performance. The innovation side of family business is critical to businesses’ survival and growth. Yet, to date, scant attention has been given to innovation in the world dominant form of business - family business. This study seeks to fill these gaps by exploring the links between family culture, innovation and business performance. The study was undertaken in the Malaysian context using a sample of 174 public listed family businesses. The data were obtained through questionnaire survey conducted over a period of six months. The results show that innovation is significantly related to business performance and positively mediated the family culture-business performance. This demonstrates that management should foster a strong culture among family members who are involved in the business in order to enhance both business innovation and performance. 

No: 28
Title: Impact of Structural Capital on Innovation in the Australian SMEs
Pages 302-312
Author(s): Yasmin Kamall Khan
Open Access

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This study explores the strategic links between structural capital and organisational innovation in Australian SMEs. There are limited studies in the literature that investigate the connection between structural capital and organizational innovation using longitudinal data. Hence, for this study, the Confidentialised Unit Record File (CURF) database from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), Business Longitudinal Database (BLD). was used to investigate 2,154 SMEs. The analyses validate that structural capital is essential for achieving organisational innovation.  However the relationship declines over time.  Managers should be careful in investing in IT and technology in order to facilitate organisational innovation. 

No: 29
Title: Do Brands "JUST DO IT"? Studying the Effectiveness of B2C Slogans
Pages 313-326
Author(s): Paulo Duarte Silveira, Susana Galvão
Open Access

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This study aims to contribute to a more effective creation and management of slogans in the context of branding and advertising, testing which factors might influence the brand slogan recall and recognition. An empirical study was conducted, via a self-administered original questionnaire, applied to a sample of 156 elements, analyzing the recall and recognition rates for twenty-nine slogans, from nine different product categories: retailing, cokes, juices, water, sports, telecoms (mobiles), beer, personal care, and ice-cream. The independent variables used to analyze each slogan recall and recognition were: slogan length, slogan antiqueness, brand industry, slogan language, brand consuming frequency and sympathy towards the brand. A positive relationship was found between the antiqueness of slogans and their spontaneous recall. It was also found that the spontaneous recall of slogans has high variation among brands and shorter slogans have higher recall rates. Other variables (slogan language, brand consuming frequency and sympathy towards the brand) did not show a significant impact on the recall/recognition of slogans. 

No: 30
Title: Shopper Centric Category Management in Convenience Stores: a Qualitative Study
Pages 327-338
Author(s): Paulo Duarte Silveira, Cristina Galamba Marreiros
Open Access

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The literature shows that category management is an important concept and tool for retailers and suppliers, but that there is a trend to move to a more shopper-centric category management approach, linked to the shopper-marketing approach. However, the knowledge on this issue is scarce on some retailing sectors, like convenience stores. The present study is focused on convenience stores, with the main purpose of finding out to what extent non-major food retailers successfully adopt a shopper-centric category management. The study is relevant in order to evaluate if a more shopper-centric approach is adequate to smaller companies/stores. To accomplish that goal, an exploratory qualitative study was conducted among convenience store retailers and suppliers. Six semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with Commercial Directors and Trade Marketing Managers. This data was complemented with thirteen interviews with shopper marketing experts. The data was analyzed using thematic content analysis technique, identifying themes, categories, subcategories, units of meaning and relations. The results revealed that convenience store retailers use some of the principles and techniques of the shopper-marketing and shopper-centric category management approaches, which they do in a non-standardized and non-formal approach or process. Their suppliers (the manufacturers) do it in a more formal and structured manner, probably as a result of previous interaction with major supermarkets chains. Both direct and indirect evidences of a shopper-centric approach were found,  which, however, were slight, discrete and not formal. 

No: 31
Title: Key Indicators for Improving the Resource Productivity in the Baltic States
Pages 339-354
Author(s): Alina Stundziene
Open Access

Full Text 31
Growth of economics and population, as well as rising income and living standards, increase the global consumption of various materials, generating pressures on the natural resources and the environment. The unsustainable use of resources have led to climate change, environmental pollution and exhaustion of raw materials, which is why decoupling economic growth from environmental degradation as well as an efficient use of resources is one of the main objectives nowadays. The effectiveness with which the economy uses materials extracted from natural resources to generate economic value is described by resource productivity. Resource productivity is a problematic issue for the Baltic States as it is 1.5-3.0 times lower than the average resource productivity of all the EU. The paper analyses the tendencies of resource productivity in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, as well as the main factors that impact on it. The analysis includes 34 indicators related to national income and outlays for research and development, seeking to discover the factors that have the greatest influence on resource productivity. The research showed significant differences among countries, and, in turn, different means for increasing of the resource productivity should be applied. Latvia is the only country among three that has made progress in this area.  Lithuania and, especially, Estonia should pay more attention to the effective use of outlays for R&D, make strict action plans, provide the list of means, and regularly check the implementation  as a means of seeking to improve the resource productivity. 

No: 32
Title: Conceptual Framework of Human Capital Systemic Assessment at Macro Level
Pages 355-366
Author(s): Žiedūna Liepe
Open Access

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The development of human capital has a special, non-liquid value that provides countries’ economy with the potential to grow. Therefore, it is crucial to carefully assess the factors affecting the formation of the human capital value at the macro level. This paper presents a systemic point of view of human capital assessment at the macro level, forming a conceptual framework based on the creation of a comparative database of the human capital structure in countries, on the estimation of the human capital value, distinguishing four constituents, and on the evaluation of human capital utilization effectiveness in the value creation process. Findings reveal that an estimation of the human capital value disclose an access to the calculation of the net human capital value. A comparison of the human capital value index and its utilization effectiveness is more related with the application of the estimated human capital value. 

No: 33
Title: Insights Into Portuguese Stock Market Efficiency Using DEA
Pages 367-373
Author(s): Nuno B. Ferreira
Open Access

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US subprime crisis and the European sovereign debt crisis affected indiscriminately both the economic and the financial sectors giving rise to a bank run which made the survival of many other banks became uncertain, and by contagion the equity markets tumbled. In this context, this study runs a Data Envelopment Analysis model to analyse individual market return and net sales in light of the interest income, depreciation, cost of goods and employees. Using data from the largest companies of the Portuguese index stock market, the results showed that energy, communications and banking are the sectors more prevalent regarding revenue efficiency. 

No: 34
Title: Deforestation and Haze in Malaysia: Status of Corporate Responsibility and Law Governance
Pages 374-383
Author(s): Hanim Kamaruddin, Rasyikah Md Khalid, Dina Imam Supaat, Syahirah Abdul Shukor, Normawati Hashim
Open Access

Full Text 34
Malaysia is endowed withabundant forest resources that covers about 59.5% of total land area. For most part of Malaysia’s economy, much importance is placed on the contribution of forest in agronomy development. Due to apparent large scale land clearing that brought grave consequences to the environment, various initiatives to protect forests from misuse, abuse and overexploitation of forest resources, mainly by plantation companies, were implemented. The attribution of haze caused by burning of forests further pushed for appropriate policies and laws to protect atmospheric quality in Malaysia. Local laws on preventing deforestation and haze are mainly provided in the Environmental Quality Act 1974 and National Forestry Act 1984. Efforts to resolve issues of deforestation and its environmental impacts on air quality should re-emphasize the benefits of practicing Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) to limit environmental impacts of forest activities through continuous participation and commitment from stakeholders, such as the plantation companies. The penalties for deforestation offences in current Malaysian laws whilst it is punitive, should be improved by imposing an environmental tax on polluter companies as a corrective and rehabilitative tool, thus affirming the ‘polluter pays principle’. Environmental tax law could be utilized, for example, in restoring the affected forest area to its natural and original state. The categories of persons contributing to the Environmental Fund should be reviewed to address impacts from deforestation and haze. The study attempts to enhance and strengthen the role of companies in their corporate legal responsibilities towards deforestation and haze issues in Malaysia.  

No: 35
Title: The Effects of Over-Education on Returns in the Graduate Labour Market
Pages 384-403
Author(s): Norhanishah Mohamad Yunus, Fazelina Sahul Hamid
Open Access

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Using a Household Income Survey (HIS), this study examines the private returns to education in Malaysian financial sector. First, we estimate the private returns to education using the highest certificate qualification or “sheepskin effects". Secondly, weanalyse the trend of private returns to education during the years 2002–2007. Thirdly, we examine the effects of educational mismatch on private returns to education. The simple Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimator with robust standard errors is employed to estimate the earnings function. Our results indicate the presence of an over-education situation among degree-educated workers despite enjoying higher private returns. Such over-qualification in the financial sector is due to the mismatches in the supply of degree-educated workers for medium-skilled positions, which is now outstripping the supply of high-skilled workers. Interestingly, our results are found to contradict most of the previous empirical studies. Hence, our study is believed to contribute to the literature by explaining the phenomenon of over-education using the signalling hypothesis. Since over-education reflects inefficiencies in the allocation of resources, Institutes of Higher Learning (IHL) need to increase their interaction with industry in order to find a solution to the incidence of mismatch  which is partly due to the lack of integration between education providers and employers in the demand driven labour market. 

No: 36
Title: Preliminary Analysis of Micro Agro-ecological Entrepreneurships Commercialization: A Case Study of Agro-ecological Producers in the “El Valle” Community
Pages 404-417
Author(s): Adriana Priscila Vallejo Bojorque
Open Access

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This work is a preliminary analysis of the design of a commercialization mechanism to help the creation of small and medium-sized enterprises with new competitive advantages in the southern communities of Ecuador known to the scientific community. The conceptual basis mainly considers approaches of sustainability, fairness and responsible trade and partnership. It considers the value chain and the final product as a differentiating offer which means that the truly attractive resource should be the organic product that combined with creative marketing strategies could please the customer and foster its recommendation. 

No: 37
Title: How Work Environment affects the Employee Engagement in a Telecommunication Company
Pages 418-426
Author(s): Idaya Husna Mohd, Maimunah Mohd Shah, Nor Shafiqah Zailan
Open Access

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The purpose of this study is to explore the employee engagement which is predicted to be affected by rewards, work environment and work-life balance. This study also further investigates which factor (rewards, work environment and work-life balance) highly affects employee engagement. A quantitative survey questionnaire was developed which explores the behaviour, experiences, perspectives and feelings of respondents towards their engagement. Descriptive analysis, reliability analysis, Pearson’s correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were applied in this study to measure the relationships between independent and dependent variables.  Based on data from the sample of 250 employees in a telecommunication organization in Klang Valley, work environment is the most influential factor that contributes towards employee engagement. This is followed by rewards and work-life balance consecutively. 

No: 38
Title: Interprofessional Communication and Interprofessional Collaboration (IPC) among Health Care Professionals
Pages 427-433
Author(s): Nur Zainie Abd Hamid, Siti Zaleha Abdul Rasid, Siti Maon, Naffisah Mohd Hassan, Leny Suzana Suddin
Open Access

Full Text 38
Communication is inseparably knotted in health care groups.  However, not all group communications are effective. The main objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between interprofessional communication and interprofessional collaboration (IPC) through a review of literature. It highlights the importance of IPC and focuses on how crucial interprofessional communication is among professionals to achieve positive IPC. A literature review of health care management, interprofessional care and health sciences related to interprofessional communication and IPC practice among health care professionals are performed. The electronic database for the Health Sciences and Health Administration (MEDLINE) was searched. The selection criteria of this paper include studies that examine the effectiveness of interprofessional communication towards IPC among health care professionals. Health care professionals include nurses, physicians, and a variety of clinical specialists. The review of nearly 200 manuscripts identified that only 24 are applicable for this review. Among all, only one evaluates managers as respondents, others, focus on physicians, therapists, surgeons, graduate students, oncologists, and so on. The key finding suggested that all selected literature provide conclusive findings on the relationship between interprofessional communication and IPC.  Physicians and medical graduates appeared to have less attitude towards interprofessional communication and IPC. On top of that, none of the literature evaluates non-verbal aspects of communication in the study. Future research is needed to close the research gaps identified in this review. 

No: 39
Title: Pro-Environmental Assessment and Sustainable Consumption of Household Public Services in Barranquilla Colombia
Pages 434-440
Author(s): Tito Crissien-Borrero, Omar Cortés-Peña, Ketty Herrera-Mendoza
Open Access

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The main purpose of this research paper is to analyze the relationship between the pro-environmental attitudes and sustainable consumption of public services of water and electrical energy in 418 households of middle class in Barranquilla, Colombia. This sample has been calculated with 95% confidence and a 4.78% of sampling error. For this purpose a Likert Scale was designed to evaluate the components of practices, beliefs and feelings that people have against environmental conservation and sustainable use of water utilities and electrical energy. The results allow to identify that there are significant differences within the practices, beliefs and feelings related to pro-environmental behavior and consumption of public services of water and electrical energy, as well as direct and inverse statistically significant relationships were observed between the three levels attitudinal evaluation. These results are the basis for formulating policies to promote pro-environmental behavior oriented with the responsible and sustainable public services of water and electrical energy use. The responsible consumption of non-renewable resources must begin to intervene from the vital space, on the basis of the dynamics in the home with the assessment and development of pro-environmental practices of sustainable consumption of the household public services of water and electrical energy. 

No: 40
Title: The Shift to Inspiring Leadership in Developing European Union Countries
Pages 441-447
Author(s): Aukse Endriulaitiene, Aurelija Stelmokiene
Open Access

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The study intends to analyze how the shift to inspiring leadership in EU modern organizations reflects in the preferred leadership among employees from post-soviet Baltic countries: Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. The main research question investigates employees’ perception of an ideal leader in developing EU countries. This perception is important for the employees’ work performance and sustainable economic growth. The study intends to compare Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian employees’ preferences for leader’s traditional roles (task-oriented behavior and relations-oriented behavior) and modern “more emotional and inspiring” views (charisma and social responsibility). 221 employees participated in the cross-sectional quantitative survey with self-administered internet based questionnaires. 124 Lithuanians, 40 Latvians, 57 Estonians filled in the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Leadership Behaviors (Yukl, 2012), Transformational Leadership Inventory (Podsakoff et al., 1996) and a scale from Servant Leadership Questionnaire (Barbuto, Wheeler, 2006) was used.  Results of this study suggest that charisma is the most preferred characteristic of a leader. Relations-oriented behavior is also a significant factor in predicting an ideal leadership. Employees do not perceive task-oriented behavior and leader’s social responsibility as essential dimensions for an ideal leadership. Some significant differences in leadership preferences are revealed among countries. The study is based on under-estimated follower-centric perspective and examines interactive predictive value of different leadership dimensions to employees’ preferences. Data reveals that the shift to inspiring leadership have already occurred in the perception of employees from post-soviet Baltic countries. The comparison of three Baltic countries gives the insight about the challenges for management in still developing EU members. 

No: 41
Title: Generation Y: Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention
Pages 448-456
Author(s): Shahrul Nizam bin Salahudin, Mohd Nur Ruzainy bin Alwi, Siti Sarah bt Baharuddin, Noor Idayu bt Abd Samad
Open Access

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The present study seeks to understand the relationship between organizational commitment and its components with turnover intention among generation Y working in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia. Self-administered questionnaires with 18 items on organizational commitment construct and 4 items on turnover intention construct were distributed to the randomly-selected sample. A measurement model and structural model was later constructed using AMOS. Results indicate that the measurement model to test hypotheses was valid and reliable. However, based on the structural model constructed, no relationship between organizational commitment and turnover intention was indicated. There is also no relationship between affective commitment and turnover intention as well as normative commitment. Only continuance commitment significantly affected turnover intention. The finding is supported by few arguments regarding the characteristics of generation Y and the nature of SMEs industries. 

No: 42
Title: The Relationship between Occupational Stress, Employee Engagement and Turnover Intention
Pages 457-464
Author(s): Shahrul Nizam bin Salahudin, Mohd Nur Ruzainy bin Alwi, Siti Sarah binti Baharuddin, Yuyaneswary Santhasaran, Vishalni Balasubramaniam
Open Access

Full Text 42
This study examined the relationship between occupational stress, employee engagement and turnover intention. Occupational stress was measured through three dimensions namely role ambiguity, role conflict and role overload. Teachers from primary schools were randomly selected as the respondentsand asked to complete a questionnaire adopted from previous research with high level of reliability. The findings show that teachers who experience high level of occupational stress had low employee engagement and high turnover intention. All relationshipswere significantly correlated. A major implication of this study is that the Ministry of Education should seriously consider monitoring the level of stress among teachers and take appropriate actions to help reduce the stress. 

No: 43
Title: The Relationship between Work Ethics and Job Performance
Pages 465-471
Author(s): Shahrul Nizam bin Salahudin, Mohd Nur Ruzainy bin Alwi, Siti Sarah binti Baharuddin, Siti Syafina binti Halimat
Open Access

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Work ethics are normally associated with the way employees do their work whichmay be perceived as ethical or unethical. This studydiscusses the relationship between work ethics and job performance. A structural model was constructed to test the effects of work ethics on job performance. 157 respondentsfrom randomly selected SMEs involved in retail trade textile service located in Selangor, Kuala Lumpur and Johor were given self-administered questionnairesusing a six-point Likert response scale. Multidimensional work ethics profile (MWEP) was use as the instrument to measure work ethics. The study found that the structural model is acceptable in terms of validity and reliability, and thus, can be used to measure the relationship between the two variables. The study also found that work ethics affects job performance significantly.It highlights the importance of work ethics in improving job performance.