Volume XXXI, Pages 1- 1026 (15 October 2017)
The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences EpSBS
©2017 Published by the Future Academy
Edited by:
 Zafer Bekirogullari, Melis Y. Minas & Roslind X. Thambusamy
Articles: 97
Conference: 8th ICEEPSY - International Conference on Education and Educational Psychology
Dates: 11- 14 October 2017
Location: Faculty of Medicine of Porto University - CIM-FMUP - Centro de Investigação Médica Rua Doutor Plácido da Costa, 4200-450 Porto
Conference Chair(s): Maria Amélia Duarte Ferreira, Prof Dr Dean of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto (FMUP) & Wilson Abreu, Prof Dr Associate Prof Dr at the Escola Superior de Enfermagem do Porto (ESEP) & Zafer Bekirogullari, Dr Managing Director of Future Academy & Laura Ribeiro, Prof Dr Director (Gabinete de Relações Internacionais e Mobilidade –  Department of the International Relations and Mobility  of the FMUP) & Sandra Cruz, Assoc Prof Dr Associate Prof Dr at the Escola Superior de Enfermagem do Porto (ESEP); Member of CINTESIS - Center for Health Technology and Services Research & Luís Carvalho, Prof Dr President of the Technic & Scientific Board of the Escola Superior de Enfermagem do Porto (ESEP) & Pavlo Kanellakis CPsychol, FBPsS (British Psychological Society), HCPC Registered Clinical, Counselling, Health, Sport and Exercise Psychologist (United Kingdom), Association for Psychological Therapies (APT), Couples SIG 

Title: Contents

Open Access


No: 1
Title: Effectiveness Of Second Person And Self-Monitoring Approaches In Academic Achievement
Pages 1-7
Author(s): Zohreh Molaee*
Open Access

Full Text 1
The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a second person’s monitoring on learning compared with a self-monitoring approach to improve students’ academic achievement. To do so, the selected research method was a single case with multiple subjects included. The study subjects were three female students of Payame Noor University, Iran, 20 years old on their third study semester, enrolled in a management course in the same class, which had been selected in a purposeful way. The students’ mean first academic semester scores were recorded as a baseline for their academic achievement at the beginning of the study. The intervention commenced for subjects 2 and 3 at the same time; subject 1 had no intervention, the second subject had a second person monitoring and the third subject was self-monitored. At the end of each week, the subjects sat for an academic exam to record their pedagogic progress. Based on the research findings, the first subject had no obvious change in academic achievement (only a little improvement on the first sessions), the second showed a rapid improvement in academic scores, however, this was not a long-term improvement which became stable after four weeks. The third subject with the self-monitoring approach had a slow but long-term improvement during the study. Based on the study results however, the second person monitoring approach had a great effect on academic achievement; it had short-term effectiveness on the learner’s academic achievement compared with slow improvement in the same for learners with the self-monitored approach. It can be concluded, based on the present study, that the self-monitoring process had more sustained effects on academic achievement compared with second person monitoring. 

No: 2
Title: Effective Tools To Integrate Chinese Students Into Esl Learning Process
Pages 8-16
Author(s): Svetlana Korovina*, Anna Pushkina, Liudmila Krivoshlykova
Open Access

Full Text 2
Due to the increasing  number  of Chinese students at RUDN University in Russia  teachers of foreign languages face new challenges caused by specific educational background of students from China. Teaching English to students from China is based on the profound understanding of strong differences of their learning style  and educational background.  In this respect, interpersonal, intercultural, interactive climate of the ESL lesson helps to facilitate the process of integration and psychological adaptation. To make the process of teaching English more effective  the method of projects is employed and it favours students with different educational cultures.  The method of projects systemizes regular work with the variety of activities which are suitable for students with special strength in different intelligences. Each project is preceded by individual tasks, exercises and methodological recommendations developed by the authors to prepare students for pair and team work. The method of projects is an effective  tool to integrate  students from China  into educational process in multicultural groups at RUDN University. Such topics as “Outstanding people of my country”, “Generation gap” contribute to students’ engagement in team building, develop their communicative skills and highlight their talents. The activities are designed to present their work orally or using computer-supplied facilities to develop a sense of integration and  collaboration due to their  personal input in this creative process. 

No: 3
Title: Effects Of Integrated Arts Therapy Intervention In Youngsters At Risk For Delinquency
Pages 17-28
Author(s): Kristi Kõiv*, Reet Hannus, Lii Kaudne
Open Access

Full Text 3
The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential for an integrated arts therapy intervention to influence youth at risk for delinquent behavior. Toward this goal, we applied a one-group pre-post experimental design to assess the effect of an Integrated Arts Therapy Program on participants’ self-reported life satisfaction, self-esteem (global and academic), mood (general and momentary), and emotional and behavioural problems (emotional, conduct, hyperactivity, peer, and prosocial behavior) in a sample of students with risk of delinquency. Teachers identified at risk youngsters and 95 students aged between 8 and 17 participated in 16 different gender-mixed groups for 16 sessions during eight-week program period. Results of within group comparisons indicated positive, statistically significant improvements from pre- to posttest on all of the measures: (1) increased global self-esteem (the Global Negative Self-Evaluations Scale), academic self-esteem (the Perceived Academic Competence Scale), and life satisfaction (the Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale); (2) decreased total difficulties with conduct and hyperactivity problems, and improved prosocial behavior (the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire); and (3) improved momentary and general mood over time by intervention. These findings indicated that the multi-modal arts therapy group-based program for students with risk for delinquency may be an effective intervention and can lead to at least short-term positive changes by improving participants’ self-esteem, wellbeing and behavioral problems. 

No: 4
Title: Ways Of Working With Music In Flt In Primary Schools
Pages 29-42
Author(s): Petra Besedová *
Open Access

Full Text 4
Foreign language teaching is linked with an enormous number of teaching methods and approaches. The paper presents the research carried out with the focus on those methods in which music is applied as the main means or an additional one in the process of teaching of foreign languages. Since its beginnings, the methodology of foreign languages has been concentrating on bringing out effective methods, approaches, ways and forms enabling effective acquisition of a foreign language as a means of communication. The main source of inspiration was the method called sugestopedy; this method is presented and evaluated. The second part of the paper presents the results of the research focused on teachers and learners of foreign languages – the two main issues of the research were those forms of work used by teachers of foreign languages, which apply music during the classes, and learners´ opinions on applying music in classes of foreign languages. The research results can lead to self-reflections made by foreign language teachers, and they can be inspiring for thinking about procedures applied in the teaching process. 

No: 5
Title: The Latest Information And Communication Technologies In Lis Education
Pages 43-47
Author(s): Magdalena Wójcik *
Open Access

Full Text 5
This paper concerns the latest information and communication technologies (ICT) as educational tools. The aim is to determine the potential of these tools in the teaching of library and information science (LIS). The technologies considered include virtual and augmented reality, the Internet of Things, mobile technologies, geolocation, and 3D printing. Analysis and criticism of the literature was applied in the first stage of the research. Based on a search of key databases using Google Scholar, the state of research in this field was determined. This was followed by a systematic search of network resources using selected criteria to find examples of good practices and draw conclusions regarding in the use of ICT in LIS education. Predictions were also made about the further development of this issue. 

No: 6
Title: Psychological Aspects Of Formation Of Attitudes Among Students At The Secondary Schools To Study
Pages 48-60
Author(s): Stefan Chudy*, Jitka Nábělková, Jitka Plischke
Open Access

Full Text 6
The paper deals with the attitude to study and its determinants in the process of education and education. It captures the attitudes of students to study at two types of schools and verifies the interrelationships between attitudes to study and chosen explanatory variables. Respondents are students of grammar schools and secondary vocational schools. In order to fulfill this intention, the empirical research was carried out, the main method of which is the semantic differential and questionnaire survey.

No: 7
Title: Errors Through The Eyes Of Students Majoring In Teaching Of Foreign Languages
Pages 61-70
Author(s): Jana Ondrakova*, Lubos Tesar, Alena Pavlikova
Open Access

Full Text 7
Errors appear in any learning process. Quite a specific position is taken by students majoring in foreign language teaching. Since they themselves learn a foreign language, they are justified to make mistakes. Simultaneously, as future teachers, they should not make errors because their language performances will become models for their learners. Students majoring in teaching foreign languages know and understand the fact that frequent corrections of wrong performances make the real communication difficult. However, they also know that errors will become fixed and they will negatively influence the further development of the learners´ language competences if they are not corrected. The paper presents students´ opinions on error corrections in the process of foreign language teaching.  Theses opinions reflect the students´ theoretical knowledge acquired during their courses in methodology, and their views on corrections of their own mistakes and mistakes made by their classmates and also by their teachers. The data were obtained within the framework of the specific research project realized in 2017, and they were compared with the results of the research carried out by Gnutzmann & Kiffe in 1993. The main purpose of these comparisons was to evaluate how errors were tolerated in the past and how they are tolerated at present. 

No: 8
Title: Student´S Attitude To Music In Foreign Language Lessons
Pages 71-82
Author(s): Petra Besedová*, Kristýna Štočková, Aneta Šeslerová
Open Access

Full Text 8
Learners are subjects of teaching and they should be accepted in a complex way. It is necessary to innovate, change and complete work methods and forms to make learners harmonically developed. Present educational institutions focus on the development of students´ key competences, such as communicative, personal and interpersonal abilities, the ability to solve problems in a creative and critical way, and the ability to work with modern information technologies. The communicative approach to learners is prevailing in the current systems of teaching of foreign languages – a learner is approached as a teammate. Students are expected to express their own opinions, experience and spheres of interest. The paper focuses on students´ attitudes towards music within the framework of foreign language classes. The second part of the text presents partial results of the long-term research which is being carried out at the Faculty of Education of the University of Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic). This research focuses on primary and secondary school students and their attitudes to music within the framework of the classes of their first foreign language (English) and their second foreign language (German, Russian, Spanish and French). We believe that development of and support to learners´ aesthetic feelings should be an important component of the educational process. Moreover, music can be applied as one of the means which consciously enable and support students´ activation and simultaneously create conditions for learners´ continuous cultivation. 

No: 9
Title: “School Personality” – A Model For Systemic Evaluation And Intervention
Pages 83-91
Author(s): Yael Steinberg *
Open Access

Full Text 9
Within the school setting, the core task of the educational psychologist is systemic work. Yet, despite the centrality of this function, many educational psychologists find it difficult. In this article, I propose to look at the school as a system with its own personality. I hope to show how the use of personality theories and psychological tests, designed to assess personality, can serve as a basis for evaluation and systemic intervention. Freud’s structural model is proposed as a framework to analyze the different parts of the personality. The “Draw a Person” test and guiding questions for story-writing (similar to the Thematic Apperception Test) are offered as tools for assessment and systemic intervention. This tool is appropriate for (1) educational systems (involving the full teaching staff or the administration only); (2) courses for educational psychology interns on systemic work; and (3) working groups of educational psychologists in Educational Psychology settings. The School Personality Model was found to be an effective tool for educational psychologists in systemic conceptualization and intervention. The model was shown to be particularly successful in schools in which the principal was an active participant in the planning and implementation of the intervention. 

No: 10
Title: Individual Traits, Environmental Variables And Students’ Perceptions Of Autonomous Learning Difficulty
Pages 92-106
Author(s): Anna Studenska *
Open Access

Full Text 10
Learner autonomy is currently regarded as an important educational aim. Therefore the main research problem was formulated as follows: which selected individual traits and environmental variables correlate with how students perceive the difficulty of their autonomous learning? The hypothesized relationships between research variables were presented in the form of a model. The main aim of the study was to verify the model in which temperamental traits and autonomy support from teachers and parents are treated as independent variables, student`s autonomy, self-efficacy as a learner, learning motivation and preferences towards autonomous tasks - as mediating variables and perceived autonomous learning difficulty – as a dependent variable. Autonomous learning difficulty was measured by a questionnaire encompassing difficulty in reflective evaluation of learning, motivation to learn and planning. Temperamental traits were measured by EAS Questionnaire, general autonomy by Adolescent Autonomy Questionnaire created by Noom (1999) and co-workers. Questionnaires measuring remaining variables were constructed for the purpose of the research. The participants were 454 students of middle and secondary school.  Autonomous learning difficulty questionnaire proved to be reliable and valid. Student`s self‑efficacy and autonomy were most strongly related to autonomous learning difficulty. Student`s perception of high autonomous learning difficulty was related to the low level of parental autonomy support. The relationships hypothesized in the model can be generalized to population but the model does not explain satisfactory amount of dependent variable variance. 

No: 11
Title: Multimodality Of Cultural Content In English Coursebooks For Primary Education
Pages 107-128
Author(s): Maria Stec *
Open Access

Full Text 11
Young learners (YLs) learn languages and experience multimodality, being exposed to various resources of meaning from the early age. They are challenged by modes while learning from English language teaching (ELT) materials. The materials are the important semiotic resources as well as cultural and social artefacts that influence children’s perception and holistic development. They serve both as a mirror and window reflecting the current educational policy, linguistic and didactic approaches, culture and social behaviours. The aim of the paper is to identify the multimodal aspects of cultural content offered in ELT coursebooks in primary schools. There are two major questions of the research project. What are the characteristic features of multimodality in English coursebooks for older YLs? What are the image-language relations in cultural content of English coursebooks for older YLs?The project involves multimodal discourse analysis (MDA) and follows Stȍckl’s framework. There are two approaches and two stages involved. The quantitative approach depicts the amount of image, language, sound and music modes in ELT coursebooks for older children. The qualitative approach relates to the descriptions of image-language relations in the cultural content. The image-language relations bring the data on the inner construction of the visual and verbal input in ELT materials including cultural sections. The amount, intensity and character of the visual and verbal content changes in ELT materials respectively with the age of learners. The role of image seems to decrease with the years of learning and abdicate in favour of the written messages. It is hoped that the project will bring supportive implications for those interested in materials development and visual teaching.

No: 12
Title: Administrative Excellence Within Public School Heads’ Approach
Pages 129-143
Author(s): Nijolė Cibulskaitė*, Evaldas Petrauskas
Open Access

Full Text 12
This study investigates the administrative excellence of school heads within public schools in terms of  the heads’ and competencies evaluation experts’ approaches, and differences of their attitudes. The research question is: Which administrative competencies are the most important, best mastered and need to be improved by public school heads? This study aims to reveal school heads’ and experts’ attitudes to the importance and developing of administrative competencies, and differences of their preferences. Gained data were analysed by using the comparative analysis and statistical methods; statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS. Findings revealed the differences of public school heads’ and experts’ attitudes to the general competencies: school heads a little more emphasises the importance of competence Communication and information, and less underlined competence Personal effectiveness. The comparative analysis of experts’ and public school heads’ attitudes to the administrative competencies let us provide recommendations for the state educational institutions on how to improve the evaluation of public school heads’ competencies.

No: 13
Title: The Integration Of Pupils From Different Cultures Into Portuguese Primary Schools
Pages 144-154
Author(s):Bárbara Sousa, Ana Paula Cardoso*, Susana Fidalgo
Open Access

Full Text 13
This paper presents a research work about issues that elucidate the collected data related to the integration of pupils from different cultures in Portuguese primary schools, an increasingly evident reality in the educational setting. In empirical terms, a qualitative research was conducted through interviews, sociometric tests and data search involving the class teachers. These tools were applied to primary school classes in five schools belonging to a school grouping in the central region of Portugal. The data collected through the sociometric tests allow us to realise that the majority of the foreign pupils is not fully integrated in the primary school classes. However, according to the analysis of the interviews, this is not always the case, since the pupils’ answers showed that they do feel integrated. Based on the information gathered, it can be understood that most of the teachers consider the pupils to be well integrated and the parents/those in charge of their education to be able to keep up with them in the best way. Nevertheless, some shortage of information on the part of teachers was noticed concerning these pupils, which indicates an absence of communication between school and family, a situation that does not favour a more effective integration of these pupils. 

No: 14
Title: Attitudes Towards Stress And Lifestyle Of University Students In Health Education
Pages 155-168
Author(s): Marie Chrásková*, Martina Zouharová
Open Access

Full Text 14
Shaping the attitudes to lifestyle in a holistic concept is included in all stages of education in the Czech Republic. The objective of the present research is to identify the attitudes of university students to concepts associated with bio-psycho-social aspects of lifestyle (including stress) and their development by year of study and gender. The research sample comprises students who will become teachers of subjects in the category of Health education and will thus deliberately influence the lifestyle of their students. Students’ attitudes were measured by means of the ATER two-factor semantic differential (plus own questionnaire). The respondents were presented with concepts associated with both positive and negative aspects of lifestyle, self-conception and social relationships. The obtained data were used to develop a semantic space of the concepts. The differences between various groups were further compared by means of the Student’s t-test and analysis of variance. The results suggest that the attitudes of students of Health education correspond with the aspects of an optimum lifestyle. A comparison of the attitudes by year of study and gender revealed differences only in some concepts. In both dimensions a statistically significant difference was observed in the concept Mental stress, which has poor evaluation and is energy demanding. The results demonstrated that the attitudes of students of Health education were consistent with the theoretical knowledge and the profile of a graduate from this field of study. The results also correspond with the content of the curriculum defined by the Czech curricular documents. 

No: 15
Title: Are We Okay With The Obscenity In Language And Content In Media?
Pages 169-176
Author(s): Ameena Zafar *
Open Access

Full Text 15
There is a gradual lowering of our guards as civilized human beings towards accepting the increasing level of obscenity in our speech and behaviour. This study focuses on the obscenity in language in print and electronic media. Media has emerged as the most powerful tool to influence human receptivity and perceptions. Its influence is a matter of concern for parents as well as teachers, as both are directly responsible for preserving cultural values and the upbringing of the next generation. It is becoming exceedingly difficult for parents and teachers to be able to protect the younger generations from the harmful intrusion of media into their lives. This study hopes to find out the local cultural perspectives on this in Pakistan, which will aid parents and teachers to discover solutions to deal with over-exposure to unregulated obscenity in language and content used in the media. The data to support this study was collected through interviews and a random sampling survey, from parents and teachers. The candid views of adolescents on the subject were recorded in the form of interviews. The local cultural perspectives showed that the majority of parents, teachers and even adolescents themselves are not comfortable with the level of obscenity allowed and propagated by the censoring authorities in print and electronic media. The information found, may prove to be useful for parents, teachers and guardians who are responsible for contributing positively towards the lives of the future generations. The results may be effectively applied in domestic and academic scenarios. 

No: 16
Title: Globalization Versus Ethnicity: The Basis Of Language Identity And Change
Pages 177-183
Author(s): Ameena Zafar *
Open Access

Full Text 16
This paper is developed on the hypothesis that globalization and not ethnicity, is the basis of language identity and change. This research is based on an article on ‘Language, Ethnicity and Racism’ by the famous linguist Joshua A. Fishman.  The main focus will be on the segment that deals with the relationship of Language and Ethnicity. The view of some other linguists will also be discussed. The scope of this study will encircle Pakistan, a community with different ethnic backgrounds but aspiring to form a ‘one language community’ with the rest of the world due to globalization. Two major aspects of globalization namely; The Post colonial Influence and the American influence will be studied with reference to the collective ethnic inclination of a nation towards a partial language shift to English, and the individuals’ stance to have preserved it as an official language since independence. Examples will be picked up from the language or lyrics in the local music industry. A contrast will be made between the samples of the time before globalization had set in and the samples from the post-globalization modern music. This study will lead to a better understanding for linguists, of how language functions and is changing under the influence of globalization. Findings showed that global trends are more powerful as compared to the ethnic background of English language speakers. The Post-colonial Influence overridden by the American influence seems to have encouraged the initiation and sustenance of American English in the region contributing as a crucial factor towards language identity and change. 

No: 17
Title: Teaching History Through German Literature
Pages 184-193
Author(s): Nadezda Heinrichova *
Open Access

Full Text 17
The text presents the results of the research in which university students – majoring in teaching German as the foreign language – expressed their viewpoint and experience about help of contemporary German literature to understand history. The research was carried out in the winter term 2016 on the basis of the following books: Günter Grass Im Krebsgang (2002); Uwe Timm Am Beispiel meines Bruders (2003); Uwe Tellkamp Der Turm (2008); Jenny Erpenbeck Gehen, ging, gegangen (2015). The students were offered an opportunity to deduce historical analyses through literary text of the second language literature which can provide an emotional experience and interest which leads to a) consequent (voluntary) search for further information about the period of history; b) willingness to produce creatively. The objective of my research study is firstly to give the skills to read literature as a resource for understanding historical change about how other people experience emotional issues; secondly to give the students an outline of the change in 20st century; thirdly to teach the other language skills (writing, listening and speaking) and language areas (i.e. pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar). Very important for me is to show students that people make history and that their lives and life choices shape history. 

No: 18
Title: Communication About Puberty Among Middle-School-Aged Children
Pages 194-202
Author(s): Miluše Rašková*, Dominika Provázková Stolinská
Open Access

Full Text 18
Puberty is an important element of sex education in the European and global context. Puberty is a normal feature of human development and encompasses a number of changes that affect children and their environment. Children need to be prepared for puberty, relevant changes and other aspects associated with this stage of life in a timely and appropriate manner. Children should acquire the necessary knowledge about puberty and should communicate about puberty before its onset. The prepubescent period is identified as the middle school age and relates to children in lower elementary school. Communication about puberty should be based around the family, but there is no guarantee that the child will acquire subjectively and socially desirable knowledge, adequate attitudes and behaviour. The role of the school is to provide information about puberty, basic attitudes and ways of decision-making. Parents and teachers often have barriers to communication about puberty, which result from their unpreparedness due to life experience. The present paper focuses on whether there is any communication about puberty among middle-school-aged children, on ways that they perceive puberty, what they think about it, and whether friends are a source of information about puberty. The paper is a description of a research questionnaire applied in the Czech Republic and China. It describes whether and how middle-school-aged children communicate about puberty. The present research study was carried out at the Faculty of Education, Palacký University in Olomouc (Czech Republic) and was a basis for a follow-up research project (IGA_PdF_2017_006), in which communication about puberty in Sweden is currently investigated. 

No: 19
Title: Student Motivation And Self-Concept: Is There A Connection?
Pages 203-213
Author(s): Ana Sílvia Bernardo Vinhas Frade*, Feliciano H. Veiga
Open Access

Full Text 19
The concept of motivation has been placed at the heart of discussions related to academic achievement and school withdrawal. Student and trainee self-concept is presented – throughout the reviewed literature – as an effective response for schools as well as an aspect to consider when promoting motivation and performance in students. Several studies argue that self-concept is the foundation of motivated behaviour. The present study reviews the literature concerning the connections between student motivation and self-concept, highlighting their importance in academic performance. Trainee motivation is also characterized here with respect to self-concept through information collected from a sample comprising 149 trainees from the Training Course for Petty Officers 1st Class by applying the Assessment Scale for Trainee Self-concept in the Portuguese Navy (ASTSC-PN) (Frade & Veiga, 2016) and the Learning Motivation Scale (LMS) (Frade, 2015; Frade & Veiga, 2014). The data were analysed using SPSS software. The result analysis allowed the finding of connections between trainee motivation and personal variables. It is intended that the gathered information contributes to support and validate the theoretical constructs presented here 

No: 20
Title: Parental Involvement In Early Childhood Education In Ogun-State, Nigeria: Implication For Counselling
Pages 214-225
Author(s): Abolanle Olukemi Lasode*, Olayinka Samuel Adeyanju
Open Access

Full Text 20
Parental involvement has a greater impact on the academic achievement of elementary aged students than secondary students hence the need for counselling intervention for parents. This research aims to provide descriptive data on the challenges faced by parents during involvement in early childhood education and obtain empirical data on the relationship between challenges of parental involvement and its effects on early childhood education. The research utilized descriptive survey design with a sample size of 230 respondents which were randomly selected from two private and public Nursery schools in Ogun State, Nigeria. Questionnaire was used to elicit responses and pilot study revealed Cronbach’s alpha reliability of 0.95. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical tools.Parents take children to places to learn special things” (mean = 3.47) ranked first among parental involvement in early childhood education. “Parents attend to their children’s assignment” (mean = 3.45) ranked first among the factors considered in parental involvement.   There is no significant relationship between challenges faced during parental involvement and its effect on early childhood education. It was concluded that parental involvement in early childhood education has a great role to play in the future educational pursuit of the children. It was recommended that counselling intervention should be done on disseminating knowledge of the roles expected of parents in early childhood education through seminars, workshops, parents-teachers’ association forum, and mass media. 

No: 21
Title: The Effect Of Primary School Size On Learning Mandarin As A Second Language: An Empirical Research On Ethnic Minority Students In China
Pages 226-235
Author(s):Ying Zhang, Yufang Bian*, Hengli Peng
Open Access

Full Text 21
The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of school size in relation to the added-value of the Mandarin performance test. Data were collected from 5th & 6th Grades Mandarin academic tests, and a questionnaire. 3642 students and 158 principals were identified through stratified sampling from 158 primary schools in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in China. The Hierarchical Linear Model (HLM) was used to analyse the data. Findings demonstrated that: 1) There is a positive linear relationship between school size and the Mandarin added-value scores, therefore the value-added scores are greater. 2) Under the condition of no-controlling background variable on the stated school sizes, students in the schools of more than 810 students got significantly higher added-value scores than their counterparts in the schools of less than 810 students. However, under the additional condition of controlling background variables, there is no such relationship between them. This study may help the educators and government improve Mandarin education in minority areas in China. 

No: 22
Title: Measuring English Grammar Test: A Rasch Analysis Approach
Pages 236-244
Author(s): Fatimah Ali*, Nor Suhardiliana Sahar, Noor Raha Mohd Radzuan, Zuraina Ali, Afifuddin Husairi Hussain
Open Access

Full Text 22
Students’ mastery of English language has always been the concern of many stakeholders especially the employers. Various standard language tests are used to measure the level of spoken and written language competency in general. However, not many language tests assess grammatical competency among the ESL learners. The grammar test which was developed aims to identify the students’ strengths and weaknesses in all 7 important grammatical elements such as Part of Speech, Tenses, Subject verb agreement, Relative Clauses, Conditionals, Passive and Verb Forms. The purpose of this study was to measure the reliability and validity of the instrument (UMP-EPT Grammar) using RASCH. The instrument which consists of 60 items was administered to 1694 first-year engineering students at Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia. Data collected were analyzed using WINSTEPS version 3.80.1. Findings revealed that item reliability and item separation was 1.0 and 20.53 respectively, while for person reliability and person separation, the results were .80 and 2.03 respectively. The study implies that the grammar test developed has great potential to be used for any high-stake test. 

No: 23
Title: Inculcating Spiritual Intelligence To Enhance Students’ Psychological Wellbeing
Pages 245-251
Author(s): Anita Abdul Rani*, Haslinda Hashim, Fatimah Ali, Imaduddin Abidin, Aini Ahmad
Open Access

Full Text 23
Students who have psychological problems in their lives may also have problems in their academic performance. Inculcating Spiritual Intelligence (SI) is believed to be able to overcome psychological problems (Piedment, 2001) such as depression, anxiety and stress. However, not every student has the inspiration and knowledge to enhance their own SI. At Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP), a module has been developed for this purpose. The UMP SI module focuses on Islamic values to enhance the role of `Man as Caliph (leader)’ and the connection between human and God.  The objectives of this study are 1) to examine the effectiveness of the module on the students’ emotional wellbeing and 2) to observe how it helps them to have more control of their lives. A qualitative research design was employed to collect data through interviews and reflections from 20 students who voluntarily participated in this study. Participants were required to apply the SI module in their daily lives for 40 days. They provided positive feedback especially after they had implemented the module. From the responses, there were positive changes in their behaviour especially when dealing with their emotions. The module was able to help them relieve stress, work better with others and become more focus in the classrooms. These findings revealed that the UMP SI Module is useful to university students and will also be beneficial for educators and counsellors to enhance students’ psychological wellbeing. 

No: 24
Title: Which Ict Tools Are Used By Teachers Most Often In Their Work?
Pages 252-263
Author(s): Milan Klement *
Open Access

Full Text 24
The use of information and communication technologies in education at all types of schools is becoming commonplace nowadays. The generally declared need for the integration of new media and educational technologies in the educational process could represent an important impulse for the development of pedagogical sciences. Some of the modern forms of study in both Czech and foreign schools are altogether based on the use of information and communication technologies. These facts encourage places new demands on teachers who have to be prepared to work with modern ICT and at the same time create appropriate educational materials for such tuition. As a result of this fact, it is necessary to promote new educational techniques and methods derived from them and thus there arises a question whether schools, teachers and teachers-to-be are ready for such a thing. 

No: 25
Title: Values Of Bulgarian Students In Emerging Adulthood: Dynamic Approach
Pages 264-270
Author(s): Magdalena Garvanova*, Eva Papazova
Open Access

Full Text 25
The paper traces the dynamics of basic individual values of Bulgarian students in emerging adulthood – aged 18 to 29 in the years of social and economic transition in Bulgaria. Three empirical studies were conducted in 1995 (N = 232), 2005 (N = 157) and 2015 (N = 255), using Schwartz Value Survey – SVS (Schwartz, 1992). Results from the comparison of the three cohorts indicate that over the period of 20-years the importance of both individual and collective values has grown. Collective values grow more intensively and in 2015 they prevailed over individual ones. These findings probably reflect the age effects and the social-historical projections onthe value system of the young people in Bulgaria.The paper also discusses some issues referring to the characteristics of value models observed among emerging adults since 1989 after the fall of the communist regime in the country. 

No: 26
Title: Assessment Of Teachers’ Professional Competences In Consideration Of Motivation Factor
Pages 271-279
Author(s): Eva Stranovská*, Mária Lalinská
Open Access

Full Text 26
In the research study we are dealing with Motivation factor and its consideration in the assessment of teachers' competences. The aim of the research study is to investigate the motivation of teachers to the evaluation of their professional competences with respect to the degree of the importance of these competences in the teaching process. We set variables such as degree of motivation to teacher assessment by his superiors and  level of importance of professional competences. The research was conducted on 535 respondents (secondary school teachers from all over Slovakia). Our research shows that teachers, who are motivated for assessment attach importance to competences oriented at student, educational process and self-development of teacher. 

No: 27
Title: Endogeneous Factors In Sla With A Focus On Attitudes
Pages 280-287
Author(s):Svetlana Stančeková, Katarína Chválová*, Eva Stranovská
Open Access

Full Text 27
The paper aims to investigate endogenous factors affecting SLA with a focus on attitude, while the research interest was centred around German language acquisition. The research goal was to find out about the attitudes towards German language acquisition in terms of the semantic space in lower and upper secondary schools. Moreover, the relationship between achievement and attitude is also examined, while the research focuses on differences between the strength and assessment dimension based on achievement; the semantic differential was used as a research tool. The research revealed rather a negative attitude towards German language acquisition, but indicated strong positive ties to the teacher, who became a central factor in learning. 

No: 28
Title: Labor Migration As A Legal Phenomenon
Pages 288-304
Author(s): Tleuhabyl Abaideldinov*, Saule Suleimenova, Aliya Askarova , Aigerim Zhumabayeva
Open Access

Full Text 28
First of all, the peculiarities of the legal regulation of the labor activity of migrant workers are due to the possibility to build a Society of General Labor in our country based on a developed market economy, and, in general, with a change in the legal and political system of the Kazakhstani society. This issue is especially acute in connection with the strengthening of integration processes within the framework of modern world politics and the emergence of large economic blocks, a member of which the Republic of Kazakhstan is becoming. In particular, as of January 1, 2015, the agreement on the establishment of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) came into force; it is aimed at strengthening social and economic processes between the participating countries: the formation of a single market for goods, services, capital and, what is especially important, labor resources. In this context, we consider it necessary to note that the legal status of migrant workers in the Republic of Kazakhstan has not been subjected to comprehensive theoretical and practical research. In this article, we have sought to identify some theoretical and applied issues that have arisen in the sphere of labor migration, as well as to attempt in helping to eliminate those legal conflicts that have emerged as a result of the ratification of international agreements by the Republic of Kazakhstan and to establish their correlation with national legislation. The aim of the research is to study the legal status of migrant workers, to summarize and analyze certain aspects of their legal situation, to identify legislative ways to regulate the labor activity of migrant workers, and the impact of their activities on improving the institution of social partnership. 

No: 29
Title: The Most Preferred Methods In Higher Education
Pages 305-319
Author(s): Habil Andrea Bencsik *
Open Access

Full Text 29
Holding young students’ attention during the lessons in higher education, to motivate them for collaboration is a serious challenge. Researchers aim to find a solution - based on students’ opinion - which is the most suitable to hold young generations’ (Z) attention during lessons and test it, how it works in practice. The research method was a quantitative method by web-based questionnaires based on snow-ball method. Students and university teachers, professors were involved. The questionnaires were evaluated by simple and complex statistical methods with SPSS program. The study shows the students’ opinion. The results have verified that the educational methods do not influence the students’ openness, their willingness to collaborate, their attitudes to teamwork. Generally, when teachers try to use different educational methods to activate students, these will not influence the students’ attitude (individualism/collectivism). Students prefer teamwork most of all and they suggest using it in higher education. New educational methods have to be launched in higher education which teach, keep employed, agitate, and stimulate students’ creativity at the same time. Smart tools, team-work make students interested in solutions of tasks.  The challenges are serious for teachers, especially in an individualistic society, where the problems of Z generations’ behaviour must be solved as well.. 

No: 30
Title: International Perspectives On Trauma And Resilience Among Immigrant Students
Pages 320-332
Author(s): Devin G. Thornburg*, Anne M. Mungai
Open Access

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Schools with immigrant populations must find ways to support their students’ success when there may be many culturally- and psychologically-diverse factors influencing their progress, including trauma and resilience.  We asked whether there are causes and manifestations of trauma and resilience for immigrant students that can be identified through narratives and whether educators can develop supports for immigrants using research on trauma and resilience.  Our purpose was to analyze narratives of immigrant students in U.S. schools, as well as review relevant studies, to guide development of school supports.  We analyzed 28 stories of immigrant students (of equal gender) in New York City (Grades 8-12), originating from 10 countries across 4 continents using relevant research on trauma and resilience.  Through coding and comparisons of themes, we found that the majority of students experienced trauma-related stressors of racism, xenophobia, loss of family, and language/social isolation while also describing resiliency-related factors, including peer interactions and family supports.  The number of stressors and factors in the students’ stories reflect the varied and complex nature of students’ experiences in schools, suggesting that school responses to students must be equally varied, emphasizing the unique assets and needs of each.  Part of a larger study on micro-, meso- and macro-analysis, we address the findings and offer implications for school policy and practices. 

No: 31
Title: The Influence Of Technology On Reading Literacy
Pages 333-345
Author(s): Iva Košek Bartošová*, Andrea Jokešová, Eva Kozlová, Helena Matějová
Open Access

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The paper presents results of a research team from the Faculty of Education, University of Hradec Králové in the Czech Republic. It lists the most common methods used to teach reading in primary schools (the analytical synthetic method, the genetic method and the Sfumato flowing reading method). It presents results of a pilot research focused mostly on reading comprehension in pupils from the second year of primary schools. During this period pupils’ reading technique becomes automated, which provides space for them to focus more on reading comprehension (text’s elaboration). The testing took place in the school year 2016/17 and focused on quantitative and qualitative parameters of reading performance of 2nd year pupils taught by different methods. The contribution tries to identify the most effective teaching method from the perspective of reading comprehension. General conclusions cannot be drawn from  the obtained data. The text in the test was newly implemented (it has not been investigated in the Czech Republic so far) with the use of silent reading, loud reading and listening and the effect of the three different modes on reading comprehension was observed. The research clearly shows that children undertstand text the most when they do not read it themselves but listen to it instead. 

No: 32
Title: A New Font And Copybooks In The Czech Republic And In Selected Countries Of Europe
Pages 346-355
Author(s): Iva Košek Bartošová *
Open Access

Full Text 32
The contribution presents research on the written script. Specifically, the analysis of the basic materials, which serve as starting material for teaching writing. Since 2013 the Czech Republic joined the new font unrestrained Comenia Script and represent an important new trend in the historical development of the fonts in the Czech Republic, which until now had only a form bound fonts. New unbound font has produced an alternative form since 2015 and has become a new common permitted font. This contribution focused on a new form of unbound font in our country and compares types of written bound font and also unbound font abroad. It follows on an extensive research of Comenia Script font and a research implemented by a help of mixed design, i.e. qualitative and quantitative view of comparison of most copybooks used (exercise books) in the Czech Republic based on evaluation criteria according to  Maňák and Knecht (2007). With the focus on similar material analysis (copybooks) in selected countries of Europe. The research showed that there are deviations in writing practice (and its forms), as within one country (e.g. the Czech Republic, the United Kingdom of Great Britain), as in comparison with individual countries of Europe. 

No: 33
Title: Phenomenology Of Vision Loss
Pages 356-365
Author(s): Hana Majerova*, Libuse Ludikova
Open Access

Full Text 33
The present paper covers numerous issues that are subject to research by neuroscientists, philosophers, psychologists, clinicians, as well as special education teachers. The main objective of the study is to achieve a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of vision loss in human beings as a changing phenomenon. One of the goals of the study is further development of a research study published as ‘Perception in a Person with Visual Impairment in the Context of Imagination Specifics’. How does the phenomenon of perceptual experience and imagination in a person change in the situation of vision loss? The phenomenon of gradual vision loss is highly specific, and its characteristic features cannot be summarized quantitatively. The qualitative study focused on the participants’ life stories. Research data were collected by means of written and oral questionnaires. The data were supported by a review of relevant documents. The data evaluation process was based on a description of the phenomena, development of clusters, recognition of patterns, and identification of associations. The final part of the study is a result of a comparison of the participants’ subjective experiences. Elements of triangulation were used and a qualitative approach was followed. This study helped develop the authors’ previous qualitative research. The above mentioned publication presents a comparison of cases of persons who underwent various stages of vision loss from low vision to blindness. In the present research project (Ref. No. IGA_PdF_2017_013), the authors focused on persons with gradual vision loss, i.e. those with residual vision. 

No: 34
Title: Czech And Foreign Schools And Their Employment Of Modern Educational Technologies
Pages 366-379
Author(s): Hana Čihánková*, Jan Gregar, Barbora Sittová
Open Access

Full Text 34
The aim of this study is to research modern educational technology (MET) at Faculty of Education - Palacky University Olomouc, Pedagogical University Tyrol and Trunojoyo University in Madura Indonesia as well as previous experience of future teachers with MET studying at these faculties. The basic question is which representatives of MET are available to the future teachers during their studies, and which representatives of MET future teachers actually employ in their studies. The main research tool was an online questionnaire which was distributed to students of the three faculties. The questionnaire was distributed electronically to students’ email addresses, and to their FaceBook groups. The results of the research were subsequently recorded and evaluated based on respondents' answers. This article presents the results which were achieved via this research. Respondents from three different faculties responded that they define or classify MET as the basis for this concept while they only rarely have no idea about this term. At the same time, it has been discovered that there is a great deal of interest in a course (or a subject) that may focus on the use of MET in teaching. 

No: 35
Title: Music As An Influential Factor In Learning
Pages 380-391
Author(s): Jindra Vondroušová*, Kateřina Juklová
Open Access

Full Text 35
Music and non-music skills are often traditionally and automatically related, even though conflicting attitudes recur cyclically. Thoughts about how music affects learning, or the academic skills of pupils and students, constitute a chapter of their own. This overview study tries to answer the following research questions: In what psychological context are music and learning currently being investigated? What school subjects (or abilities and skills) are related to music in current research studies and for what purpose? What musical activities (reception, interpretation, production) are frequently researched in relation to learning? The study’s objective is to summarise the current results of research into the relationship between music and learning, including a discussion of further possible research topics that could be promising with regard to making the academic learning of pupils and students easier. In the overview study, topics are presented that connect relatively different areas, i.e. learning non-music-related knowledge, abilities or skills, and the various uses of music. There are studies on music as part of the learning environment, on using music to study foreign languages, and on music affecting a person’s emotional or social component in order to make learning easier. With regard to the aforementioned, school is a suitable place to apply these findings. To teachers, music offers an interesting opportunity to involve it in their instruction methods; to pupils, it offers an opportunity to use it to increase the effectiveness of their own learning. 

No: 36
Title: Learning Patterns Of Czech And Romanian Students Within The Context Of An Crosscultural Comparison
Pages 392-401
Author(s): Kateřina Juklová*, Jindra Vondroušová, Ramona Henter
Open Access

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International comparison represents useful perspective on academic learning in today's globalized world. Eastern European countries however so far have not figured in international comparisons of higher education much.  The aim of the study was to fill an empty space on an imaginary map of academic learning and add results of students from two countries of the former Communist bloc, to gain new understanding of the current state of learning of university students from different countries and indicate impulses for further development. The Inventory of Learning Styles (Vermunt, 1996), measuring student learning activities, regulation strategies, conceptions of learning, and learning orientations, had been used to measure learning patterns. Identified learning patterns of Czech and Romanian students were compared with each other as well as with the results of previous studies using the same instrument (e. g. Marambe et al., 2012; Vermunt et al., 2014). Both quantitative and qualitative differences between learning patterns of Czech and Romanian students were interpreted in the broader context of the environment using the Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory. Results indicate the need for caution when interpreting differences in learning patterns among countries as they can not only be the product of culture difference, but also a consequence of semantic changes in the meaning of the instrument items caused by translation. For a more reliable interpretation, there is a need to test models´ invariance using a CFA across all groups before comparing learning patterns internationally. 

No: 37
Title: Aphasia And Nonlinguistic Cognitive Rehabilitation: Case Study
Pages 402-412
Author(s): Lucie Kytnarová*, Petr Nilius, Kateřina Vitásková
Open Access

Full Text 37
The language is a prerequisite for a variety of cognitive performance. Its demand for symbolism makes it one of the most challenging cognitive activities. A complete loss of already acquired communication skills is called aphasia. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of cognitive rehabilitation on recovery from aphasia. The research question is: “What is the effect of the rehabilitation of non-linguistic cognitive functions on language recovery in selected patient with mild anomic aphasia?” The aim of the paper is to analyze the effect of non-linguistic cognitive rehabilitation on fluency factor and pragmatic language in person with mild anomic aphasia in chronic stage. Research has a character of a longitudinal case study of one person with mild anomic aphasia after stroke in the chronic stage. A cognitive rehabilitation effect was evaluated with the Addenbrook’s cognitive test, a revised version, 2010 (ACE-R). Also, we used Tests of Verbal and Figural Fluency, Clock test and modification of Test of Pragmatic Language. In the context of the case study of the person with mild anomic aphasia, it has been detected and verified that the non-linguistic cognitive rehabilitation affects recovery of aphasia. A highly significant improvement was observed in verbal fluency and quality of life. We would like to highlight that this intervention should be an essential component in aphasia therapy. 

No: 38
Title: Anger And Compassion In Coping With Genetically Transmitted Trauma In Pbsp Process
Pages 413-420
Author(s): Gabriela Slaninova*, Zuzana Kucerova
Open Access

Full Text 38
The objective of the present study is to describe and analyse uncovering and awareness of emotions in client in the context of intergenerational trauma. Furthermore, it aims at pointing out both the potential of the PBSP movies technique as a partial solution of the issue, and the possibilities and competencies of social pedagogues regarding the use of elements and techniques of the Pesso Boyden System Psychomotor (PBSP) method. It was discovered that in PBSP, clients are capable of identifying emotions and understanding their quality in the context of intergenerational trauma. This is made possible by movies which uncover the replication of family patterns. Clients gradually shift their focus away from their significant others to themselves, and become interested in and attend to their own needs, thus growing more autonomous. The social pedagogue is able to participate in the changes, primarily in terms of education, working with concrete symbols, bringing emotions to consciousness in the context, and using genogram as a “cognitive” alternative to the movies technique 

No: 39
Title: Work Motivation Of "Shift Workers" And Local Specialists In The Arctic
Pages 421-429
Author(s):Aida Egorova, Maria Nafanailova, Tuyaara Sidorova*
Open Access

Full Text 39
The article compares the results of an empirical psychological study of the satisfaction with the quality of life and the work motivation in local employees who live and work in the Arctic regions and “shift workers”. The study aimed at determining the strategic directions of the state policy of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) in developing the model of internal migration, measures to reduce outflows from the Arctic regions. The subject of the study was highly qualified employees working in the industrial and mining enterprises as rotation and local employees in two Arctic regions of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). The total sample size was 208 people.As a result of empirical research, it was found that most of the interviewed employees in both groups are satisfied with today's work and demonstrate a high readiness to work in the Arctic.The correlation between the socio-psychological parameters determining the degree of readiness and high work motivation in the Arctic was confirmed: the higher the quality of life and satisfaction with its main aspects, the higher the readiness and motivation. 

No: 40
Title: Reality In Math: Barrier Or Help? 
Pages 430-439
Author(s): Irena Smetackova *
Open Access

Full Text 40
The scientific debate on factors of success in school problem solving is still running. One of the explored points is a connection between school problems and real-life problems. The study examines whether the experience with some real-life domains helps during the solving of school problems referring to the same issue. The study follows the basic question: What is the connection between the school mathematical word problems and the real-life experience? The connection can work in two ways – motivational and cognitive. It means that pupils are motivated to solve school problems which resemble their life experience. The experience also helps to find the best calculation procedure and check the results. The sample of our study consisted of 1,383 pupils of six grades at the Czech grammar schools. The data were collected via questionnaire on life experience and didactic test including mathematical word problems. The analysis shows that students differed in the degree of subjective proficiency in individual real-life domains and the proficiency in real-life domains positively correlates with the success in solving of word problems. However, the correlation does not exist in all age groups. 

No: 41
Title: Development Of Individual Education In Terms Of Legislation In The Czech Republic
Pages 440-448
Author(s): Yveta Pohnětalová *
Open Access

Full Text 41
The paper content consists of individual education´s analysis development in the Czech Republic, which has undertaken several different legislation adjustments since 90´s of 20th century and is currently becoming a subject of increased interest not only by experts but also parents. There is a presentation of individual education analysis´s development in the Czech Republic in terms of legislation from its beginning of transformation period up to now. Czech legislation uses a term of individual education, but generally most often used term is home education. Compulsory school attendance in the Czech Republic is embedded in the Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms, and in order to enable individual education in another environment than in school institution, there was the amendment to the Act on Individual Education established as one of the forms of compulsory school attendance. The analysis of legislative documents of the Czech Republic in comparison with selected other countries revealed a number of similarities, as well as a number of specifics and differences in individual education approach.  On this basis, there are limits of this way of education identified and options for further directions are outlined. 

No: 42
Title: Didactic Aspects Of Home Education In The Czech Republic
Pages 449-456
Author(s): Yveta Pohnětalová*, Marie Váňová, Tereza Klingrová
Open Access

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The paper deals with research results which were looking for didactic aspects of home education, the idea of educating children at home outside school environment. We have continued with this research with a research work from 2016, where family environment of pupils from alternative and innovative education system was monitored, among other things we were finding out reasons of parents who educate their children at home. Because home education does not have any concrete set procedures, which parents should educate their children, we were interested in the way the education takes place. We focused on teaching methods and forms in a mixed design, combination of qualitative and quantitative research, daily timetable, curriculum content and education results´ assessment. In the first part we used non-structured dialogues with parents, which helped as an issue probe. Based on a dialogue analysis in the second part, the core part of our research was a questionnaire of own construction, which results have shown the way of home education and what its mutual indicators are. 

No: 43
Title: Sexism And Proffessional Performance Of Female Instructors
Pages 457-463
Author(s): Erkin Özdemir*
Open Access

Full Text 43
Professional performance of teachers and academicians is easily affected by a variety factors including social, cultural and methodological variables. Methodological issues are given priority by researchers with negligence on social and cultural issues. This study aims to find out whether female instructors’ teaching and working performance are affected on the grounds of sexism at the School of Foreign Languages in Anadolu University, Turkey. To this end, a questionnaire consisting of 20 questions inquiring whether their working performance is affected or not was given to 30 female instructors. The questionnaire mainly includes items based on theories of Marxist feminism. Findings suggest female instructors face many problems and their working performance is affected negatively. These findings can be categorized under three different themes which are perceptions of female academicians concerning household chores and their professional life, the society’s perceptions concerning female academicians, and female academician’s ideas about their own household and professional practices. 

No: 44
Title: Trangenerational Trauma – Context And Reflection Of Changes In Scenic Symbolic Work
Pages 464-471
Author(s): Gabriela Slaninova*, Zuzana Kucerova
Open Access

Full Text 44
The present study aims at describing and analysing transgenerational trauma and identifying changes over the course of psychotherapeutic process. For that reason, Pesso Boyden psychomotor therapy (PBSP) is employed. Furthermore, its purpose is to point out the possibilities and competencies of social pedagogues regarding the use of elements and techniques of PBSP. This study discovered that in scenic symbolic work in PBSP, uncovering and becoming conscious of trauma repetition occurs, and a client gradually achieves self-acceptance and actively participates in cognitive, emotional, and behavioural changes. This progressively results in the client being able to integrate the traumatic experience into a personal history and step out of unconscious replication of family traumatisation. The social pedagogue is able to participate in the cognitive changes, primarily using PBSP theory, micro tracking and local placeholders. 

No: 45
Title: Maturity Of Personality From The University Students’ Perspective
Pages 472-478
Author(s): Eva Svarcova *
Open Access

Full Text 45
The paper presents the results of a research survey focused on the identification of qualities that, from the perspective of university students, should poses a mature personality. Based on the analysis of the research data, the basic classification of the mature personality features is elaborated. Part of the paper is a comparison of the obtained data with Cloninger's seven-factor personality model. On the basis of the acquired data, it is possible to plan and think out an educationally focused methodology leading to the all-round development of the personality. 

No: 46
Title: Children And The World Of Tabloid Information
Pages 479-486
Author(s): Pavel Vacek*, Matěj Horák, Luboš Fedorovič
Open Access

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This article deals with the role of tabloids and tabloid information in children's lives. The goal of our research was the analysis of influence of tabloid information on the children in the age of 11 until 14 years old, together with the role of media education in family and school environment. Our results showed that children avoid the classical (printed) tabloid media. Children are really not interested in the scandals of celebrities usually consumed by mainstream readers of tabloids. Children heroes are mostly youtubers, popular people in the virtual reality and the main criterion of the information value is the number of sharing. They want to be online all the time. However through the social sites they consume the contents which meet the characteristics of tabloids. Our research indirectly showed that the world of current children and their close grown-ups, like parents and teachers, is divided. For parents and teachers there is then very difficult to watch those very simple videos that are so popular with their children. The problem lies not only in the quality, but also in the quantity of the production of these contents. The question is how this kind of permanent online world could negatively influence this generation in the future. 

No: 47
Title: Does Formative Assessment Help?  Students’ Perspective On ‘Feedback’ From Pakistan
Pages 487-501
Author(s): Rashida Qureshi*, Mahrukh Zahoor, Mahwish Zahoor
Open Access

Full Text 47
For long researchers have been making a case in favor of formative assessment or ‘assessment for learning’ (Williams 2009) against summative assessment or ‘assessment of learning’ (Isabwe, 2012). In our earlier work (Qureshi, Zahoor and Zahoor, 2017)) where we compared to be teachers-students’ results using formative and summative assessment techniques, the empirical evidence favored summative assessment. The present paper is an extension of that work. In our current work, we followed Haroldson’s (2012) approach and focused on students’ opinions of the written ‘feedback’ in order to explore their perspective on formative assessment. Like Limniou & Smith, (2014), we also believe that formative assessment is a process whereby students “reflect on their own learning and understand what has been developed, omitted or improved” (p. 210), therefore, their perspective may be helpful in evaluating the utility of feedback practice for learning. Through purposeful sampling we selected a sample of high scorers, i.e., with Median score = 22 and above as per summative assessment, from our earlier research study. This yielded a number of 32 students. Their views were sought trough semi structured questionnaire and a series of focus group discussions The emerging themes included ‘invisibility’ of efforts, intensive engagement with academic reading, and longer harvesting time for the ‘benefits’ of formative feedback. These views of the current student-teachers have implications for the future processes of teaching and learning at the institutions of higher learning as they will be shaping the academic experiences of our future generation of academicians 

No: 48
Title: Learning More Foreign Languages
Pages 502-510
Author(s): Vera Tauchmanova*
Open Access

Full Text 48
The purpose of the paper is to present the current and still preliminary results of the analysis of the opinions expressed by students learning more foreign languages. This analysis is based on findings made within the framework of one of the research projects which is being realized at the University of Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic). In the present multi-cultural world, human beings are exposed to quite a big number of various languages, which can make the process of communication rather difficult. That is why one of the projects supported by the Faculty of Education of the above given university focuses on learners of more foreign languages. One of its research questions is: Are students of more foreign languages aware of the language interference and / or potentials of the positive transfer? Four students majoring in teaching foreign languages have been encouraged to participate in carrying out the research. Not only their research activities but also their feelings about the research are presented in the text. The research is being carried out at present. The so far available findings and results show that learners of more foreign languages are not sufficiently aware of potentials of the positive transfer. Since it is important to make learners and teachers of foreign languages aware of experts´ opinions on language interference and positive language transfer, the paper includes references to these opinions.

No: 49
Title: Psychological Needs Of Homeless Shelter Residents In Interaction With The Education Of Social Workers
Pages 511-520
Author(s): Kateřina Glumbíková*, Barbora Gřundělová
Open Access

Full Text 49
High demands are placed on social workers in shelters in relation to the mental state of their occupiers, which often do not care correspond with the social workers´ education. Research question: What educational demands are placed on social workers in relation to mental state of the occupiers of shelters? The aim of the research is to map and analyze the mental health of the occupiers of shelters and the resulting demands on the education of social workers. The contribution is based on the qualitative research with the occupiers of shelters in four regions in the Czech Republic. The research was attended by 30 communication partners, out of these 13 women from shelters. The research was carried out in the form of semi-structured interviews and subsequent analysis using the constructivist grounded theory of K. Charmaz. The results of the survey point to the often poor mental state of the occupiers of shelters and their specific needs in the field of social counselling, psychological care, psychotherapy or crisis interventions that are perceived in the context of accumulation of roles. Assistance to people in the field of mental health in shelters is often considered insufficient. The solution seems to be a combination of several options: the first is the supervision, the second is the extension of the education of social workers in the field of psychological disciplines, and the third is the cooperation with external experts. 

No: 50
Title: Family Members As Important Role Models Ofcontemporary Adolescents
Pages 521-531
Author(s): Leona Stasova *
Open Access

Full Text 50
The contribution analyses role models of contemporary adolescents coming from their family background. Family patterns and ideals from close family network are perceived as models of identification connected with the process of socialization and therefore represent so called significant others. The text is based on results of a survey implemented in 2015 as a questionnaire among children and adolescents aged 9 – 17 years. Analysis of the research sample of 1010 children is focused on facts concerning the choice of one's parents or other family members for one's model. The survey results showed that almost one third of respondents named as their ideal somebody from the family circle (mainly mother and father). The text focuses primarily on identifying the respondents, who chose their model from their family and how they differ from others, who preferred somebody else. The age of respondents did not play a significant role in the choice of their idol; however gender had a significant impact. Furthermore, the text analyses which characteristics of parents/family members were important to the respondents and where was the choice for father and mother different. Those who focused on persons from family environment significantly more than others preferred character attributes and social skills of their models, they tried to imitate them precisely in this sphere and were convinced, that they were able to achieve it. 

No: 51
Title: Doctoral Supervision At Nova Lisbon University: An Exploratory Study
Pages 532-545
Author(s): Isabel Ribau*, Mariana Gaio Alves
Open Access

Full Text 51
Since the implementation of the Bologna process and the Lisbon strategy, there has been an increase of the interest in higher education and in doctoral education in Europe. This political process aims to create not only a European area of higher education, but also research European area. Doctoral education is considered to be one of the keys to innovation and to the development of societies. The implementation of the proposals that emerged from the meetings of the ministers responsible for higher education (MMHE) and the European association universities (EUA), brought a new look to the third cycle (Dublin descriptor, 2004; Bergen framework of qualifications, 2005), and to the Doctoral education and supervision (ten principles of Salzburg, 2005). Within this context elements such as doctorate completion time, student's profile, skills and competence acquired in that period and mobility between institution assumed a greater importance (London Communiqué, 2007; Leuven Communiqué, 2009). In Portugal, it was only during the last decade that researchers began to publish papers whose object study is doctoral education, the quality of supervision of doctoral research, supervisor and student profile and relationship. In this context, these research article pretend to characterize and analyse how the two aspects of doctoral education, monitoring and evaluation, are institutionally implemented in the third cycle at NOVA Lisbon University (UNL) and what implications may have on the success rate and completion time. The regulations of the third cycle in the nine schools that constitute the UNL and public annual reports will be analyses enabling to highlight some data. 

No: 52
Title: Children´S Creativity In Kindergartens
Pages 546-554
Author(s): Vladimíra Hornáčková*, Veronika Navrátilová,Alena Nosková
Open Access

Full Text 52
The paper deals with discovery of children´s creativity in kindergartens and finds out creativity of children in kindergartens due to creative education and compare tests’ results in selected groups. Research goal is to find out development of children´s creativity in kindergartens due to creative education. Also to c ompare tests’ results of creative thinking in selected indexes and in selected groups of kindergarten children and to reveal reserves in preschool education. Research study brings qualitative comparative survey, where two tests of creative thinking have been used: Torrance and Urban Test of creative thinking in measurement of experimental and control groups of kindergarten children. Gained data is processed by descriptive methods and correlations. Urban´s test of creative thinking had been applied as a pre-test and a post-test. Research revealed significant results in development of kindergarten children´s creativity due to carried out tests of creative thinking. Differences have been seen in development of children´s creativity in experimental and control groups, where education is more or less focused on creativity development and creative drama. Results highlight reserves and hidden opportunities in development of creativity in preschool education. Research study confirms results of preschool children´s creativity tests, where higher results were seen in creativity in experimental groups in comparison with control groups of kindergartens. The pre-test and post-test´s results document the meaning of creativity implementation. Research will contribute to creativity increase in education and at the same time will influence kindergarten educators’ training in a positive way.

No: 53
Title: Drama Play A Creative Method In Preschool Education
Pages 555-564
Author(s): Vladimíra Hornáčková *
Open Access

Full Text 53
This article highlights the possibilities of the application of creative methods in pre-school education which are the essence of drama plays and which could enrich creativity of children and quality of education. The research goal is to find out if creative methods and items of creative drama, which give certain space for drama plays, in education are applied in kindergartens. The aim of the study is to analyse and evaluate the quality of creative methods application and to compare results with prior research in the field of creative drama. A comparative investigation where content analysis of kindergartens was done and a nonstandard questionnaire of the researcher’s construction for kindergarten teachers was used. The results were processed via descriptive methods and correlations. The research method monitored the application of creative methods and elements of creative drama in preschool education. Significant results emerged in application of creative methods which are the core of drama plays implemented in preschool education. Important correlations were demonstrated in the results based on selected indicators that highlighted possibilities of innovation in preschool education in the context of creative drama system implementation and support of creative methods of application in drama plays. These results can support the implementation of creative methods in preschool education with emphasis on drama play, which can improve the quality of creative thinking development of preschool children. A comparison of performed results will be beneficial for innovation of preschool education. The results of this study can increase interest in creative methods and elements of creative drama in teachers’ education. 

No: 54
Title: A Study Of The Relation Between Norm Violation And Power Perception In Individuals
Pages 565-578
Author(s): Zeenat Ismail *
Open Access

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Power is often perceived negatively because people act on will and sometimes rise above rules. The aim of this paper is to study how breaking rules and violating norms gives people this power. Violating a norm implies intentionally, or unintentionally going against a social norm imposed by society. It gives the assumption that individuals have the capacity to transgress rules which fuels power perception. In this paper we have two studies to support these hypotheses. Individuals who broke a traffic light (study 1) and an individual who violated a classroom setting (study 2) were perceived as more powerful than the individuals in the control group who abided by all social norms. The effect was tested by presenting a scenario and a video and the results were quite significantly in the research’s favor. This paper also discusses how norm violators are associated with aggression whereas norm abiders are perceived as more compliant. 

No: 55
Title: Education Quality Monitoring Of Students Of Technical And Economic Specialties
Pages 579-588
Author(s):Igor V. Kovalev, Yuri Y. Loginov*, Tatiana G. Okuneva
Open Access

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The issues of the education quality monitoring at the Siberian State University of Science and Technology are considered, using data on the absolute and qualitative achievements of students of technical and economic specialties, as well as the results of the questionnaire survey of students and teachers for the period 2012-2016. Methods of pedagogical diagnostics and testing, pedagogical observation, conversation, questionnaire, statistical processing of experimental work results and analysis were used. In the process of questioning were involved 644 students of the Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics Department, 627 students of the Economics Department and 329 teachers. Based on the results of the student questionnaire survey the degree of students' satisfaction with the quality of teaching was revealed and the assessment of teachers by the students on the average score was carried out. The dynamics of the degree of students' satisfaction with the use of technical means by the teachers in training for three years is analyzed. It is found that with comparable absolute and qualitative academic achievements of students of technical and economic departments, representatives of economic specialties estimate the average score of the teacher lower than representatives of technical specialties. The use of active forms of training by the teacher is estimated by students of economic specialties also lower than by students of technical specialties. Teachers of the technical department evaluate the students higher, because they consider them not as an object of evaluation, but as full partners in joint activity. 

No: 56
Title: The Potential Of Social Networks For Educational Purposes Of Different Age Groups
Pages 589-598
Author(s): Vendula Budinova *
Open Access

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This paper discusses a topic titled “The Potential of Social Networks for Educational Purposes of Different Age Groups”. Nowadays, the concept of connectivism becomes more and more prevalent not only in Czech schools and is manifested, for example, by an increasing use of social networks in education. We have decided to respond to this circumstance by conducting research survey to reflect the use of this type of new media in education. Canadian researcher, Siemens (2005), was the first to introduce the concept of connectivism as early as in 2005 which was followed up by Downes in 2012. Connectivism perceives learning mainly as a process that in its essence is focused on connecting various information sources and people who share knowledge and communicate via social networks in real time. This paper presents research questions, purpose of the study, methodology used in the research survey, and its results. The main goal of the research was to ascertain the potential of social networks during home preparation with respect to different age groups. We have focused on the following age groups: Grade 8 of primary school = 14 years of age - lower secondary education, grade 3 of secondary school = 18 years of age (higher secondary education), third (junior) year -university students studying the Foundations of Technical Sciences and Information Technology in Education = 22 years of age. While conducting the research survey, we focused on several social networks (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) in order to be able to examine the issue in the broadest possible context. The methodology used comprises mainly quantitative methods used in educational research of a descriptive and relational nature. Data was collected through a questionnaire and evaluated using relevant statistical methods. 

No: 57
Title: Visualization As A Convenient Tool To Support The Teaching Of Mathematical Proofs
Pages 599-608
Author(s): Andrea Ševčíková *
Open Access

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Subjects dealing with graph theory and combinatorial optimization belong among the basic subjects of informatics study. Their aim is above all to develop and deepen students’ capacity for logical and algorithmic thinking.Mathematical proofs that are inseparable part of these subjects do not belong to popular topics among students due to the difficulty to understand this field of mathematics. Within educational process we are searching for various tools to help students deal with this area of mathematics. Suitable visualization could become a very convenient instrument used to enhance understanding of theorems and their proofs. Using visualization and deep analysis of the topic together with discussion on mutual relationships between solutions to problems allows the teacher to enhance student’s logical thinking and support their understanding to more complex proofs. In the paper we provide a justification for the importance of the mathematical proofs for students of informatics at first. Secondly, we introduce a research study examining an impact of visual applications on understanding of mathematical proofs; we implemented presentations instructed within the Discreet mathematics course, which are used to visualize proofs of mathematical theorems in the area of the graph theory, and we analysed students’ approaches to proofs visualization and proofing in general. 

No: 58
Title: Variables Related To Teachers' Assessment Qualifications And Attitudes
Pages 609-620
Author(s): H. Gonca Usta *
Open Access

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This study intends to test the relationship between the assessment competencies and attitudes of secondary school and high school teachers and their teacher self-efficacy perceptions and assessment duration by all group and gender variables. It was carried out in Sivas province during the 2016-2017 academic year. It was intended to find out the relationships between assessment competences and attitudes of secondary school and high school teachers (DYT) and their teacher self-efficacy perceptions covering the dimensions of Efficacy for Student Engagement (OKT), Efficacy for Instructional Strategies (OYNTT) and Efficacy for Classroom Management (SYTT) and duration of experience (DST). Also multiple group analysis was applied to test whether such relationships vary by gender. This is a correlational study as a type of quantitative research because it investigates the relation between the related variables. As a result, duration of experience hasn’t meaningful correlation with all variables in the all group. But it changes according to gender. Otherwise, there is meaningful correlation between teacher efficacy and assessment competence and attitudes. Also we can see difference between male and female teachers according to this correlations. In male group the strongest predictor is efficacy of classroom management, in female group it is efficacy for instructional method. 

No: 59
Title: Effect Of Dramatherapy On The Personality Of Clients Addicted To Alcohol And Methamphetamine
Pages 621-628
Author(s): Natália Čačková *
Open Access

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How achievement is bridged by drama therapeutic lessons? We aimed to find out the details of drama therapeutic process with clients whose are addicted to drugs. Data had been completed through the discussions with the clients. As a result, we found out that drama-therapy is useful for the addicted people's treatment process. 

No: 60
Title: Challenges In Course Evaluations At Budapest University Of Technology And Economics
Pages 629-641
Author(s):Zsuzsanna Eszter Tóth, Vivien Surman*, Gábor Árva
Open Access

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Students evaluate course quality aspects both at the end of the semester and right after student performance evaluations the results of which often do not correspond. The research question attempts to show if there is a  significant difference between end of the term course evaluations and evaluation results given right after the midterm tests and exams. The purpose of the study is to investigate how students perceive ways and methods of student performance evaluations and related lecturer-student interactions by analysing correlations between end of the term course evaluations and immediate evaluations. The impact of peer evaluations on end of the term course evaluations are also discussed. The research method was built on correlations between the overall course evaluations and the results of student evaluations given in the framework of the peer review program are determined and evaluated. Differences between average evaluations were also investigated. All data was obtained based on statistical analysis. The courses can be identified in case of which there are significant differences between evaluations given by the same group of students at the end of the semester and right after student performance evaluation sessions. We also highlight how student performance evaluations contribute to overall course evaluations. The results of the conducted statistical analyses pinpoint the need for restructuring the course evaluation questionnaire and the reconsideration of the role of peer evaluations concerning lecturer-student interactions . 

No: 61
Title: Enhancing The Reliability Of Measurements And Evaluations Based On Service Quality Models
Pages 642-653
Author(s): Zsuzsanna Eszter Tóth*, Gábor Árva, Vivien Surman
Open Access

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Problem statement: The application of different service quality measurements and evaluations in higher educational context and the utilization and reliability of results are examined. Research questions: What are the difficulties in the measurement and evaluation of specific service quality dimensions? How can the reliability of such service quality measurements be enhanced? Purpose of the study: This paper introduces the application and the results of a student satisfaction questionnaire based on fuzzy Likert scale used for evaluating lecturers’ performance at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics. Research methods: In order to capture and accurately measure the diversity, subjectivity and imprecision inherent to students’ evaluations, a methodology based on fuzzy numbers having sigmoid membership functions has been proposed. By applying the principles of Dombi’s Pliant Arithmetics, the evaluations can be aggregated and statistically analysed in a convenient way. Findings: Fuzzy-numbers based questionnaires result in a more precise reflection of human thinking and judgement. The Pliant Arithmetic-based approach allows us to aggregate the parameters of the left and right hand sides of the fuzzy number separately. This property results in a much simpler statistical analysis of the gathered data than the methods previously proposed in the literature. Conclusions: The proposed methodology can be utilized in two ways. It can either be applied to identify lecturers’ strengths and weaknesses in order to develop their teaching skills or to compare and analyse various students’ evaluations. The results can serve as a base for establishing teaching regulations and discovering best practices as well. 

No: 62
Title: Perceived Parental Authority And Self-Esteem Among Young Adults
Pages 654-666
Author(s): Aliya Abdul Hayee*, Zainab Rizvi
Open Access

Full Text 62
Parenting styles play vital role in development of adult self-esteem, and influence of both mother and father is crucial in this regard. Individual and Cultural differences impede the universal consensus on best parenting style for psychological well-being in later life. Collectivist cultures are believed to practice more authority and less flexibility that negatively affect the self-esteem. Current study followed the correlational survey design to investigate the perception regarding father and mother’s parenting styleand self-esteem of young adults.Parental Authority Questionnaire based on Baumrind’s parenting typology (Authoritative, Permissive, and Authoritarian) and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was administered on 234 participants that were randomly selected from different universities. The sample consists of 86 male and 148 female adults of age 18 to 27 years. Results revealed that participant’s perception of parenting style was not affected by participants’ gender. Mother’s parenting style had no relationship with self-esteem whereas father’s parenting style had significant influence on self-esteem development. Authoritarian and authoritative parenting style has positive and negative relationship respectively with the self-esteem in later life.The authoritative parenting style does not cater high level of self-esteem in collectivist culture indicating that the relationship between these variables is not concrete and subject to vary in context of different ethnicities. Authoritarian fathers found to facilitate the development of high self-esteem during adult age while authoritative fathers deter this. 

No: 63
Title: Cognitive Style And Ei Training By Computer Program “Emotrain”
Pages 667-672
Author(s): Alla Kim*, Natalya Khon*, Aliya Massalimova, Erlan Makashev
Open Access

Full Text 63
There are many changes in HE teaching in Kazakhstan nowdays (new standards of teaching organization and teaching delivery according to the Bolognya process etc.). Emotional burnout of HE teachers happens very often, which makes teachers’ achievements low. To enhance teacher effectiveness, EI training in the classroom is recommended. In spite of some advantages of EI training in the classroom there is a range of obvious limitations related to real classroom conditions, such as impossibility to train individually in terms of timing. The computer program “EmoTrain” was designed as a tool of individual EI training.  The creative content of “EmoTrain” consists of exercises based on comprehension of materials such as pictures, videos, films, myths, proverbs, fairy-tales etc. Comprehension is a psychological process where cognitive styles such as Field dependence/independence according to Witkin and Equivalence range according to Gardner are important. Finding the proper solution of cognitive styles implementation into the EmoTrain program of EI development is a challenge.  Cognitive styles diagnostics (making a plan of a text with mixed content), where equivalence range prevails.   Findings show that 1) making a plan of a text with mixed content is a brief and effective method of field dependence/independence and equivalence range cognitive styles diagnostics; 2) it is possible to implement cognitive styles of users by using different styles of instructions to the exercises in EmoTrain program. Various forms of making instructions to the exercises in the content of EmoTrain program designes especially for HE teachers can reflect different cognitive styles of program users. 

No: 64
Title: Teachers’ Understanding Of Creativity In The Korean School Context
Pages 673-677
Author(s): Kyunghee So*
Open Access

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As teachers’ understanding of creativity is considered significant in their development of students’ creativity, this study aimed to explore Korean teachers’ understanding of creativity. The research questions were 1) How do teachers conceptualize creativity? and 2) What value do teachers ascribe to creativity in education? Ten middle school teachers, required to teach more creatively than in the past, were interviewed. The findings showed gaps between the conceptualizations of creativity of national education policy and the teachers themselves, and between eastern and western cultures. In terms of the value of creativity, the findings revealed that the teachers’ perspective, which focused on individual students’ personal growth, differed from that of national education policy, which centers around economic competitiveness enhancement 

No: 65
Title: Education And Training In The Service Of The Labour Market In Romania
Pages 678-686
Author(s): Chisagiu Livia*, Tudor Alexandra Cristiana
Open Access

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Parallel to the superior capitalization of material resources, it is necessary to capitalize on human capital in order to generate in the social production a high economic and social efficiency. Therefore, in the European context, the relevance and quality of education and training constitutes a key issue in the policy agenda. The challenge is all the more extensive in the Romanian national space, as the demographic decline and the narrowing of the school age population in the 2030 and 2060 horizons have exercised a great deal of pressure on the human factor. Its qualitative dimension, productivity and efficiency must compensate for the negative effects induced by the quantitative dimension. Demographic challenges are compounded by the increased demands of rapid technological change driven by globalization. Thus, changing occupation type and changing occupational standards and knowledge content at the work placerequires a changing education standard. Formal education and training must provide basic skills, knowledge, competences, including specific skills, adaptability, but also to shape the character, behavior and attitude. The graduation degree, the phenomenon of school dropout, the equipping of schools and their connection to the Internet are the main performance indicators of the national education system. As main qualitative targets, we propose eliminating the phenomenon of school dropout, but also the generalization of upper secondary schooling and vocational education, compatible objectives with the 21st century economy and society. The emphasized differentiation of employment and unemployment rates by education level on total country and on the regional level validates its largely protecting role on the labor market. 

No: 66
Title: Vietnamese Employee Work Engagement. Influence Of Organizational Socialization Tactics And Work-Home Interactions
Pages 687-700
Author(s): Bui Thi Hong Thai*, Tran Thi Minh Duc
Open Access

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Work engagement is seen to be affected by plenty of organizational factors and individual psychological characteristics of an employee. This study was conducted in an effort to discover which organizational socialization tactics and work-home interactions factors have the strongest influence on an employee’s work engagement. As such, the study aims at measuring and exploring the impacts of organizational socialization tactics (content, context and social tactics) and work-home interactions (positive work-home interaction, negative work-home interaction, positive home-work interaction and negative home-work interaction) on Vietnamese young employees’ work engagement. Data were collected from questionnaires with 675 respondents with highly academic background, under 30 years old and with less than 5-year working experience at their organizations. The measuring instruments adopted in the study include the Organizational Socialization Tactics scale (Cable & Parson, 2001), the Survey Work-Home Interaction-Nijmegen (Geurts, 2000) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (Schaufeli & al., 2002). The results demonstrated a significant relationship amongst all independent variables, except negative home-work interaction, and the dependent variable. Furthermore, positive work-home interaction was the most influential factor on employee work engagement. These results carry an implication that it is crucial for young employees to maintain positive relationship between work and private life, apart from organizational socialization tactics to improve their work engagement. 

No: 67
Title: In Quest Of The Third Learning Space
Pages 701-708
Author(s): Olga Kocheva*, Maria Guzikova
Open Access

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The turning point for the appreciation of high-quality bilingual education occurred when international student mobility assumed its actual content and Russian students were permitted to enroll in foreign universities, provided that they show appropriate training both in terms of vocational subjects and the language of the host country. Creation and support of a full-fledged foreign language communication, including joint projects or double degree programmes, prompt lecturers to search after the most effective learner-teacher environment that combines professional education with foreign language acquisition. This qualitative study focuses on the paradigm shift towards English Medium Instruction (EMI) in the bilingual classroom, preconditioned by the formation of a hybrid culture identity. It is a follow-up to our previous research (213 students and 23 English language teachers of the Ural Federal University (URFU), Russia) into teachers’ understanding of their roles as carriers of a foreign culture and learners’ awareness of the amount of cultural intelligence they need to succeed in the highly competitive global job market. The results of that on-line survey contributed to a subsequent analysis of the learning community as the ‘third space’ (Bhabha, 2012), and put a number of questions to the teaching staff, such as whether academic bilinguals can be considered well-defined bicultural people, and at what stage of making up a bilingual the identification with the third space manifests itself. The findings of the recent semi-structured interview of the EMI teachers (N=12) would necessitate further research including descript0ive case studies of some national universities. 

No: 68
Title: Czech Basic Artistic Schools (Bas) In Comparison To Their European Counterparts
Pages 709-718
Author(s): Jan Lorenc*, Kateřina Juklová
Open Access

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A System of Czech BAS contains elements of formal education (Průcha 2009). In Europe, there are comparable counterparts whose system may not show the same level of formal education. The purpose of this study is to characterize the educational system in the Czech BAS and to compare certain criteria to chosen music schools in Europe. Mainly the presence of formal elements in education will be followed up. The research is based on annual reports, statistic and other documents of EMU association (European Music School Union). Curricular documents, Education Act in the Czech language are also being researched. While processing mainly the comparative method is used. In this review study, the reader is introduced to the system of the arts education at BAS in the Czech Republic. We found out that the Czech BAS show a high percentage of formal elements in education from the European point of view and they are firmly anchored as educational institutions in the national curriculum. The Czech BAS provide the basics of education not only in music but also in other three fields of art. Therefore, they are the ideal platform to mediate elementary art education under one umbrella. For its highly demanding standards and its formality in education, it is among the top ones in comparison to its European counterparts. 

No: 69
Title: Smile, Cry, Scream And Blush – Promoting Socio-Emotional Competences In Children With Id
Pages 719-734
Author(s): Sónia Maria De Matos Faria*, Graça Esgalhado, Cristina Maria Gonçalves Pereira
Open Access

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Socio-emotional Learning (SEL) provides individuals with strategies and skills that allow them to be able to identify their own emotions, to reflect on their causes and to understand how these emotions condition their behaviour, aiming at their regulation (Denham, 2006). If intervention with SEL is effective with children without any type of problem, how much more effective it will be with children with Intellectual Disability (ID) since they will be able to understand more than they can express and feel their emotions spontaneously, being able to modify them in knowledge, not always expressed orally (Damásio, 2001). That was the main reason for the creation of Smile, Cry, Scream and Blush, a programme that aims to promote Socio-emotional Competences (SEC) in children with ID. The programme is based on short stories simply illustrated, which stimulates the child's creativity and imagination while arousing his/her curiosity, exteriorizes emotions and helps to resolve conflicts. The diversity of contents, the way they are reported and the very language of tales are considered to be relevant in cognitive and emotional development as well as on the child’s personality formation (Couto, 2003; Souza & Bernardino, 2011). The emotional content of the programme was validated by experts in emotional development and children’s literature, as well as by students with and without ID. With the purpose of verifying the appropriateness of its contents and objectives, this pilot study with 21 children with ID was conducted. The findings were evident and their involvement grew session after session. 

No: 70
Title: Affective Domains, Intrinsic Motivation And Game-Based Application In Early Childhood Education
Pages 735-741
Author(s): Simona Pekárková*, Eva Milková, Andrea Ševčíková
Open Access

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Game based application and gamification is an approach for motivating and engaging participants usinggame-like design elements. Integrating game-like design elements in educational application and educational context havethe potential to increase children´ intrinsic motivation and other related affective domains such as persistence, goal orientation and enjoyment.  Some empirical studies provided proofs that gamification and system of rewards couldinfluence children's motivationand level of cooperation. There is a lack of empirical research focusing on effectiveness and possibilities of development of intrinsic motivation and related affective domains with the help of ICT used in kindergartens and early childhood education. The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of an educational game and its impact on chosen affective domains. 45 children from 3 kindergartens used original designed game application for two months. The used questionnaire “Game application’s influence on affective domains by preschool children” consisting of 18 questions was created by collecting responses from 18 kindergarten teachers. For analysing and categorizing Likert scale was used. This study showed a positive impact of game based application on chosen affective domains (namely intrinsic motivation, persistence, goal orientation and joy/pleasure) without using wide spread reward system like badges, hints, praises etc. typical for extrinsic motivation. This study is considered as a base for the next research which will be aimed on 7 affective domains and specific features of educational game applications which support motivation and other domains in the most effective way.

No: 71
Title: Psychometric Properties Of A Questionnaire Measuring The Antecedents Of Entrepreneurship Education Intention
Pages 742-754
Author(s): Francesco Ceresia*, Claudio Mendola
Open Access

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A limit of the questionnaires measuring Entrepreneurial Intention (EI) is the lack of a multidimensional vision of its antecedents. The definition of a multidimensional model of the main drivers affecting the intentions of aspiring entrepreneurs in building a start-up seems a fundamental milestone to overcome this pitfall. This paper aims to explore the internal consistency reliability of a new multidimensional questionnaire measuring the antecedents of EI and Entrepreneurial Education Intention (EEI). The tool consists in a self-administered online questionnaire that has been built in accordance with the Theory of Planned Behavior in entrepreneurship research. It includes 54 items adapted by others studies or created by the authors and it has been administered to college students and graduates (N = 70). Cronbach’s Alpha and Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) were performed using SPSS v23. The value of Cronbach’s Alpha and the CFA confirmed the internal stability of the questionnaire, even if the post hoc diagnostic information forced the authors to remove some items with a low value of their standardized regression weights and to estimate some within-factor correlated errors to improve model fit. Although the number of subjects involved in the study was small, this pilot study shows a good internal consistency reliability of the questionnaire 

No: 72
Title: A General Framework For A Standardized Competence Assessment Procedure
Pages 755-764
Author(s): Francesco Ceresia*, Erika Maria Lo Sasso
Open Access

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The methodological rigour in the competence assessment represents a strategic choice to achieve a successful promotion of human capital. The role of personal and professional competences has been recognized in every professional areas and a huge number of studies have contributed to better understand how competence affect individual and organizational behaviour and what are the best methods to assure its effective assessment. The paper aims to propose an operative and standardized competence assessment procedure coherent with the more recognized international qualification frameworks, even if allowing customized reports. The proposed procedure is the result of the operationalization of a general framework able to offer good contextual and intra-individual adaptability. A four-step procedure has been identified. Each step or phase is structured in some specific sub-phases, which in turn are articulated into several activities, with a view to culminating in a structure coherent with the European Qualification Framework (EQF), where competence are described in terms of Knowledge, Skills, Ability and Other characteristics (KSAOs). The procedure, coherently with proposed framework, can be implemented both in the early stages of the job search, as i.e. graduate employability, or to detect highly specific competence finalized to promote individual and/or organizational performance. In this regard, the standardized competence assessment procedure appears to be a valid instrument to enhance individual potential, encourage competence-based organizational development and to promote Human Capital as organizational competitive resource. 

No: 73
Title: Sensory Integration Therapy Of A Six Year-Old Girl: A Case Study 
Pages 765-778
Author(s):Magdalena Kapalska, Anna Studenska*
Open Access

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The main problem of the study was formulated as follows: what kind of change was observed during Sensory Integration Therapy in M - a 6 year-old girl? The specific question was whether M`s functioning had changed during the one and a half years of sensory integration therapy in terms of the reactions of vestibular and proprioceptive  systems, as well as touch, coordination, muscular tension, hearing, sight, smell, taste, self-control and attention focus.  The purpose of the study was to show the potential of SI therapy in terms of improving sensory systems functioning and quality of life of a 6 year-old girl with registration and modulation problems as well as hearing and sight deficiency. To solve the problem clinical observation was used. The child`s behavior during examination and her spontaneous reactions were also observed. The Sensorimotor Skills Questionnaire by Karga was used on the basis of conversation with M`s mother. Data gathered before therapy and after a year and a half of its duration were compared. Therapy consisted mainly of exercises stimulating vestibular and proprioceptive systems, sound discrimination, touch, hearing, sight and smell. After a year and a half of therapy, a significant decrease in the frequency of M’s unfavourable  reactions was registered in the areas of touch (χ2=14,45; p=0,0001), proprioception (χ2=10,56; p=0,001), hearing (χ2=7,07; p=0,008) and self-regulation and attention (χ2=8,71; p=0,003). Vomit reactions and tendency to taste uneatable objects disappeared. The girl started to express verbally satisfaction with her progress. A year and a half  of SI therapy increased M`s well-being. 

No: 74
Title: Relations Between Student Teachers' Basic Needs Fulfillment, Study Motivation, And Ability Beliefs
Pages 779-789
Author(s): Katrin Poom-Valickis*, Kirsti Rumma,Denis Francesconi, Kadri Joosu
Open Access

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Based on the theoretical perspective of Self-Determination Theory, this study examined how of basic need fulfillment (relatedness/competence/autonomy) on student teachers’ academic motivation and ability beliefs during teacher education studies are related. Data were collected from 107 student teachers who completed questionnaires to evaluate their basic need fulfillment, as well as academic motivation and ability beliefs while studying in teacher education program. The data analysis indicated, that for university students, fulfillment of some needs in support of academic motivation, may be more important than others. Namely, fulfillment of student teachers’ competence and autonomy needs were associated with intrinsic academic motivation more strongly whereas relatedness was associated only weakly. Neither gender, study form (part-time or full- time) nor “working as a teacher” aspect played a role in respondents’ satisfaction of psychological basic needs, on their ratings of academic motivation or ability beliefs. From these findings, it can be concluded that fulfillment of psychological basic needs, especially needs for autonomy and competence positively support  student teachers’ intrinsic motivation. The fulfillment of autonomy and competence needs was also positively correlated with student teachers’ incremental ability beliefs. If the study environment offers feelings of choice and agency, allows feedback which appreciates the effort and supports the feeling of effectiveness we will foster student teachers’ healthy psychological development and academic motivation to study and thus increase opportunities that after graduating they will enter the teaching profession. 

No: 75
Title: Common Misconceptions About Psychopharmacology In Undergraduate Psychology And Pharmacy Students
Pages 790-794
Author(s): Gustavo Gonzalez-Cuevas*, Olga Greciano
Open Access

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College undergraduate students often hold erroneous beliefs about their disciplines that are resistant to change. Here we addressed the critical need for research aimed at assessing the educational value of game-based learning methodologies for the evaluation and amelioration of wrong beliefs in psychopharmacology. We set out to (1) examine the prevalence of inaccurate beliefs about psychopharmacology in Psychology and Pharmacy undergraduate students at European University of Madrid; and (2) evaluate whether a game-based learning methodology (i.e., Kahoot) empowered students' learning. Sample was comprised of 26 final-year undergraduate students, 10 enrolled in a Psychology degree program and 16 in a Pharmacy degree program at European University of Madrid. Teams of 5-6 students with approximately equal representation of degrees were created. Misconceptions about psychopharmacological concepts were assessed with a 10-item quiz presented with the online game-based learning tool Kahoot. Alarmingly, final-year Psychology and Pharmacy undergraduate students endorsed more than half (52.50%) of the misconceptions tested with the Kahoot test. Fortunately, students reported a major improvement (6.04 out of 7.00) in their basic psychopharmacological knowledge after this game-based learning experience. Final-year college undergraduates in Psychology and Pharmacy degrees seem to still uncritically hold widely believed myths leading to widespread misunderstanding about psychopharmacological core concepts. Game-based learning methodologies such as Kahoot may be effective at evaluating and curtailing these myths as well as promoting an engaging and motivating learning environment. 

No: 76
Title: Integration In Kindergarten: Yes Or No? (Teachers’ And Parents’ Views)
Pages 795-801
Author(s): Jana Vasikova *
Open Access

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The integration of children with special educational needs into mainstream education is currently a highly debated issue among both the professional and lay public in the Czech Republic. The research question for this study focused on identifying the opinions of parents and teachers on the integration of children with special educational needs into common types of nursery schools. The aim of the present study was to determine the degree of awareness among teachers and parents of the integration of students with special educational needs in kindergarten and to describe the positive and negative aspects of such integration from these perspectives. A questionnaire was selected as the basic research method, targeted at kindergarten teachers and parents of kindergarten students. The resulting data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods. Questionnaire responses indicate that both parents and teachers have a substantial degree of knowledge on the issue; to speculate, extensive media coverage of the integration issue may be the source. The (deficiency of) material and technical equipment in schools as well as concerns about admission of integrated children are described as the main pitfalls. Both sides seem to agree on the difficulties of integrating children with special educational needs. However, the benefits of integration are described by both parents and teachers differently. 

No: 77
Title: Participation Of Graduates Studying Management In Scientific Projects: Benefits And Problems
Pages 802-811
Author(s): Anatolijs Prohorovs*, Julija Bistrova
Open Access

Full Text 77
The quality of the Master thesis developed by the students of the Entrepreneurship and Management to a large extent indicates the quality of knowledge, the level of skills and abilities of the graduates. In the article we consider our experience in supervising students' participation in the research projects and development of Master theses. Our analysis shows that participation in the scientific projects, parts of which become key research presented in the Master thesis, can substantially improve knowledge and research skills and abilities of the students, increase the quality of research and Master thesis per se and provides tangible benefits to the university and to the supervisor. Present research provides the analysis of the benefits gained as a result of graduates’ participation in the scientific projects as well as the analysis of the problems faced by the supervisor and the student such as insufficient level of knowledge and skills of the graduates or the necessity to reconcile the research topic with the study program. We also focus on the tasks, which most likely can be delegated to the students when involving them in the applied scientific projects. The results assure that the potential benefits received by the parties involved outweigh the headwinds faced by professors and the students when participating in the applied scientific research. 

No: 78
Title: Higher Education In A Global Context Through The Bmd System
Pages 812-820
Author(s):Sahraoui Antissar, Hedibel Yamina*, Zerrouk Ahcene
Open Access

Full Text 78
The idealism of the disquisition concerning this system is very attractive, but the reality of the Algerian Higher education does not respond to the requirements of the BMD (Bachelor, Master, Doctorate)system. What is important is to know how the system is run on the field; we cannot evaluate its results because the first students to graduate within the BMD system are expected for 2025, since the system is related to the new reforms accordingly with the general educational system. Through our investigation we wanted to know what the conditions of the work of the actor and the quality of tutoring BMD classes were. Our sample is built using the snowball method, the first teacher in charge of BMD classes directs us to the other, until we achieved an interview with 20 teachers in Algeria, in two different universities. A good circular loop information is essential for any reform to succeed, however; the absence of an efficient spreading of information between the collaborators led to the dysfunction of the BMD system in Algeria. University teachers in Algerian higher education work individually while the BMD system is based on collaboration and teamwork between pedagogical and Training teams. We conclude, the BMD system is badly run which leads to a gap between the policies’ qualifying discourse and the reality of the field and this affects negatively the teaching practices and the output of this reform as a whole. The lack of teachers’ conviction about this reform impacts adversely the implementation of the BMD system. 

No: 79
Title: Paranormality Vs. Scientific Psychology: Wrong Beliefs Among Health Science Students
Pages 821-825
Author(s): Marcos Alonso Rodriguez*, Gustavo Gonzalez-Cuevas
Open Access

Full Text 79
The current investigation was designed to examine student perceptions of psychology as a science as well as beliefs about paranormal phenomena. For this purpose, the scales Psychology As a Science (PAS) and Revised Paranormal Beliefs (RPB) were used. The sample was comprised of 264 undergraduate students in Health Sciences (i.e., Medicine, Dentistry, and Psychology). Our results showed that Medicine students believed fewer paranormal phenomena than did the other Health Sciences students (Dentistry and Psychology). Furthermore, as expected, Psychology students showed higher favorable attitudes toward placing Psychology as a hard science and the need for psychological research training than the other Health Sciences students (Dentistry and Medicine). Whereas some gender differences were found, age did not account for any differences in PAS or RPB scores. Overall, these results suggest that still a significant proportion of students hold supernatural beliefs or have doubts about the status of psychology as a science. Psychology instructors should put more emphasis on presenting psychology as a true science and reducing beliefs in the paranormal. 

No: 80
Title: Improving Working Abilities, Achievement Motivation, And Active Ageing In Older Workers
Pages 826-837
Author(s):Eric Schmitt, Jörg Hinner*, Andreas Kruse
Open Access

Full Text 80
Problem Statement: As a consequence of an aging labor force, companies’ competitiveness depends more and more from their ability to recognize, support, and effectively use older employees’ potentials for innovation and creativity. Research Questions: Do modular vocational trainings substantially contribute to enhancement and maintenance of working abilities, achievement motivation and active ageing in older workers by improving mental and physical fitness, and health behavior? Purpose of the Study: To put the practicability, effectiveness and sustainability of multidimensional modular intervention measures integrating cognitive training, physical training, and health education which were attuned to specific needs of diverse occupational contexts to an empirical test and further contribute to foundational research in the field of intervention programs for an ageing workforce. Research Methods: Longitudinal analyses of cognitive, physical, and health behavior-related intervention effects and sustainability in samples of older workers (45 years and older) who participated in vocational trainings developed and implemented in co-operation with Robert Bosch GmbH and Robert Bosch Foundation, Deutsche Bahn, Municipality of Heidelberg, and Chemical Industry. Evaluation of intervention effects against changes observed in a control group. Findings: All four versions of the program significantly (and substantially) improved indicators of cognitive and physical fitness, including information processing speed, concentrativeness, inhibition, working memory capacity, physical strength, endurance, and coordination. Individual counselling sessions suggest increases in health behavior, control beliefs, and overall optimism. Effects slightly decreased following end of vocational training but nevertheless provide evidence for sustainability of the program. Conclusions: Modular multidisciplinary approach and focus on the development of more general competences significantly contribute to the innovative character of the program. A particularly innovative component of the didactic concept is the private continuation of training units in everyday contexts (on the basis of individual advices, feedback, and materials offered before) which again is followed by training units in the company. 

No: 81
Title: Dynamic Interactions Between Teacher Involvement And Satisfaction Of Students’ Basic Psychological Needs
Pages 838-847
Author(s): Saulė Raižienė*, Renata Garckija, Ingrida Gabrialavičiūtė
Open Access

Full Text 81
The present three-wave longitudinal study explores the importance of teacher need supportive behavior for students’ motivational processes. The purpose of this study was to examine the reciprocal associations between teacher involvement and the satisfaction of students’ basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. A total of 795 students from the 9th to the 11th grade with mean age of 16.16 years (49.8% female) completed questionnaires about satisfaction of three basic psychological needs and perceptions of teachers’ interpersonal involvement at three measurement points 5 to 6 months apart during one and a half school year. To address main goal a cross-lagged analysis was performed. Results revealed half-year stability and within-time correlations of the study constructs. Cross-lagged effects highlighted that teacher involvement positively influenced the satisfaction of the need for relatedness, while the inverse effect was not significant. Students’ perception of higher teacher involvement leads to higher satisfaction of need for relatedness, however the higher level of relatedness need satisfaction does not make students more inclined to perceive their teachers as more interpersonally involved. Findings suggest that educators play an essential role in the development of students’ motivational processes, and sustaining warm and caring teacher-student relationships should be a priority for teachers. 

No: 82
Title: Yoga Practice As In-Service Teacher Education Activity: Preliminary Data From A Qualitative Study
Pages 848-856
Author(s): Denis Francesconi *
Open Access

Full Text 82
Body-mind practices such as yoga and meditation are becoming more popular in Western society in general and in teacher education programs in particular. Meditative practices, more precisely, are a trendy topic nowadays both in science and education theory and practice, while yoga so far has obtained less attention. The psychophysical effects of such practices are usually investigated by cognitive neuroscience and psychology. However, the question of why and how such practices are implemented within teacher education programs is still very much unexplored. For instance, didactical design, implementation and evaluation of body-mind practices are questions that deserve further investigation. In this article, I present preliminary results from a qualitative study on a yoga course offered to high school teachers in the Italian province of Trento as non-institutional in-service activity. In particular, I focused on how the yoga teacher designs the course and how she implements and evaluates it, and, on the other side, how this course is perceived by participants, the school teachers. Preliminary results suggest that a yoga course for high school teachers requires ad hoc instructional design which differs from those for other audiences. While some school teachers perceive yoga as secondary activity if compared to more traditional training activities, they also appear to be attracted even though that is due mostly to personal reasons – such as wellbeing and relaxation – than professional ones. Further studies in this field are required. 

No: 83
Title: Relationship Between Bullying Behaviours And Sleep Quality In School-Aged Children
Pages 857-869
Author(s): A. M. Gomes*, E. Ferreira, B. Silva, A. Castro Caldas
Open Access

Full Text 83
Do children who practice bullying have more sleep disturbances than those who do not practice bullying? The research questions for this study were 1) Are there are differences in sleep quality between aggressors and non-aggressors and between victims and non-victims? 2)Do aggressors have higher SDI than non-aggressors? 3)What are the sleep characteristics in aggressors, non-aggressors, victims and non-victims? The purpose of the study was to analyse whether school-aged children who practice bullying have worse sleep quality than those who do not practice it and to identify the characteristics of dysfunctional sleep for aggressors? The research method was a cross-sectional study focusing on quantitative methodology. We analysed and compared the results of two questionnaires: bullying, aggressiveness among children with n= 1109, answered by the children and the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), with n= 883, answered by the parents. A convenience sample of 8 state and private schools in Portugal was worked upon.  The SDI of aggressors is not significantly different from the SDI of non-aggressors. In the 33 CSHQ items, in seven the aggressors manifest significant differences: they go to bed at the same time less often, "fight" going to bed, sleep poorly, wet the bed more often, have a more agitated sleep, wake up with nightmares and are grumpier.There are no differences between the two groups, as both have high SDI. In the aggressors, the SDI is accentuated in relation to non-aggressors with regard to the following: more difficulty in going to bed at the same time, fight more at bedtime, sleep less, wet the bed, have more agitated sleep, wake up with nightmares more and wake up grumpy. 

No: 84
Title: Chosen Methods Of Social Pedagogy In The Czech Republic
Pages 870-881
Author(s): Iva Junova *
Open Access

Full Text 84
The contribution focuses on methods in social pedagogy. The introduction presents conceptions of social pedagogy discipline in chosen European countries. It is followed by a description of the development and current state of social pedagogy in the Czech Republic. The list of individual social pedagogy conceptions suggests that there is no unified conception of the discipline. Also, the methods cannot be generally stated and they must be related to a particular environment and social pedagogy paradigm. Social pedagogy is regarded as a theoretical practical discipline of a transdisciplinary nature. The following discussion clarifies the problems with educational methods and their classification. The principal part of this article describes social pedagogy methods (organizing environment, experiential education, museum education, group work, using life situations and staging method, regime method, animation). Based on qualitative analyses of documents, the specifics of social pedagogy methods are identified. The results are presented in the form of categories and codes and discussed. 

No: 85
Title: Special Educational Needs, Social Risk And Self-Concept: A Proposal For Socio-Educational Intervention
Pages 882-890
Author(s): Sara Felizardo *
Open Access

Full Text 85
Students with Special Educational Needs and those from families with social risk are more likely to develop problems in their personal adjustment, so that it is thus necessary to outline educational strategies promoting self-concept. The aim of this study is to understand the influence of sociodemographic and occupational variables in the development of self-concept in students with neurodevelopmental (Special Educational Needs - SEN) and social risk, in order to outline actions, which will promote their personal and social adjustment. This is an exploratory, cross-sectional study, using a non-random, convenience sample for this purpose, comprised of 124 pupils with developmental (SEN) and social risk, aged between 13 and 17 years of age. The data collection instruments were as follows: a sociodemographic questionnaire and Adolescents’ Self-concept Short Scale (ASCSS) by Veiga and Leite (2016). This instrument consists of six subscales that assess specific aspects of self: Anxiety, Physical Appearance, Behaviour, Popularity, Happiness, Intellectual Status. The results show that there are statistically significant differences in self-concept, depending on the type of risk, gender and participation in free time activities; however, no differences were found as a function of age. The results show promising lines of analysis, and as our aim was to outline socio-educational actions, which promote the self-concept of students with developmental (SEN) and social risk in their lives (family, school and community), thereby enhancing better personal adjusted and well-being. 

No: 86
Title: Empathy Perception In Social Education Students: An Inter-Institutional Study
Pages 891-901
Author(s): Sara Felizardo*, Esperança Ribeiro, Rosa Novo, Ana Prada, Cátia Magalhães
Open Access

Full Text 86
Affirming the profession of social educator, one who is best suited to mediate human relationships, requires an investment in training to improve the (inter)personal development of students, thereby contributing to a professional profile able to face the complex challenges of contemporary society. Research into developing empathy, a core variable in exercising of social-educational support functions, should be invested in by educational institutions. In this context, the aim of this study is to identify the students’ perceptions of empathy in two higher education institutions in Portugal and to see how they vary according to academic year, gender and age, in order to understand the implications for training and outline strategies to promote (inter)personal development. It is a non-experimental, cross-sectional study, for which the Portuguese adaptation (Limpo, Alves & Castro, 2010) of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI, Davis, 1980, 1983) was used to measure empathy. The convenience sample is non-probabilistic with 242 students participating. There were no statistically significant differences in the partial and overall results of the IRI according to age and the institution. However, there were statistically significant differences in the Empathic Concern subscale, by gender and academic year. We also assessed the influence of gender on the affective dimension and on the overall empathy scale. The results obtained are in line with most of the scientific literature on empathy and allows us to outline implications in terms of education 

No: 87
Title: Initial Training Of Teachers For Inclusive Education In Chile
Pages 902-916
Author(s):Cristóbal Villalobos, Constanza San Martin*, Ignacio Wyman
Open Access

Full Text 87
The increasing diversity of students imposes a great challenge for teachers: to create quality educational processes for every student. Since initial training is understood as a significant space for the development of numerous competences, skills and attitudes, it has a core role in this challenge. Nevertheless, there is no systematic study of how the initial training of generalist teachers is approached for inclusive education in Chile.  Given this, this article analyzes the results of a national study that examined the characteristics of initial training programs of Elementary Education teachers regarding inclusive education in Chile. To do so, an analysis on the contents of the profiles of graduation and description of every program valid up to 2014 was performed. These programs were analyzed in three central dimensions, each of which related to inclusive education:  values and principles of educational inclusion; types or dimensions of diversity and; curricular management for inclusive education. Results show the existence of a great heterogeneity among programs throughout the country, in terms of the sense and intensity given to inclusive education in the different programs. Most of the programs are not offering –at least, not explicitly- formations with an intensive focus on inclusive education and there are not differences between private and public universities. 

No: 88
Title: Mathematics Learning Opportunities For Students With Intellectual Disabilities In Chilean Special Schools
Pages 917-924
Author(s): Constanza San Martin*, Sebastián Howard
Open Access

Full Text 88
In Chile, students with learning disabilities (LD) go to special schools or to mainstream schools with Integration Programmes. Even though there are data regarding the access of students to the educational system, there is not much knowledge related to the learning opportunities (LO) that these students are given. In this context, a multiple case study was developed, aiming to explore the learning opportunities in mathematics that are created within special education centers. This work presents the findings of the analysis of interviews to teachers and principals, as well as the findings of the analysis of the classroom materials of three cases, in terms of the type of cognitive demand and the curricular coverage of the mathematical tasks performed in notebooks and textbooks in the span of a semester. As shown in the results, teaching LD students must be focused on the development of the concept of number, as well as basic operations, aiming to use money in the community. Activities developed in special schools feature a low level of cognitive demand and the repetitive use of the same type of tasks 

No: 89
Title: Gender Differences In Attitudes To Technology In Czech Primary Educatio
Pages 925-941
Author(s): Radek Novotny*, Martina Maněnová
Open Access

Full Text 89
This paper draws attention to the issue of gender and ICT in relation to pupils’ educational abilities at Czech schools. The paper presents the current state of the addressed issue and a pilot research, which is part of a dissertation dealing with the issue from the perspective of diagnostics of differences in gender approaches to ICT concerning pupils of Czech primary schools. The aim of the paper is to outline the differences in the use of ICT and the opinions on them from the point of view of primary school pupils. 

No: 90
Title: Educational Counselling Of Pre-School Children For Adaptation To The Kindergarten Environment
Pages 942-955
Author(s): Goran Laura*, Bănică Loredana
Open Access

Full Text 90
At the onset of kindergarten attendance, we identify children who are experiencing difficulties in adjusting to this new environment, difficulties which can be extended and may interfere with their cognitive, emotional and social development. Taking into account the particularities of the specific status of kindergarten age (2-3 years), we set out to identify the factors involved in the pre-school child adaptation to the kindergarten environment as well as the optimal strategies to support the adaptation of these children. The hypotheses we formulated were the following: pre-school children who come from a highly protective family system, and were deprived of any experiences of physical, emotional and/or familial discomfort (in the sense of parental hyper protection) go through a prolonged period of adjustment; children whose parents have a reserved, reticent attitude towards the kindergarten environment also have difficulties of adaptation. The study included 30 children of pre-school age  (2-3 years), enrolled in the kindergarten and going through a process of adaptation, as well as the parents of these children. The research methods used were the survey interview  on the parents, the direct participatory observation and the recording of the children's behaviour and reactions within the institution of pre-primary education. The children’s adaptation to the kindergarten environment depends on factors such as: their previous experience of socialization; their parents' confidence attitude towards the pre-school educational institution; the secure attachment of the child in relation to the parent; the teacher’s focus on the child and the   building of a trustworthy educator – child relationship. In the case of hyper- protected children, deprived of previous socializing experiences, the gradual adaptation strategies to the kindergarten environment include: visiting the kindergarten on the first day; integration activities, in the first week, over short periods; emotional support to parents experiencing concern and distrust towards the kindergarten environment. 

No: 91
Title: Generational And Sex Differences In Relation To Empathy Among Pre-Graduate Teachers
Pages 956-965
Author(s):Lucie Křeménková, Jana Kvintová*
Open Access

Full Text 91
Insufficient attention is paid to the issue of empathy in the context of undergraduate teacher training. Nevertheless, empathy is one of the important skills that facilitates and deepens interpersonal relationships and strengthens interpersonal interactions. Empathy as a psychological construct consists of an affective (feeling an adequate emotion triggered by the emotions of others), cognitive (the ability to understand or predict what the other person might think, feel, do) and a mixed component (cognitive and affective). In this paper the authors focused on the differences in the degree of empathy based on various generations (X, Y, and Z generations) and sex. The data were obtained by means of the Empathy Quotient (EQ) approach on a sample of 313 pre-service teachers. The sample comprises 115 men and 196 women. The X generation was represented by 67, the Y generation by 104, and the Z generation by 140 students of teaching professions. The ANOVA test (using Welch’s correction) suggested that the level of empathy differed significantly in each age group of respondents, F (2, 177.048) = 99.131, p <.001. A post-hoc analysis (Games-Howell) confirmed significant differences among all groups (p <.001) with a gradually increasing degree of empathy. An independent t test suggested that the degree of empathy varied considerably across the groups of respondents by sex; women had significantly higher empathy scores than men, t (309 = -9.524, p <.001). 

No: 92
Title: Evaluation Of Entrepreneurial Capacity Of Universities - A Case Of Estonia
Pages 966-977
Author(s): Anne Põder*, Marianne Kallaste, Mervi Raudsaar, Urve Venesaar
Open Access

Full Text 92
The growing societal expectations on universities emphasize not only the provision of academic education and research, but development of wide range of entrepreneurial capacities. The paper studies what kind of entrepreneurial activities are supported by the Estonian public universities? To what extent the availability of entrepreneurship education is supported? The purpose of the paper is to evaluate different entrepreneurial activities in Estonian universities. The study was carried out in three universities in 2016 as a part of the program “Systemic Development of Entrepreneurship Education Throughout All Educational Levels” implemented by Estonian Ministry of Education and Research and supported by European Social Fund. The HEInnovate self-assessment tool was used to evaluate the entrepreneurial activities in three areas: Entrepreneurial Teaching and Learning; Preparing and Supporting Entrepreneurs; Measurement of Impact. Data was collected with a questionnaire survey of academic and administrative staff. T-test and ANOVA are used to study the differences between various groups.The universities have provided most support to the development of entrepreneurial teaching and learning. The importance of preparing and supporting entrepreneurs and systematic measurement of the impact of university activities have not been acknowledged enough by universities under study. Entrepreneurship education has mostly been focused on providing learning opportunities and training, promoting awareness on entrepreneurship and curriculum development. Results show that Estonian universities have significantly different entrepreneurial capacities. 

No: 93
Title: Error Corection And The Ability To Use The Foreign Language Without Mistakes
Pages 978-985
Author(s): Jana Ondrakova*
Open Access

Full Text 93
The article discusses the correlation of the ability of a human being who learns a foreign language to find and to correct the error, and, simultaneously, of the ability to create his / her own texts in the given foreign language in which no errors appear. The objective of the text is to present a kind of argument with the opinion claiming that foreign languages can be taught by everyone who has acquired them without being properly trained pedagogically and methodologically (for example by people who have acquired the language merely through a stay in the environment in which that language is spoken). The research examples taken from literature and our own practice prove that an excellent knowledge of the foreign language does not in itself guarantee, that the person with such a high level of the knowledge is able to identify and correct errors made in other people´s performances. Furthermore, it is not guaranteed that such a person is able to explain the errors and to give guidelines how to correct them and how to avoid them in future performances. Working with errors is an issue which should not be neglected by institutions training future teachers of foreign languages. 

No: 94
Title: Alcohol As A Substitute, Mask Of Depression And "Antidote" Of Narcissism
Pages 986-994
Author(s): Simona Trifu*, Eduard George Carp, Anca Nadoleanu
Open Access

Full Text 94
Alcoholism is an increasingly problem including among women. The confrontation is challenging and often frustrating for specialists, the main difficulty in the lack of patient determinism, treatment abandonment and relapse. Does alcoholism pathology hides a depression and limiting approach on exploratory level is efficient or requires restructuring patient entire life? We highlight a 40 years women, with narcissist structure due to her real objective beauty, but whose mental functioning had suffered significantly during the past years due to chronic alcoholism. The patient approach aimed to develop coping mechanisms to learn skills to control craving and depression management. The patient has long-term hospitalized and had a combined pharmacological and psychological approach, motivational techniques, milestones/anchors for reality, uncovering motivations, workout type active/passive will, malevolence, psychodynamic exploration of childhood wounds, approach of narcissist hurts, support for strengthening and functioning of the self, increase self esteem, exposure to controlled provocateur stimuli, knowing her own limitations. Patient's personality reveals an old depression over a depression as a personality trait. She has limited ability to recognize her own emotions, centred on her image, belongs to B personality cluster and alcohol was a way of strengthening the front Self, shaken by abandonment traumas. The exclusive approach of alcoholism phenomenology without pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment is ineffective. Apparently the patient seems available and determined to stop drinking, requiring hospitalization motivated by awareness of her decline and debasement, but as she discover her own fragility, and traits from the dependency area, her abstinence motivation weakens, being necessary motivational interventions, changing the therapy for countering mistrust 

No: 95
Title: Team Composition, Diversity, And Performance: An Experimental Approach
Pages 995-1007
Author(s): Stephan Schmucker*, Sönke Häseler
Open Access

Full Text 95
Does socio-demographic diversity within undergraduate student teams affect learning outcomes? Based on an experiment among undergraduate student teams, we found some evidence of the aggregate of a team’s socio-demographic characteristics influencing its performance, no such association was found concerning intra-team diversity. Remarkably, though, the greater degree of familiarity among the team members in self-selected as opposed to randomly assigned teams is associated with lower team performance. This result may be worth bearing in mind for students and instructors alike, not least in the context of peer instruction. 

No: 96
Title: Developing Creativity In Ite Through Models Of Systematic Enquiry
Pages 1008-1014
Author(s): Camelia Radulescu *
Open Access

Full Text 96
ITE programmes around the world attempt to prepare students to cope with a variety of teaching situations. In rapidly evolving information technology classes, with very different needs and abilities, creative problem solving skills are increasingly valued. In this study, we explored the concept of creativity in ITE and we presented a model of systematic enquiry that could enhance student teachers’ understanding of professional issues and learning. By means of specific questions asked in a specific order, each topic approached was rendered problematic, creating a pattern for finding solutions. Creativity was defined here as the capacity to adjust to novel circumstances and to find solutions to problems that unexpectedly arise. This enquiry model was applied systematically with 50 student teachers in their first year of study during three of their courses. They were asked to complete tasks on professional issues under the form of reflective essays which were analysed in terms of features of the creative process or personality. A software for qualitative data analysis was employed. We concluded that we can enhance creativity in our students’ learning by leading their approach of any professional issue, by determining them not to adopt any pedagogical stance without prior questioning and close analysis. This specific model adapted and tested in the context of ITE is open to other fields of study, due to its focus on generating solution answers. 

No: 97
Title: Experience Of Using Of Social Networks In Education
Pages 1015-1026
Author(s): Botagoz Khamzina*, Lyazzat Baimanova, Idiya Fakhrudenova, Aina Khamitova, Akbota Bekseitova
Open Access

Full Text 97
The purpose of this paper is the analysis of the educational potential of Internet social networks. To achieve the research purpose the following methods of research were used: the theoretical analysis of scientific and methodical literature on the research problem, researching various technologies of the generation Web2.0; supervision, questioning, interviewing, and testing; the qualitative and quantitative analysis and the comparison of the obtained data. This work deals with the theoretical aspects of organising an educational activity in social networks of the Internet, and the analysis of foreign and Kazakhstani experience of applying social networks in the educational process of schools and higher education institutions. The article highlights the basic principles of work and key characteristics of communication in social networks, a model of remote and interactive training based on the social networks use as a pedagogical tool. Based on the analysis done a number of potential opportunities of social networks in an educational space are identified. The work also analyses the main tendencies of the development of social networks and the related prospects of using them as a pedagogical tool.