icCSBs 2017 October

The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences EpSBS
Volume XXXII, Pages 1- 200 (30 November 2017)

e-ISSN: 2357-1330
©2017 Published by the Future Academy
Edited by: Zafer Bekirogullari, Melis Y. Minas & Roslind X. Thambusamy
Articles: 1 - 18
Conference: 6th icCSBs October 2017 The Annual International Conference on Cognitive - Social, and Behavioural Sciences
Dates: 11- 14 October 2017
Location: Faculty of Medicine of Porto University - CIM-FMUP - Centro de Investigação Médica Rua Doutor Plácido da Costa, 4200-450 Porto
Conference Chair(s): Prof. Dr. W.C.M. (Willibrord) Weijmar Schultz, Head of section Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecologie / Sexology UMCG, University Medical Center Groningen
Cover Page here
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs(2357-1330).2017.11 

Title: Contents


Open Access

Contents 

No: 1
Title: Sleep Quality And Chronotype Of Portuguese School-Aged Children
Pages 1-16
Author(s): A. M. Gomes*, S. Figueired, C. Rocha, E. Ferreira, B. Silva, A. Castro Caldas
Open Access

Full Text 1
Abstract
Is the perception of school-aged children and parents about the children’s sleep quality and chronotype consistent with their real sleep quality and effective chronotype? The research questions for this study were 1) Do children's sleep perceptions and chronotype differ from real sleep quality and chronotype? 2) Are there differences in sleep quality between genders? 3) What will be the effective quality of sleep and chronotype? The purpose of the study was to analyse the perceptions of children and parents about the children’s sleep quality and chronotype and compare them with effective sleep quality and chronotype, to study sleep quality and chronotype considering gender, and to analyse the perceptions of Portuguese parents about children’s sleep in a migrant context. The research method was a cross-sectional study, quantitative methodology. The data from three questionnaires were analysed with regard to the three study aims: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) (n=1109 children), the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) (n=883 parents), and the Children's Chronotype Questionnaire (CCTQ) (n=58 parents, Portuguese emigrants in Luxembourg). The samples were collected from 8 Portuguese schools and 2 Luxembourg schools. The PSQI showed high sleep quality, which contradicts the results for CSHQ. Children from state schools (n=538) revealed higher diurnal dysfunction levels compared to the children from private schools (n=571). Females showed best sleep latency and duration. The CSHQ presented general negative sleep quality. The CCTQ demonstrated that parents’ perceptions did not fit with the effective children’s chronotype. The children's perception showed a well-balanced sleep quality but the results revealed a high incidence of sleep disturbance. There were no statistical differences for gender. Portuguese emigrant parents revealed low awareness of their children’s chronotype and there was significant contrast between parents’ perceptions and the real chronotype of children.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.11.1 

No: 2
Title: Intellectual And School Status Of Pupils At Compulsory Schools Attendance
Pages 17-25
Author(s): Michaela Pugnerová*
Open Access

Full Text 2
Abstract
The start of compulsory school attendance is an important milestone in a child’s life. The process of individual adaptation to the school environment and the ability of adaptive behavior is related to personal characteristics like self-confidence, anxiety, level of frustration, tolerance and emotional stability. Apart from social abilities, the intellectual status of the child are also related to the succesful process of individual adaptation to the school environment. The aim of this research is to analyse the relationship among some contributing factors such as behavioral adjustment, freedom from anxiety and popularity in class to the process of adaptation to the school environment in the context of the intellectual status of the child.The data was obtained using the Piers-Harris questionnaire (Piers & Herzberg, 2009) within the IGA_PdF_2017_002 project. The research group consisted of 300 pupils (149 boys, 151 girls) of middle school age from selected primary schools in the Czech Republic. The findings reveal that intellectual and school status do contribute to the child’s adaptation to the school environment. Hence, identifying possible interventions is important to help to eliminate shortcomings in the mentioned area and support adaptative processes in terms of compulsory school attendance.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.11.2 

No: 3
Title: Alcohol Consumption In College: Health, Knowledge And Motivational Characteristics
Pages 26-36
Author(s): Anabela Pereira*, António Ramalho Mostardinha
Open Access

Full Text 3
Abstract
College students present behaviors of alcohol consumption, that could lead to social and health problems. Changing these behaviors (e.g. health education) may decrease future social and health related problems. We aim to identify the relationship between the alcohol consumption behaviors presented by college students with their health behaviors, with their perceived knowledge levels about consumption consequences and drinking motives. A cross-sectional study was performed through a convenience sample (n=338) The questionnaire included socio-demographic, consumption behaviors and health related variables, and the Drinking Motives Questionnaire - Revised (DMQ-R). To verify the distribution of categorical variables, qui-square tests were performed. Odds ratios were calculated in order to measure the association between alcohol consumption and the outcomes. A significance level of 0.05 was established. As for the results, it was found that students who drink are more likely to have smoking habits and higher scores on DMQ-R Enhancement, Coping, Conformity and Social domains. Regardless of any significant relationship found, better health behaviors (diet and physical activity) and knowledge levels in students who drink were verified. Also, these students presented higher proportions of chronic conditions and self-medication. In conclusion, it is observed that students with consumption behaviors are those who have enhancement, coping, conformity and social motives. Additionally, by observing a higher proportion of consumption in students who have better levels of knowledge and health behaviors, may sustain the relevance of the development of health education interventions to enhance and change behaviors, developing students’ empowerment.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.11.3 

No: 4
Title: Correlation Between Self-Concept And The Level Of Motor Skills In Children
Pages 37-45
Author(s): Zdeněk Rechtik*
Open Access

Full Text 4
Abstract
The level of motor skills is an important indicator when evaluating children’s readiness for school attendance. The deficit in the area of motor skills can lead to a decrease in children’s activities. Is there a relationship between the level of motor skills and factors of self-concept in children attending lower levels of primary schools? The aim of this research is to analyze the relationship between the level of motor skills and factors of self-concept in children attending lower levels of primary schools, especially at the middle school age. The research sample consisted of 300 pupils (149 boys, 151 girls) of middle school age. The level of motor skills (locomotor and manipulative) was monitored by the TGMD-2 test (Ulrich, 2000). The self-concept factors were measured by using the Piers-Harris questionnaire (Piers & Herzberg, 2009). Based on the results, which were realized within the IGA_PdF_2017_002 project, no significant relationship was detected between the levels of motor skills and self-concept. The importance of the research lies mainly in identifying targeted interventions in the area of children’s motor skills and development of self-concept factors, which can support adaptive behaviour in the first years of compulsory school attendance.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.11.4 

No: 5
Title: Towards Enhanced Output: An Approach To Remedial Teaching
Pages 46-57
Author(s): Rafael Filiberto Forteza   Fernandez*
Open Access

Full Text 5
Abstract
Based on a Vygotskyan sociocultural perspective, the paper is aimed at socializing an approach to small groups or individual learning situations when, after having been enrolled in several English language courses, the learners may have considerable knowledge about the language, yet cannot use it in communication.  The approach makes use of contemporary concepts in language learning such as noticing (Schmidt, 1990, 1993, 2001, 2010; Hulstijn & Schmidt 1994; Andrews, 2007), enhanced input (Sharwood Smith, 1993), intake, interlanguage (Selinker, 1972), and posits that of enhanced output as a conceptual category in the field. Enhanced input focused on meaning noticing leads to increased intake and gradual interlanguage development. Once certain preconditions are attained and enough opportunities for communication realization given, the result is likely to be enhanced output. Enhanced output is defined as accurate and fluent learner language used in foreign language communication. Learning how to learn and decreasing dependence on the mother tongue to produce the L2 are just two among those prerequisites while managing time effectively results in a different kind of lesson where the teacher-student relationship is mostly devoted to communication in the L2. Two categories from the personality sphere in second language learning: self-regulation (Zimmerman, 1990, 2013) and self-confidence are considered to be central to the conception because both play a crucial role in fosteringlearning development. Finally, the paper describes the cases of three students that seem to validate the enhanced output proposal. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.11.5 

No: 6
Title: Evaluating The Plus/Minus Grading System For Undergraduate Courses
Pages 58-67
Author(s): Yukiko  Inoue-Smith*
Open Access

Full Text 6
Abstract
A variety of grading systems, including a whole-letter grading system, are used in American education. A letter plus/minus grading system (e.g., B+, C-) has become increasingly common in U.S. undergraduate higher education: a trend that has also attracted considerable debate. Yet the literature about the effects of the plus/minus grading system is limited. Historically, the U.S. institution in the Western Pacific where the present investigation was conducted did not allow for plus/minus grades in undergraduate courses. The present paper therefore discusses a survey of faculty, their differing perspectives, and how the institution eventually adopted plus/minus grading for undergraduate courses. This case study provides evidence that plus/minus grading, while imperfect, is superior as a measure of academic performance in terms of grade point averages, grade accuracy, and fairness in grading.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.11.6 

No: 7
Title: Primary School Pupils’ Self-Concept In The Context Of Their Body Mass Index
Pages 68-75
Author(s): Ludmila Miklánková*
Open Access

Full Text 7
Abstract
The level of school maturity is a deciding factor in the child’s qualification for the start of compulsory school attendance. If dispositions developed by the learning process and social environment are added to this attribute, we can talk about school readiness. School readiness comprises factors related to the level of child’s self-concept, which includes intellect, popularity in class, freedom from anxiety, feelings of happiness and satisfaction as well as physical appearance and attributes. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between the level of body mass index and self-concept of pupils in primary education. The research group consisted of 300 pupils (149 boys, 151 girls) at middle school age (9 – 11 years). 3 subgroups were created based on weight according to age and gender: underweight children, children with normal weight and overweight or obese children (Cole, Bellizzi, Flegal, Dietz, 2000). The area of self-concept factors was measured using the Piers-Harris questionnaire (Piers & Herzberg, 2009). It was assumed that the overweight and obese sample would display a tendency for low self-confidence. Gender differences were, however, found in the level of self-concept (U=9492.50; p=0.02). There was relationship between children’s weight and self-concept. This topic is important as with this knowledge, support programs and intervention projects can be created dealing with self-concept issues even at pre-school and primary levels.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.11.7 

No: 8
Title: Prevention Of School Anxiety Among First Graders Through Art Technology
Pages 76-88
Author(s): Aigerim Mynbayeva*, Aidana Smailova, Bakhytkul Akshalova
Open Access

Full Text 8
Abstract
Reform of school education increases the demands on primary schoolchildren. In Kazakhstan, there is a massive retraining of primary school teachers to enable them to teach within the new 12-year secondary education school curriculum. Parents impose high demands on the first-graders around successful academic performance under the newly designed curriculum, better performance, and adaptation to school, which causes the development of anxiety in children. This study aims todevelop a school psychologist activity framework to prevent younger schoolchildren’ anxiety through Art Technology. Art Technology is a system of methods, techniques and artistic tools that promote psychological treatment. In the study, the experimental and pedagogical work has been carried out on the basis of Gymnasium No 21 (a primary school) located in Almaty, Kazakhstan. 112 schoolchildren of the first grades participated in this study. To diagnose anxiety, the following methods were used: apparent anxiety scale for children (The Children’s Form of Manifest Anxiety Scale - CMAS); anxiety test (Temmle, Dorky, Amen, 2002). The findings showed a high anxiety level in 36% of the first graders; average anxiety among 43% of the sample and the lowest anxiety among 16%, and high risk group was 5%. Upon implementation of the prevention framework of two blocks ‘Emotions and Feelings’, and ‘Communication and Self-Esteem Improvement’, a decrease in the percentage showing a high anxiety level was noted as it dropped to 20% of first graders, and the average and lowest levels increased to 68%, and 12% respectively of the sample. This proves the effectiveness of the designed framework of anxiety prevention using Art Technology. The prevention framework normalizes anxiety levels in junior schoolchildren.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.11.8 

No: 9
Title: Coping Strategies And Meaning Of Life Among Czech Adolescent Students
Pages 89-101
Author(s): Martina Zouharová*, Irena Plevová, Marie Chrásková
Open Access

Full Text 9
Abstract
The purpose of the paper was to clarify the relationship between selected coping strategies to handle stress and perceived meaning of life in adolescents in the context of education. The results of the research enhanced the current understanding because to our knowledge the combination of coping and meaning of life among adolescents had not been addressed so far unlike other factors such as personal characteristics, locus of control, and resilience. The results might be of interest from psychological and educational perspectives, specifically in educational diagnostics and other educational theories. Coping strategies were diagnosed by means of a standardized SVF78 questionnaire. Personal meanings of life were determined by a standardized ESK range. These standardized measurement tools were complemented with questionnaires to evaluate demographic and other data. The research sample included grade 3 and 4 students from various secondary schools in the Olomouc region. The expected outcomes may then determine the conclusions which teachers in secondary schools and students themselves might use, as the results could provide feedback about their coping strategies, evaluate their school load, or possibly about the connections between perceived meaning of life and time management. The most often chosen coping strategies were control strategies (Situation Check, Response Check, and Positive Self-Instruction). Boys showed a higher ability to experience the meaningfulness of their own existence (P + E, mean 150.04) than girls (average 140.95). The strength of the relationship between coping strategies and meaningfulness was of a medium degree.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.11.9 

No: 10
Title: Emotional Experiences Of The Student Actor Identifying Simple And Complex Emotional Expressions
Pages 102-110
Author(s): Anca Iorga*
Open Access

Full Text 10
Abstract
The present paper aims at studying the student actors’ ability to express their emotional experiences by analysing their expressions based on partially directed improvisation. The study uses an applicative approach which helps discover and stimulate the student actors during the practical courses. The expressions were caught on camera. In analysing the data, we used the judging method. By means of this type of evaluation, we intended to analyse the subjects’ capacity to communicate their emotions; their expressiveness and the number of combinations proposed for each expression separately. If there is a hereditary creative potential (minimum average level), that is influenced by education, then we can introduce corrective technical elements and exercises meant to improve the subject’s creativity (in terms of fluency, flexibility and inner development) and to develop their capacity of expression. Imaginary emotional experience involves maintaining a certain amount of control, therefore such an experience is never lived to the capacity and primary intensity of a real-life emotion. The ability of expression is revealed by achieving a satisfying average between the expressiveness evaluation and the evaluation of the internal elaboration of the expressions.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.11.10 

No: 11
Title: The Effect Of The Shape Of Eyeglasses On Judgements Of Personality
Pages 111-116
Author(s): Yasuto Okamura*, Mitsuhiro Ura
Open Access

Full Text 11
Abstract
Studies on the effects of eyeglasses on impression judgements are available, but past research has only focused on judgements of target persons who wear eyeglasses. Moreover, while some studies have focused on whether the participants’ eyeglasses were full-rimed or rimless, or whether the rim was thick or thin, little attention has been given to the influence of the shape of eyeglasses on judgements about personality. The present study was designed to investigate how the shape of eyeglasses relates to self-evaluation image when individuals consider wearing eyeglasses. Two pictures of round and square eyeglasses as the independent variables, and a 12-item questionnaire on personality traits as the dependent variables were used in the study. Participants were randomly divided into two conditions; evaluating round or square eyeglasses. First, they were asked to look at the style and for 30 seconds carefully imagine wearing these eyeglasses. After that, they were asked to judge their personality traits when they imagined wearing eyeglasses. A one-way ANOVA (between-participants design) was conducted to analyze the difference between the two conditions. The results showed that wearing round eyeglasses made participants feel that they were warmer, and wearing square eyeglasses made them feel more competent and stubborn. This suggests that round-warm, and square-competent or square-stubborn connections are activated in the self-evaluation of our image merely by imagining different shapes of eyeglasses. Theoretical contributions in terms of “enclothed cognition” are discussed in evaluating these results.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.11.11 

No: 12
Title: Perception Of Life Pace In The City And Countryside Among Older People
Pages 117-128
Author(s): Zuzana Frydrychova*, Karolina Horakova, Lucie Vidovicova, Hana Stepankova
Open Access

Full Text 12
Abstract
Life pace in cities is often commented as very busy especially by people from smaller settlements. It is not clear whether this proverbial image, a stereotype, is based on prevalent subjective views in the elderly. The purpose of this study is to examine the occurrence of stereotypes of hectic city and tranquil countryside in older persons. The sample consisted of 131 retired healthy older persons of 60-74 years of age (M=68.47, SD=3.71) with the same place of residence in the capital city of Prague, mid-sized towns or villages of the Czech Republic since their age of 40 years. The participants underwent a structured interview and evaluated life pace on 4-point scale. Data were analyzed with non-parametric methods. Our results suggest that older persons regardless their place of residence consider Prague more hectic compared to towns and countryside. Non-Praguers, especially the ones with lower education, perceive Prague significantly more hectic compared to persons living in the capital itself. Recent visitors to Prague perceive the capital as more hectic than visitors with a further off experience. Our results are in accord with the proverbial stereotypes of the pace of life in different types of settlement. As time pressure and busy environment, hectic “nature” may in long-term affect individual emotional and cognitive development even in late adulthood, these influences and their impacts need to be yet researched more in detail. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.11.12 

No: 13
Title: Seroprevalence Of Toxoplasma Gondii Antibodies And Associated Risk Factors Among Children In Lorestan Provinces, Iran
Pages 129-135
Author(s):Hossein Mahmoudvand, Farnaz Kheirandish, Fereshteh Faramarzi, Nadereh Taee*
Open Access

Full Text 13
Abstract
Children due to their high hand-mouth activity, lack of hygiene standards in the consumption of food, water, fruits and vegetables and their immature immune systems are the most susceptible peoples to parasitic infections among all age groups. This cross-sectional study aims to determine the prevalence of IgM and IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and the associated risk factors among the Children (5–15 yr Old) Referred to health centres of Lorestan province, Iran from August 2016 to March 2017 on 316 children. To determine the anti-T. gondii antibodies, all the serum samples were tested using the commercially available ELISA kit (Dia.Pro, Milano, Italy). Analyses were carried out according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Out of the 316 children, 31 (9.8%) tested seropositive for anti-T. gondii antibodies; 24 (7.6%) children tested seropositive for IgG antibody, 1 (0.3%) tested seropositive for both IgM and IgG, and 6 (1.9%) were positive for IgM antibody alone. The results showed that some risk factors were significantly correlated to T. gondii seropositivity included age (P= 0.005), living in rural areas (P=0.01) and consumption of undercooked or cured meat products (P<0.001). The findings of our study demonstrated a considerable seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in children in Lorestan province, Iran. Thus, proper strategies must be carried out to prevent and control T. gondii infection in children in this region.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.11.13 

No: 14
Title: Tennis Service Improvement Among 12 - 14 Year Olds
Pages 136-148
Author(s): Cristian Claudiu Teusdea*
Open Access

Full Text 14
Abstract
Twenty or thirty years ago the serve in a tennis game was used only to put the ball in play and not to gain points. Therefore, serve practicing was significantly reduced. Over time, there have been trainers and players who overseen solutions in order to increase the serve efficiency: using particular effects to misguide the opponent; growing the serve hitting power expecting to get direct points (aces); net attack in order to finalize the action by a volley or smash; expanding the serve practice. Nowadays, as technique, methodology and equipment have improved, the old role of the serve is surpassed, today being considered to be a winner includes incorporately the basic hits category. Improving the basic technical elements, serve included, is a key to the whole preparation process, and has great influence over the players’ success rate in training and competitions. The methodology of improving basic elements must be part of the training, an essential condition of the game, which cannot be substituted by any other technique or tactics. In today’s tennis, one can win direct points in a game if the serve is efficient. In children, in order to become effective, the serve must be improved step by step, using technical procedures.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.11.14 

No: 15
Title: Development Of Innovative Industrial Clusters: Problems, Tools And Prospects
Pages 149-162
Author(s): Juliya Sergeevna Tsertseil*, Victoriya Vladimirovna Kookueva
Open Access

Full Text 15
Abstract
Innovative clusters are capable of producinginnovative activities, using other (non-financial) factors of growth, namely, intellectual potential (equity) created in these territories that strengthen innovative activity in the territory of clusters in regions. The extent of influence of innovative development on regional economy isrevealed through indicators of costs for technological innovations and the amount of shipped products. We discovered that the high ratio of correlation 0.91 shows a direct link between these indicators. This indicates the necessity of continuing to make investments in innovations that will entail growth of the shipped products. The products will be reflected in such indicators the gross regional product, value added, receipts in the budget and other indicators. Correlation and regression analysis also confirmthe interrelationship of the researched factors which has practical applications for public authorities and local self-government in case of acceptance of management decisions.   
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.11.15 

No: 16
Title: The Role Of Investment In Human Capital In Economic Development
Pages 163-172
Author(s):Sergey Veniaminovich Laptev, Victorya Vladimirovna Kookueva, Juliya Sergeevna Tsertseil*
Open Access

Full Text 16
Abstract
This paper investigates the level of impact of higher education on economic development, how it can help people to increase their personal income, the ways to improve the allocation of human resources, the manner of transferring knowledge and skills to other members of the society, the synergistic effect of cooperation on the basis of getting new knowledge and skills, the effect of cultural  influence on law-abiding behaviour, and the impact of the development the creative abilities based on deeper comprehension of cultural achievements. The authors established that state participation in the organization and financing the education, educational service and market regulation contributes to the improvement of the positive externalities of educational impact on society. This activity of the state is confirmed by the growth of investment into human capital and the gross domestic product (GDP) in Russia from 2000-2016.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.11.16 

No: 17
Title: Competition Law And Sharing Economy In Asean: Malaysia And Indonesia
Pages 173-185
Author(s): Ningrum Sirait*, Angayar Kanni Ramaiah
Open Access

Full Text 17
Abstract
The digital based 'sharing economy’ business pattern is causing a major shift in business trends in ASEAN nations. This shift has disrupted the conventional market business practices and competition on many aspects for goods or services.  The current legal phenomenon has provoked the application of competition law and the regulating authority as to how to interact with this new frontier business platform in Malaysia and Indonesia which is still new to competition law. Therefore, the issue is how to promote creative technology and regulate the sharing economy in market competition? This paper studies the impacts of the sharing economy on conventional business and consumer market competition to critically assess its interaction within the scope of national competition law regime specifically in Malaysia and Indonesia. Comparative legal method will be the core research method adopted alongside socio-legal analysis to substantiate the validity of the hypothesis. This paper proposes that law and regulating authorities must introduce some regulatory measures to balance between aspects of anti-competitive protection rules and incentives for innovation in sharing economy business on issues such as standardization-related abuses, imposition of abusive terms in licensing, refusal to license or deal, disruptive innovations and mergers. The paper proposes recommendations with respect to public policy justification and/or exemptions to adapt and facilitate the changes brought about by the innovative new creative technologies in Malaysia and Indonesia in the interplay of competition policy and digital economy.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.11.17 

No: 18
Title: A Web 2.0 For The Gamification Of Sciences In High School: Jedirojo Science
Pages 186-200
Author(s): Pablo Fernández-Rubio*, Alicia Fernández-Oliveras
Open Access

Full Text 18
Abstract
Web 2.0 technologies are promising tools not yet adopted by formal education despite the learning advantages they provide. Also, it remains unclear what effects might arise from gamified web contents. Therefore, we enquire into whether a playful science-learning approach to Web 2.0 as a teaching experience would enhance the interest and abilities of students to perform complex research tasks based on reflection and reasoning. Moreover, fostering challenge and engagement in the learning process of molecular biology issues by using a fantasy-based context is our main goal. We have developed a Web 2.0 model for learning science in upper high school, whose contents and multimedia tasks are displayed in an attractive and casual frame based on elements from movies and video games in order to attract the attention of students. The interest aroused by each section was assessed after tracking the number of page views, comments, and online video views for 18 months. The good reception our gamified tasks have caused among a sample of student supports the basis of interest increase we pursue when contents are displayed in a sort of leisure context. Students are usually prone to work willingly with complex contents as long as the subject matter is presented in a playful online framework where sources and tools are easily available from home. Indeed, students enthusiastically assume an active reasoning and researching active stance when they are challenged to solve tasks in the form of playing-role games based on their own tastes.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.11.18